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POMPEY, 4:^ 





CATO THE YOUNGER, ........ *; i^ 

■icis, , 381 


(n. d. 1794.) A 2 






RCHIDAMUS ♦, the fon of Xeuxidamus, after having 

governed the Lacedaemoniaits with a very refpeftable cha- 

(rader, Icfft beMnd him two foiis ; the one named Agis» 

whom he had by L^mpito f, a woman of an illuflrious 

family; the* other much younger, named Agefilaus, whom 

ke had by £upolki, the daughter of Meliiippidas. As the 

i crown, by law, was to deurend to Agis, Agefilaus had 

\ nothing to expe£l but a private ftation, and therefore had 

; I common Lacedsmonian education ; which, though hard 

\ i refpc^ of diet, and full of laborious exercifes, was 

. well calculated to teach the youth obedience. Hence> 

'> Simonidesis faid to have called that famed city, the man- 

\ Jkhdiung Sparta, becaufe it was the principal tendency of 

I lier dilcipline to make the citizens obedient and fubmif^ 

I five to the laws ; and (he trained her youth as the colt is 

I trained to the menage. The law does not lay the young 

(princes, who are educated for the throne, under the fame 
i\eceffity. But Ageiilaus was (ingular in this, that before 
be came to govern, he had learned to obey. Hence it was 
that he accommodated himfelf with a better grace to his 
U)jed^ than aiiy other of the kings ; having added to 
Ui princely taknts a^d inclinations a humane manner 
ud popular civility. 

While he was yet in ont of the claffes or focieties of 
boys, Lyfander had that honourable attachment to him 
winch the Spartans . diilinguifh with the name of love. 

• Archidairus II. 

t Lampico, • Lampldo, was fifler to Archldatnus by the facher*s 
tee. Vid. Plat. Alcibiad. 




He was charmed witK his ingenuous- modefty, 'For, 
though he had a fpirit above his co^ipanions, an ambition 
to excel, which made him, unwilling to Vit down without 
, the prize, and a .vigour .^nd impet\iofity which could not 
be qonquered .or borne down, yet he was equally remark- 
able for Jiis geatlenefsi where it was neceflary to obey. 
At the fame r time, it appeared, that his obedience was 
not o^'ing to fear, but to a principle of honour, and that ' 
throughput his whole conduct he dreaded difgracc more 
^ than toil. 

He was lame of one leg : but that defcfjt, during his 
,, youth, was covered by the agreeable turn of the reft of 
his perfon ; and the cafy arid cheerful manner fn which 
-he bore it, ^nd Jiis being the firft to railly himfelf upo.n 
\it, always made it the lefs regarded. Nay, that defeQ. 
. made his ^irit of^ enterprize Qaore remarkable ; for he 
never declined on that aiccount any undertakings however 
^.difficult or laborious. 

We have no portrait or iUtuc of him. He would not 
. ftfFer any to be made while he lived, and at his death he 
. utterly forbade it. We are only told, that he was a little - 
man, and that he had not a commanding afped. But a 
perpetual vivacity and cheer fulnefs, attended with a talent 
for raillery, which was exprefled without any feverity either 
of voice or look, made him more agreeable even in age,, 
than the young and the handibme. Theophraftus tejls 
JUS, the Epbori fined Arcbulamus for marrying a little wo- ' ' 
, man. '* She will bring .Ds,** th^y, " a j^a^e of pyg- - 
•* mies,,inftead of kings.'* 

During the reignoF Agis, ;Alcibiades,^aipon hb qujt- 
^ jting Sicily, came an ^xile to Lacedae^ion. And he had , 
i not been there long, before he was fufpeded pf a criminal -^ 
\ commerce with Timsa, the wife of Agis. Agis woujd 
,.not acknowledge the, child wjiiph flie^ had fOr hb, but 
faid it was the.fon of Alcibiades. Duris ijifprnis us, that 
the queen, was not difpleafed at the fuppofition, ,and th^t . 
(he ufed to whifper to her women,- the child fhould Jdc ^ 
,^ called Alcibiades,: .not Leotychidas. Jl^e 9d(ls,r that Al- J 
cibiades himfelf fcrupled hot to fay, 'f He did not ap- "^ 
** proach Timaea to gratify his appetite, but from an » 
'* ambition to give kings to Sparta." However, he was 
obliged to fly from Sparta, left Agis fhould revenge the 
^^Miy, Ana that^rince looking upon Leotychidas with 

5 an j 

^aii eye-6f Ta&tcton, did not take notice of lum as a fon* 
Yet, in his laft Acknefs.Leotychidas prevailed upon hini» 
^ by his tears and intreaties. to acknowledge him as Aich 
before many witneffes, 

Notwithftanding this public declaration, Agis was no 

iboner dead, than Lyfmder, who had vanqaiihed the A- 

thenians at (ea, and had great power and intereft in Sparta, 

-advanced Agefilaus to the throne ; allegin? that Leo* 

tychidas was a bailard, and confequently had no right to 

it. Indeed, tht? generality of the citisens, knowing the 

virtaes of Agefilaus, and that he had been educated with 

sXhem |n all the feverity of the Spartan difciplinc^ joined 

•with pleafure in the fcheme. 

There was then at Sparta a diviner, named Diopithes, 
-^well verfed in ancieAt prophecies, and fuppofed an able 
^interpreter- of every thing relating to the gods. This 
.man infifted, it was contrary to the divine will, that a 
(lame man ihould fit on the throne of Sparta ; and on the 
day the pcmt was to be -decided, he publicly read thit 
iOtracle — 

Beware, proud Sparta, left a maimed empire * 
Tliy boafled-ftrength impair $ far other woes 
Than tboa befauld'ft, await thee— borne away 
By the ihoog tide of war— — 

Lyfander dbferving upon this, that if the Spartans were 
Solicitous to ad literally according to the oracle, they 
'i>ught to beware of Leotychidas. For that heaven did 
not coniider it as a matter of importance, if the king 
happened to have a lame foot : The thing to be guarded 
againft, was 'the admiffion of a perfon who was not a ge- 
nuine defcendant of Hercules ; for that would make the 
kingdom ^tfelf lame. Agefilaus added, that Neptune had 
borne witnefs to the baftardy of Leotychidas, in throwing 
Agis out of his bed by an earthquake f ; ten months after 
which, and more, Leotychidas was ^(^ra ; though Agis 
did not cohabit with Timxa during that time. 

B? By 

* The two legs of the Spartan conftitution were iTie two kings, 
wluch therefore mud be in a maimed and ruined Aate when one of 
them was gone. In fad, the confequence produced not a ju ft 2nd 
good monarchy but a tyrant. 

t See Xenophon, CrccjMa HUt book Hi. 


By thefe ways and means Agefilaus gained the diadem^ 
and at thp fame time was put in pofTcffion of the private 
jCftate of Agis ; Leotychidas being rejeded on account of 
his illegitimacy. Obferving, however, thai his relations 
by the mother's fide, though men of 'merit, were very 
poor, he gave a n\oiety pf the tftate among them; by 
which means the inheritance procured jhim refpedl a^id 
honour, in^ead of envy and aVerfion. 

Xenophon tells us, that by obedience t;o the laws of 
his country, Agefilaus gained ib much power, that his 
will was not difputed. The cafe was this. The princi- 
pal authority was then in the hands of the Ephori and the 
' lenat^. The Ephori were annqal magiftrates, and the fe- 
nators had their office, for life. They were both appointed 
as a barrier agaiolt the power of the kings, as we have 
obferyed in.the life of Lycurgus. The kings, therefore, 
had an .old a;id hereditary antipathy to them, and perpe- 
. tual .difputes fubfifled between them. But Lyfa^er took 
a-^lkfterent courfe. He gave up all thoughts of oppoiition 
and contention,, and paid his court to them on every oc* 
.cafion ; taking care, in all his enterprises, to fet out under 
their aufpices. If he was called, he went fader thanufual: 
If he was upon his throne, adminidring juilice, he rofe up 
when the Ephori approached : If any one of. them w^s 
admitted a member of the fenate, he fent him a robe and 
an ox *, as marks of honour. Thus, while he teemed to 
be adding to the dignity and importance of their body. He 
was privately increafmg his own ftrength, and the autho- 
rity of the Crown, througb their fupport and attachment. 

In his conduft with refpe^ to the other citizens, he 
behaved better as an enemy than as "a friend- \i he was 
fevere to his enemies, he was not unjullly fo ; his friends 
lie countenanced even in their unjuft purfuits. If his ene- 
mies performed any thipg extraordinary, he was aihamed 
not to take honourable tiotice of it ; bis -friends he could 
not correal ^hen ibey did amifs. On the contrary, it 
was his pleafare t^ fupport them, and go th« fame lengths 
they did ; for he thought, no fervice difhonourable which 
he did in the way of mendftiip. Nay, if his adverfaries 
fell into any misfortune, he was the firll to fympatbize 
y/ith them, and reiady to give them his afliillance, if they 


' . * EmbJems o£ magiAracy and patnotlfm. 

' AtfiesrLAUS. s 

defired It. By thefe means he gained the hearts of all his 

• The Ej^hori faw this, and, in their fear of his increafing ' 
power, impofed a fine upon him; alleging this as the 
reafon, that whereas the citizens ought to be in common^ 
he appropriated them to himfelf. As the writers upon 
phyfics fay, that if war and difcord were baniihed the 
univerfe, the heavenly bodies would flop thir courfe, and 
all generation and motion would ceafe, by reafon of that* 
perfect harmony; fo the great Lawgiver infufed a fpirit 
of ambition and. contention into the Spartan conlUtutiou^ 
as an incentive to virtue; and wilhed always to fee fome 
difference and difpute among the good and virtuous. He 
thought that general complaifance, which leads men to * 
yield to the next propofali without exploring each other'« 
intentions, and without debating on the confequences, was ' 
an inert principle, and dcfervcd not the name of harmony •^.• 
Some imagine that Homer faw this; and that he would 
Boc have made Agamemnon rejoice f, when Ulyfles and 
Achilles contended in fuch opprobrious terms, if he had 
ikot expeded that fome great benefit would arife to their 
a&irs in generaU from this particular quarrel among the 
great. This point, however, cannot be agreed to without 
$)me exception; for violent diffenlions are pernicious toa- 
^te, and produdive-ofrthe greatefl dangers. 
, Agcfilaus had net been long feated on the throne, before ' 
accounts were brought from Afia, that the king of Perfia 
was preparing a great fieet todifpoflefs theLacedxmonians 
of their dominion of the fea.. Lyfander was very defii^ous 
to be fcnt again into Afia, that he might fupport his friends 
whom he had left governora: and mailers of the cities, and 
many of whom, having, abufed their authority to the pur- 
pofes of violence and injiiftice, were baniihed or put to 
death by the people. He therefore perfuaded Agefilaui 
to enter Afia with his forces, and fix the feat of war at the 
^rcateil diflance from Greece, before the Perfian could 
have finilhed his preparations. At the fame time he in- 
ftruded his friends in Afia, to fend deputies to Lacedjemon, 
to dcfire Agcfilaus might be appointed to that command.. 
E 3 Agefilau» 

• Upon the drnt prJiKiplc, .we need not be greatly alarmed at party 
di^p^tes in our own nation. They willnot expire but with liberty* - 
And fuch ferments are often neccdkry Co tlu^w o£E M\do\i%.VWL«vo\3kt'^v 

f, OtUTcjr, Jib. vUi, 


Agefikfis received their propofalsdn ftll afTeinbly o/T 
tlie people, and agreed to undertake the war, on condi- 
tion they would give Jiim thiriy Spartans for his officers 
and counfellors, a ieledl corps of two thoufand newly en- 
franchifed Helots, and fix thoufand of the allies. All thi& ^ 
was readily, decreed^ through the influence 'ofLyfander, 
and Agefilaus feat out with the thirty Spartan:.- Lyfan-- 
der was foon at the head of th^ council, not only on ac- . 
count of his repjiUation and power, but the friendfhip of. 
Agefilaus, who thought the procuring him this command ^ 
a greater thing than the railing him ta the throne. 

While hifi forces were aifemblingat Geraeftus, he went, 
with his friends to Aulis ; and pafiing the night there, he 
dreamed that a perfon addrefied him in this manners 
*' You are fenfible that» fmce A|amemnon> none, has 
" been appointed captain-general of all Greece, but your- - 
*' felf, the king of Sparta ; and you are. the only, perfon .. 
*» who have arrived at that honour. Since, therefore, 
** you command the fame people, and go againft the 
' •' fame enemies with him, as .well as take your departure 
^' from the fame place, you ought to propitiate the god- 
** ^^h with the fame facrificc, which he offered here be- 
*' fore he failed." 

Agelilas at firH thought of the facrifice of Iphieenia, 
whom her father offered in obedience to thefoothfayers.. 
This circumilance, however, did not give him any pain. 
In the morning he related the vilion to his friends, and 
told them he would honour the goddefs with what a fupe^ 
rior Being might reafonably be Tuppofed to take pleafure 
in, and not imitate the favage ignorance of his predecef- 
Ibr. In confequence of which, he crowned a hipd with: 
Bowers, and delivered his to her own foothliyer, with, 
orders that he fhould perform the ceremony, and not the? 
perfon appointed to that ofike by the Boeolians. The firft 
magiftrates of Boeotia, incenfed at this innovation, fent 
their officers to infill that Agefilaus ftiould. not facrificc. 
contrary to the laws aad cufloms of Boeotia. And the of^ 
£cers not only eave him fuch notice, but threw the thighs. 
of the vidim from the altar. AgefUans was highly of- 
fended at this treatment, and departed in great wrath with; 
the Thebans« Nor could he conceive any hopes of fuc:- 
CC& after fuck an omen; on the contrary, he concluded 



i£ operations would be incomplete^ and his expeditioa 
not anfwer the intention.' 

When he carae to Ephcfus, the power and intereft of 
Lyfander appeared in a very obnoxious light. The gates 
of that miniilerwere continually crowded, and all appli- 
colons were made'to him; as if Agefilaus had only the 
name and badges of command, to fave the forms of law, 
and Lyfander had in fa^t the power, and all bufincfs were to 
pafs through his hands. Indeed, none of the generals who 
were fent'to Afia, ever Had greater fway, or were more 
dreaded than he ; none ever lerved their friends more ef- 
fectually, or humbled their enemies fo much. Thefe were 
things frefh in every one's memory; and when they com- 
pared alfo the plain, the mild, and popular behaviour of 
Agefilaus,' witli the ftemi the fhort, and authoritative? ' 
manner of Lyfander, they fubmitted to the latter entirely, ' 
and attended to him aloner 

The other Spartans firft expre/Ted thwr refentment, be- 
caufe that attention to Lyfander made them appear rather 
as {lis minifters, than as counfellors to the kmg^. After- 
wards Agefilaus himfelf was piqued at it. For, though 
he had no envy in his nature, or jealoufy of honours paid 
to merit, yet he was ambitious of glory, and firm in af- 
ferting. kis claim to it. Befides, he was apprehenfive that 
if any great adions were perfbrniedi it woirld be iiiipated 
to Lyfander, on account of the fupcrior light in which 
he" had flill been confulered. - , * . , 

The method he took to obviate it, was this. His 
firft ftep was, to oppofe the counfels of Lyfander, and to 
pjjrfue meafares different from thofe, for which he was 
moil earneli. Another ilep was to rcjedl the petitions of 
all who appeared to apply to him through the intereft of 
that miniller. • Itv matters too, which were brought be- 
fore th^ king in- a judicial way, thofe againft whom Ly- 
fander exerted himfelf, were fure to gain their caufe; and 
tiey for whom he appeared, could fcarce^ efcape without a 
£iie- ■ As- thefe things' happened not cafually, but con- - 
ilantly and of fet purpofe, Lyfander perceived the caufe, 
and concealed it not from his friends. He told them, it 
was on liis account they were difgraced, and defired them 
to pay their court to the king, and to thofe who had 
g^-eater intereil with him than himfelf. Thefe proceed- 
ing? feerned invidious, and intended to depreciate^ the^- 
^4 VC-iacL^X 

8 FruTAR<2»'s viyrz%% 

kixig.: A'^cfilaus, thereforci to mortify him ftilt'itKMe, ap- 
pointed him his carver: and we are told, he faid before a: 
Jargc company, ♦' Now let them go and pay their court'. 
•* to my carver." 

Lyfander, unable to bear, this laft inftance. of contempt, . 
faid, *' Agefilaus you know very well how to leffen your* 
*• friends.'*" Agefilaus anfwered, *' I. know very welh 
*' who want to be greater than- myfelf." " But perhaps," ' 
" faid. Lyfander, that has rather been fo repref«nted to^ 
*' you, than attempted by me- Place, me, however, where - 
** I may.ferve you, without giving you the leail umbrage." • 

Upon this, Agefilaus appointed him his lieutenant in i 
the Hellefpont, where he perfuaded Spithridates, a Per- 
iian, in the province of Pharnabazus, to come' aver to. 
the Greeks, with a confiderable treafure> ami two huir- 
dred horfe. Yet he retained his rcfcntmcnt, and noorliUj- 
ing the remembrance, of the affront he had r(ceired> con'* 
fidered how he might deprive the two fiimilies of the r 
privilege of giving kings to Sparta»> and open the way tO/ 
that high flation to all the citizens. And it feems that he- 
would have raifed great commotions in purfuitof his re- 
venge, if he had not beqn kitiedin his e:«pedicion into- 
Bcebtia. Thus ambitious fpirits, when they go beyond 
certain, bounds, do much more harm than, good to the 
community. For if Lyfander Viw. to blame, as in fadlhe 
was, in indulging an unreafonable avidity of hqnour> 
Agefilaus might have known other methods to correal the 
fault of a man of his charader and fpirit. But, under the 
influence of the fame paffion, the one knew not how to 

Eay proper refpeft to his general, nor the other how to* 
ear the imperfections of his friend. 
At fir ft Tifephernes was afraid of Agefilaus, and un* 
dertook by treaty, that the king would leave the Gre- 
cian cities to be governed by their own. laws: but. afters- 
wards thinking his ftrcngth fufficiently inoreafed, he de- 
clared war. This was an event very agreeable to Agew 
Jilaus. He hoped great things from this expedi- 
tioxif ; and he confidered it as a circumftance which would. 


♦ The "EorytionMae and the A^KJx. 

•f He told the Pelfian arDbaJadors, «< He wai much obliged to their 
«« mailer for the Aep he had taken, fmce by the violation of his oath 
J* he had made the gods enemies to Peril :}| and friends to Greece**' 


reflefl diflionoar apoahimfelfj that Xenophon could con- 
dud ten thoufand Greeks from the heart of Afia to the 
fea/ and beat the king,of« Perfia whenever his forces 
thought pi^op^r to engage him; if he at the head of the ' 
Laced2emonian&, ,who were maflers both at fea and land, 
could not diitinguifh himfelf before the Greeks by fome : 
g^at and memorable .ilroke*. 

To revenge, therefore, the perjury of Tifapherncs by 
la artifice which jtUtice recommended, hcDrctended im- 
mediately, tc march into Cariaj and wli gfTthe Barbarianr 
jhad xirawn his forces ta that quarter, he turned fhort, and 
entered JPiirygia.. Thei-e he took many cities; and made 
kimfelf mailer of immenfe treafures ; by \yhich he (hewed 
his ijdehds^ that to violate a treaty, is to defpife the gods; 
>v^il& to deceive an enemy is not only juft but glorious^, 
and the way .to add profit to pleafure: but, as he was in* 
ferior in cavalry, and the liver of the vidim appeared 
without a head, he retired to Ephefus, to raife that fort 
of troops which he wanted. The^ method he took was, 
to iniift that, every man of fubftance, if he did not choofe- 
to fervc in perfon, fhould provide a horfe and a man^ - 
M^ny accepted the alternative; and, indead of a parcel 
of indiiFerent combatants, fuch as the rich would have 
made, he foon^got a numerous and refpe^lable cavalry. 
For thofe who did not choofe toierve at all, or not to 
ferve as horfe, Jiired others who wanted neither courage 
nor inclination. In this he profefledly imitated Aea-> 
memnoji, .who. for a good .mare excufed a daflardly rich 
nan the fervice f .. 

One day he orderedhis commiflaries to fell theprifon* 

CIS, bat. to ilrip them firil. Their clothes found many 

B»5^ purchafersi 

• T^^ft;l^ 5«A/ltfi','the'prcfcrit corrapt readinj^, ihould be altered from • 
afa/Tage in the Apophthegms (Ed. St. p. 369.) to ^i»Xft/ir ic«» vXaa'wu 
* The pan*age. is thi* — i>r* ra^y avvtn^ma'otv K»h iwgroi %ou ar^jpsj ; 
iX%^c»o» ai3(. AEIAXIN KAI nAOY£I12N» 

. f Then Menebtu bis Podarga» brifigh v 

And the fiaun*d tourisr of the king of kings; v 

Whom rich Echepolus (more rich than brave) 

To.*fcapc tbe^wars, to Agamemnon gavtt 

(JEthe her name) at home to end hit days, 

Ba&' wealth preferring to eternal praiie. POPE, II. xxiiK 

Thus Scipio, when he wept to Africa, ordered the Sicllisini t\xVvt\ Xo- 
auend bii»> 9r Jto give him tortes vr ment - 

30 PLtrtARCH^S Liy£^ 

porchaiers; but as to the prifonen thcmfelVes, their fldiif, 
being foft and white, . by- reafon, of their having lived fo 
much within doors, the fpe^ators only laughed at them> , 
thinking they would be of no fervice as flaves. Where- . 
ttpon A^eitlaos, who flood by at the action, faid to his 
troops, " I'hefe are the perfons y/h(m ye frght withi'*- 
and tte^ pointing to the rich fpoiis, ** Thofc ar^ thie- 
things ye fight for.'* 

Whqi the feafon called him into the field again, he gave 
it out tl^at Lydia was his objeft. In this be did not de- . 
ccive Tiiaphernes : that general, deceived himielf. For, ^ 

f:iving no heed to the declarations of Ageiilaos, becanfe h^v 
ad beeg irapoied upon by them before, he concluded, he^ 
would now enter Caria, a country not convenient for. 
cavalry, in which his ftre»gth did not liei Agefilaus, as . 
ic h^d propofed, went and iat.down on the plains of^ 
Sardis, and Tifaphernes was forced to march thither ia 
jreaj: hafle. with fuccoors. The Perfian^ as he advanced., 
with his cavalry, cu^ off a number of th^ Greeks who were.: 
Scattered up anjd down., for plunder. Agefilaus, however, 
confidercd that the enemy's infantry could not yet be come.. 
»p, whereas he had all his forces about him; and there- . 
fore refolved to give battle immediately. Purfuant to this 
lefolution, he mixed his lighttarmed foot with the horfe, ^ 
and ordered them to advance fwiftly to the charge, while • 
ie was bringing up the heavy-armed troops, which would . 
not be far behind.. The borb^riaas were foQn put to . 
flight; the Greeks purfued them, took th,eir caqfip, and^ 
killed great numbers. 

^ In conieqoence of this fuccefs, they could pillasfe the - 
Jdng's country in full fecurity^ and had all the fatistodion; . 
to fee Tifa|)herne8, a man of abandoned character, and. 
one of the greateft enemies to their name and nation, pro-, 
perly puniflied. For the king immediately fent Tithrauftes 
againft him, who cut off his head* At the fame, time he 
defired Agefilaus to grant him peace, promifmg him large 
fums*, on condition that he would evacuate his dominions. 
Agefilaus anfwered^ " His country was the folq arbitrefs 

" or 

• He promifcd alfo to rcflorc the Greek cltin in^fia to their li- 
berty, on conHttion that they paid the eftjibliihed tribute ; and he hop<d 
^hc faid) that this condcfcenfion woul.-i perfuade Agefihus to accept 
thtpeicCf and to return home; the rather, becaufe 1 iiapliemesi whfi- 
was goUtjf cftbc firtl breach, was patUhied as bt dttu^td* 


•*' of peace. For his own part, he rather chofe to enrich ' 
*' his foldiers than himfclf ; and the great honour among 
" the Greeks, was to carry home fpous, and not prefents 
'* from their enemies." Neverthelefs, to gratify Ti- 
thraftos, for dellroying Tifapherncy, the common enemy ' 
of the Greeks, he decamped and retired into Phrygia, 
takiug thirty talenu of that viceroy to defray (he charger 
oLUs march. . 

As he W3S npon the^road,. he received the /c/tak front ^ 
tlie magiftrates of Lacedaemon, ^wkich- inveiled him withr 
tjte command of the. navy as well as army; an houonr 
which that city never granted to any one but himfelf. He 
was, indeed, {as Thcopompus fomewliere fays) confefiedly 
the greated and. mod illuftrious man of his time; yet he 
plficed his dignity rather in his virtue than his power. Not- 
withftanding, there was this flaw in his charader: when . 
he had the -condud of the navy given him, he committed 
that charge to Pifender, when there were other officers of 
greater age and abilities at hand. Pifander was his wife's 
brother, and, in compliment to her, he refpedted that 
alliance more thai^ the public good. ^ 

He took up his own quarters in the province of Phanvu 
bfzus, where he not only lived in plenty, but raifed con- * 
fiderable fubiidies. From thence he proceeded to Paphla* 
gonia, and drew Cotys, the king of that country, into his 
intereft, who had been fomc time defirous of fuch a con- • 
ne&ion, on account of the virtue and honour which marked I 
his charafter. Spithridates, who. was the firft perfon of 
confequence that came over^from Phamabazus, accom- 
pgLnied Agedlaus in all his expedicions, and took a fliare 
u^all his dangers. ^ This Spithridates had a fon, a hand- 
fome youth, for whom Agefilaua had a particular regard, , 
and a beautif v^ daughter in the . flower a£ her age, whom • 
he.married to Cotys. . Cotyi gave him a thoufand horfe, , 
and two thoufand men draughted from his light-armed . 
troops, and: with thefe lie returned to Phrygia.^ 

Agcfilaus committed great ravages in that province^ : 
bdt Pharnabazus did not wait to oppofe him, or trufl his 
own garrifons. Inflead of that, he took his mofl valuable 
things with him, and moved from place to place, to 
avoid a battle. Spithridates, however, watched him {o • 
narrowly, that, with tlic afliftanca of ^-Herippidas the ^ 

^ "r^T'TJf^' •^*I ^^ tt^chezd of the new conncU of CtCutt/fe^\ x.^ - 
^seSlMBs tJ2t fccond yeskF of Che war. 


12 Plutarch's llves.. 

Spartan, at laft he made hjmfelf mailer of hi&.camp> and; 
all his treafares. Herippidas made it his bufmefs to ex- 
amine what part of the baggage was fccreted, and com-, 
jjclled. the Barbarians to rellore it; he. looked, indeed,. 
yffithz keen eye into every thing. This provoked Spith-. 
ijdates to fuch a degree^ that he immediately marc^hed ojlF; 
nf ith th^ Paphlagonians to Sardis. 

There was nothing in the whole war that touched Age-, 
^^aas more nearly than thi». Bpfide the pain it gave hiin. 
to think he had loft Spithridates, and a cpnfiderable body 
of men with. him, he was alhamed of a mark of ayarce 
and illiberal meannefs, from whic;h he had ever ftudied to. 
keep both hinifelf and his country. Thcfe were c.aufes of 
uneaiinefs that might be publicly acknowledged; but he- 
i^ad a private, and more fenfible one, in his attachment to , 
the fon of Spithridates; though while he was with. him, ^ 
he had made it a point to combat that attachment. 

One day Megabatcs approached to falute him, and. 
Agefilaus declined' that mark of his affe^lion. The youth, 
after this, was more diftant in'his addrefles. Then Agefi- 
laus was forry for the repulfe he hacl given him, and pre-., 
tended to wonder why Megabates kept at fuch a diftance* 
His fri^ds told him, he muft blame himfelf for rejeding 
his former application. /' He would flill," faid they, 
" he glad to pay his moil obliging refpedts to you ; but. 
** take care you do not rejed them again.'/ Agefilaus . 
was filent fome time^ and when he had coniidered the. 
the thing, he faid, ** Bo not mention it to him. For this , 
*' fecona vidory over myfelf gives me more pleafure, 
•' than I fhould have in turning all I look upon to gold." ' 
This refolution of his held while Megabates was with him ; ; 
but he was fo much aifeded at his departure, that it is 
])ard to fay how he wpuld have behaved, if he had found; 
3iim again. 

After this, Pharnabazus defired a conference with him;. 
and Apollophanes of Cyzicus, at whofe houfe they had 
bo^ been entertained, procured an interview. . Agefilaus 
came firfl to the place appointed, with his friends, an4 
iat down upon the long grafs under a fhade, to wait for 
Pharnabazus. When th? Periian came, his fer- 
vants fpread foft ikins and beautiful pieces of tapeftry for 
him; but, upon feeing Ageiilaus fo feated, he was aihamed 
to make ufe of them, and placed himfelf carelefsly upon the 
J grafs 


grftfs ib-the fame manner, thoagh his robes were delicate^ 
and of the fined colours. 

After mutual {alutations, Pharnabazus opened the coa- 
ferencej and he had jufl caufe of complaint- againil the 
Laced semonians, after, the fejvices he had done them in 
the Athenian war, and their, late ravages in his country ; 
Agefijaus faw the Spartans were at a lofs for an anfwer, 
a»d kept their eyes ftxed upon the grpund.4 for they knew 
that Pharnabaz|is was injured. However, the Spartan, 
general found an anfwer, which was as fpllows: ** While 
''we€ friend&^to.the king of Perfia, we. treated him 
*? and his in a friendly manner; now weare enemies, you, 
*' can expedt nothing from us bjut hoftilities. Therefore, . 
*f while yciu, Pharnabazus, chpofe to be a vafl'al to the . 
*' king, we wQund him through your fides. Only be a. 
** friend and ally, to «the Greeks, and ihake off that vaffa*- 
'* lage, and from that, momen.t you have a right to con^. 
** fider thefe battalions, thefe arms and fliips, in (hort, . 
'^-all that.wcareor have, as guardians of your poffefliow . 
*^ and^ your liberty; without which nothing is great or. 
*i deiirabie among men ** . 

Pharnabazus then explained hiftifelf in thefe terms : " If; 
'? the king Jeuds angther lieutenant in. my room, I will be • 
*< for ^ou; but.Avhile he cpjitinues mean the government^ 
'^ I will, to the beft of my power, repel force with force* 
'f and make reprifals . upon . you fqr him." Agefilaus, ^ 
charmed with tjii» reply* took his hand, and rifmg up with 
hun fa^d^i. '* Heaven grant, that with fuch fentimcntsas , 
*' thefe, yotf-may he our friend, and.npt our enemy !" 

As Pharn^baiius and his company were going away, hi^ 
fQAji whp was behind, ran up to Agefilaus, apd laid, with a 
fmile, ** - Sir^ I enter with you intp the rights of hofpita- . 
" lity :**• A^ the. fame time he gave him a javelin which 
he had in hi^ hand» Agcfilau:^ received it ; . and , delighted 
with his looks and.^kind regard 5, looked about for fome-r 
thing give a youth of his princely .appearance 
29 return. , His fecjretary Adaeus happening to have a horfe 
with magnificent furniture juft by, he ordered it to be takea 
off and given to the young man*. Nor did he forget him 
ajfterwards. .Inpro^^f^ of ume this Perfian was driven fron^ 


♦ He added, ^' However, if we continue at war,l w\\^,fot\X\t %aVciTc^ 
«* avoid yoar territories as much as po/Tibletand rather iot^%« siw^mi^ 
**cos>tribat!oa$in j/i/ OfAcr province.*' X»h. Grcc. Yf aT^\>»Vi% 

14 FLUTARCH^S Lr\rES>. . 

his home by his brothers, and forced to tak* refuge in 
Pfloponnefus. Agelilaus then,>took him into his pro- 
tcdion, and ferved him on all occairojas. The Perfian had 
aufavourite in the wr.eftjing«-ring at Athens, who wanted 
to be introduced- at the Olympic games; but as he was 
p;ift the proper age^ diey did not-choofe to admit hira^. 
In this cafe the Perfian applied to Ageiilaus, who, willing.- 
to oblige him in this as well as other things, procured the - 
young man the adraiflion he deiired, though not without . 
much di^Qulty. 

Agefilaus, indeed,, in other; refpefts, was ftriftly and. . 
inflexibly jifft ; but where a man's friends were concerned, , 
he thought a rigid regard to juftice a mere pretence.— 
There is flill extant a ihort letter of his to Hydrieus the : 
Carian, -which is a proof of what we have faid. " IfNicia» • 
***is inaoscent, acquithim: If he is not innocent, acquit . 
'* him on my account: However, be fure to acquit him.'*" ' 

Such was the. general charader of Agelilaus as a friend- . 
There were, indeed, times when his attachments gave way ,' 
. to the exigencies of ftate. Once bcing^^ obliged to decamps* 
in a hurry, he was leaving a favourite fick behind him* . 
The favourite called after him, andearneftly intreated f 
him to come back; upon which he turned and iaid, -. 
•*How little confident are love and prudence P* This . 
particular we have from.Hieronymus the philofopher. . 

Agefilaus had been now two years, at the head of the : 
a?my, and was. become the .general fubje^ ofdifconrfe in * 
the upper provinces. His. wiidom,' his difintcreftedncff, , 
his moderation, waj the. theme they dwelt upon with * 
pleafure. Whenever he. made an excuilion, he lodged in . 
the temples moft renowned ibr fanflity :. and whereas, on i 
many occaiions, we do not choofe that men fhould fee what ^ . 
we are about, he. was dejiroas to. have the gods infpe^rs ; 
and witneffes of his condafl.. Among fo many^thoufands . 
of foldiers as he had, there was fcarce one who had a worfe : 
or a harder bed than he.- He: was fo fortified againil heat 
and cold,, that .none was ft> well prepared as htmfelf for . 
whatever feafona. the climate fHould prodoce. *. 

The Greeks in Afia. never faw a more agreeablie (pec-: - 
t3cle> than when the-Per^an governor sand generals, who had 


. * Sbmctimes boys had a fh«rc in thef^ exbibctiMls, who Cfler'ji ctr« 
Ufa age wen arclsded tb: liAu 

teea infiiffelraMy elated with power, and had rolled in 
riches and luxury, humbly fubmitting and paying theit 
cgort to a manin-^ coarfe cloaks and, upon one laconic 
ytjordM conforming to his fentiments, on rather transform' 
k^ themfelves into another ihape.-. Many thought that 
li«c of Timotheu^ applicable on this occafion— 
Mars U the god; and Gieece reveres not gold. 

All Afia was now ready to revolt from. the Perfians. 
4geillaus brought. the cities under excellent regulations, 
a^d fettled their police* witjiQint. putting to death or baniih- 
iflg a iingle.fubjed. . After which^ho jifolved to. change 
the feat ofrwara and to remove it from the Grecian fca to 
the heart .of Perfia ; that the- king might have to fight.. 
fQr Egbataiia and Sufa, inftdad^of .fiuing at his eafe there, 
to bribe the oratoj;s, and hire the ilates of Greece to de- 
ftroy each other, . But amidft thefe fc hemes of his, Epi- 
cydidas the Spartan came to acquaint him, that Sparta was . 
involved in a .Grecian war^ and that the Ephori had fent . 
hjfn 01461*5 to cpme homeland defend iris. own country* , 
Unhappy preeks ! barbarians U> each other 1 

Ifhat better name can w.e ;give that enyy .which incited [ 
them to conlpire and combine for their mutualdeftruftion* . 
at.a time.when.Fortane.had taken them upon her wings* , 
apd was carrying them againft the barbarians ; and >et. 
they clipped her. wings witE. their, own hinds, and brought v. 
the war home to.themfelves, which was happily removed- 
i«to a foreign coqntry*. I cannot, indeed, agree witK.; 
Demaratus of Corinth, when he fays, thofe Greeke feU 
ftort-of a great happinefs, who did not live to.fee Alexan-, 
^M" feated on the throne of. <Darius>. Rut I think the . 
Gi^ks had juft caufe for tears^ when they conftdered that 
tVcy left that to Alexnder and the Macedonianji, which 
Bight have been elFeded by the generals whom they flew i 
i*.thc fields of J-ewdl^, Cpronea, Cprinth and* Arcadia. 

Hoivevei' , 

• That cerroption whfch brongbrthe^fltes of Greece to take Pcrfian ^ 
gfU, undonbredly deferves cenfure. Ytt we mxA take leave to obferve*'. 
that the ditrifions and jealoufies wluch leig^ed in Greece were the fup* 
P9rt of its liberties, and that Perfia was not conquered, till nothing but 
the (badow of thefe libenies remained. "Were there, indeed, a number 
of little independent .ftates which made juftice ihc conrtant rule of 
thdr rondud to each other, and which would be a\wa^^ v^^'ii^ xomvCw* 
i^jpoo Mny aJurn, from a forwidablt enemy,- they r^v^V\l ^t^\N^ >Jt£vt^ 
Ub€rtit9 Jnishbuc for tv^^ 


However, of all the a6lions of Agefilaus, there is none- 
whlch had greater propriet/, or. was a ftronger inftancc of 
Us obedience to the laws and juftice to the public, than 
his immediate returi\. to iSparta. Hannibal, though hi^ 
affairs were in a defperate condition, and he was almoft 
Beaten out of Italy, made a difficulty of obeying, the fum-r 
mons of his countrymen to go and defend them in a war at: 
home. And: Alexander made a jell of the information hc^ 
y^ceived, that Agis had fought a battle with Amipater; 
He faid, .** It feemsi my friends, that while we were con- 
*« quering Darius here, there was a combat of mice in • 
*♦ Arcadia.'* ' How happy then was Sparta in the refpeft 
which Agefilaus paid her, and in his reverence for the • 
laws ! No fooner was xhefcytala brought him, though in^ 
the midft of his power and good fortune, than he refigned . 
ai)d abandoned his Houriihing profpe^s, failed home and . 
left "his great work unfiniftied. Such was the regret his 
friends as Well as allies had forthelofs of him, that it was- 
a.flrong confutation of the faying of Demoftratus the : 
Phaeacian, " That the Lacedaemonions excelled in public/.. 
'* and the Athenians in private charadlers." For, though » 
hp had great merit as a king and a general, yet ftill hcj 
w^s a more defirablefriend, and an agreeable corapaiiion*^ 

As the Perfun money had the imprefliou of an archer, ., 
he faid, •* He was driven out of Afia by .ten thoufand of^^ 
'^ the king's archers*." For the orators of Athens and.. 
Thebes having been bribed with fo many pieces of money,. . 
h^d excited their countrymen to take up arms againft:;; 
' Sparta. 

When he had croffed the. Hellefpont, he- marched thro' ' 
Thrace without aflcing leave of any of the barbarians. He • 
only defired to know of each people, "Whether they. 
•*• would have him pafs as a friend or as an enemy ?" All 
the reft received him with tokens of friendftiip, and ihewed : 
him all the ^civilities in their power on his way ; but the^.- 
Trallians-f, of whom Xerxes is faid to have bought a * 

pafikge*. . 

" • Tithrattftcs fcht Timocrate? of Rhodes into Gfeeoe with fifty ta« - 
lentSf which he diftributed at Thebts, Argos, and Corinth ; but, ac-- 
cording to Xt^nophon, Athens had no fliare in that difliibution. 

•J- Bcfide the TralHani in Lydia, there vas a people of that name in. . 
Illjrricum, opoOcthe confines of 'Dirace and Mac<;rlonia. bo at )ea(t,a€<. 
cording toDacier, Theoppmpus (ap. Sreph.^ teiU6es. One of the JD4SS. 
liiiiead of 2^^%AAfif, gives u9Tp;4a^lK• . ln.O^*,Mor*^7^, au 
i&ey are called Tf>a;aiu^n Poflibly it misht bt \>^t TiWi^Mi* 

pa£ige> demanded of Ageiilaus a hundred talents of Hlvcr^ 
and as many women. He anfwered the mefTdnger ironU 
caJJy, " Why did not they then come to receive them ?" 
At the fame time he marched forward, and finding them 
drawn up to oppofe him> he gave them battle^ and routed 
them with, great flau^htsn 

He fent fome of his people to put the fame queflion to 
the king of Macedon^ who anfwered, " L will confider 
" of it." " Let him confider,"" faid he; " ia the mcaa 
*' time wc inarch." The king, furprifed and awed by hia 
fpin^, defired him to pafs as a friend. 

The Theifalians were confederates with the enemies of 
Sparta, and therefore he kid wafte their territories. To 
the city of Larifla, indeed,, he offered his fricndOiip, by 
his ambaflkdors, Xenodes and Scy tha : but the people 
fcized them and put them in. prxfon. His troops fo re-^ 
fented-this affront, that.they would have had him go and. 
]ay fi^e to the place. Agefilaus, however, was of ano- 
WT mxndi He laid, «' He would not lofe one of his am- 
^ bailadDrs for gaining all TheiTaly ;" and he afterwards 
firand^xneans to recover them by treaty. Nor are we to 
wonder that A^efUaus, took this flep> fince, upon news . 
beinjg brought him that a ereat battle.had been fought near 
Corinthj in Which many brave mea were fuddenly takea. 
off, but that the lofs of the Soarcans. was fmall in com- 
parifon t)f that of the enemy, ne; was not elevated in the 
icaft. On the contrary, he faid j with a deep figh, " Unr 
*' happy. Greece! why haft tiiou deftioycd to many brave 
^ men with thy own hands, who, had they lived, might. 
" have conqueredall the barbarians in the world V* 

However, as the Pharfdlians attacked and haraflid him? 
in his march, he engaged. them with five hur.dred horle,, 
and put them to flight*. He was fo much. pleated with this 
focccfs, that he ere5ed.a tropliy under mount Narthacium ; 
and ke valued. him(elfj the more upon it, becaufe with fa. 
QnsiW a number qf his he bad beaten people 
vho reckoned theii's the befl cavalry in Gieece. Here 
Diphridas, one of the Efljori, met him, and gave him or- 
ders, to enter JBoeotia. immediately. And though his inten- 
tion, was todo^t afterwards, when he had flrengthened hie 
army with fome reinforcement^, he thought it ^yas not 
right to difobey the magiftrates. He therefore faid to 
thofe about him, «'NowcQmes the d^y, forv^ividhvjtNN^v^i 

l8f' PiUTARCH-8 ti^Eft?' 

•♦'called out of Afia.*' At the &mc time He feat for bii& 
cohorts frOm the army ne4r Corinth. ' And the Lacedae- 
monians did him theiionour to caufe proclamation. to be 
made at home> that fuch of the youth as were inclined to 
go and affill the king, might give in their names. All 
the young men in Sparta prefented themfelves for that 
fervice; but themagU^rates fele&ed only fifty of the ableitr 
and fent them.^ 

Agefilaus, havingf pafTed the llraits of Thermopylae, and 
traverfed Phocis; which was in friendihip with the Spalv 
tans, entered Boeotia, and encamped upon the plains of 
Chxronea. He had fcarce entrenched hinifclf, whea 
there happened an eclipfe of the fun*. At the fame time 
he received an account that Pifande'r was defeated at iea« 
and killed, by Pharnabazus and^ Conon. He was much 
affli^ed with his own lofs, as well && that of the public.*'^ 
Yet, left his army, which was going to give battle, ihoold 
bs difcouraged at the- news, he ordered his mefi'engers t6 
give out that Pifander was viftorious* Nay, he appeared 
sn^ public with a ehapkt of flowers, returned folemn thank* 
for the pretended 'fuccefs,and'fent portions of the f^crifioe 
to his friends. - 

When he cam^iip toCoroneaf, and was in:^viewoftbe- 
enemy, he drew up his army. The^left wing he gave to- 
the Orchomenians, and took the right himfelf. The 
Thebaasalfo putting themfelvcs in order of battle, placed 
themfeives on the right, and the Argives on the left. 
Xenophon fays, that this was the molt furious battle in. 
his time; and he certainly was able to judge, for he ibtsght 
in it for Ageiilans, with whom he returned from Afia. 

The firft charge was neither violent nor lading : The- 
Thebans foon routed the Orchomenians, and Agefilacw 
the Argives. But when both parties were informed thaJt* 
their left wings were broken and ready for flight, botk 
halbned to their relief^ At this inilant Ageiilaus might 
have fecured to hirafelf the vi<^ory without any riik, if 


•^ThjsecUpfe happened' on- th© twenty-mnth of Ao^ofl, 4irthe 
thtrti year of ttie oinecy-fixth :oi)fnpUd, tUcee Jiundrcd and ninety. two 
yfiSkTh before the Chrillian ssva. 

•j- In the prirwed lext it is Coroneai, nor have we any variouft reading* 
But undoubtedly Charcneuy upon rhe CephvTus. was tht* place^wiiertt the 
battle was fought f and we niu/l not confound it with tlie batUc of 
Conmea Ja ThclTal^i fou^bc 6f:y-lhree yeais before 


MfV(mIc[^h»ve fufffrred the Thebans to pars> and then 
'We charged them in the rear • : But bOrne along by his 
fary, and an ambition to difplayhis valour, lie attackedT 
them^in front, in the confidence of beating them npps 
equal terms. They . received him, however, with equal 
vivacity^ and great efforts- were exerted in all quarters^ 
etpeckd])^ where AgeAlaus and his fifty Spartans were en* 
gaged. It was a happy circumflance that he had thofe 
rDloatcers, and they could not have come more feafonably. 
For they fought with the moil determined valour, and 
eicpoied their per fons to the greatefl dangers in his de- 
fence; yet they could not prevent his being wounded.^ 
He was pisrced through his armottr in many places witb 
f^ars aad fwordi ; and though they formed a ring about' 
mm, it was with 'difficulty they brought him off alive^ . 
tfter having killed numbers of the enemy, and left not a • 
fevr of their owa body dead upon, thefpot. At tail finding. 
it impcadticable, to break the Theban front, they were 
obliged to have reeourfe to a manoeuvre which at firfl 
tiu!y fcomed. They -opened their ranks, and let tiie ' 
Tliebans pafs ; after which, obferving that they marched 
ha diforderly manner, they made up again, and took 
them, in flank and. rear. They could not, . however^ 
hieak them. The Thebans. retreated to Helicon, valuing' 
tkemielves much upon the battle, brcaufe their part of 
the army was a fall match for the Lacedaemonians. 

Agefilaus^ though he was mucti weakened by his 
vounds> would not retire to his tent, till he had been 
carried througLall his. battalions, and had feen the dead 
borne off upon their arms. Mean^ time he was informed^ 
that a party .of. the enemy had taken refuge ia the temple 
©f the Itonian Minerva, and. he gave orders that tiiey 
iboald be difinifled in^fafety. Before this temple ilood a 
tsophy, which. the Boeotians, had formerly erected, when, 
DMcr the conduft- of' Sparton, tJuiv had defeated the A« 
tkenisLxiSi and. killed their general Tolmides f . 

Early next morning, Agefilaus, willing to try. whether 
the-Thebans would renew the combat, commanded. his 
men to wear garlands, and the muiic to play, while lie 
leared and adorned a trophy in token of viftory.. At the 


* Xenophon jives aootber turn to the matter ; for with him A|^«(l- 
laus'was never wroog^. 
f In the baitU ofCoroam§^ 

25r p^i'UTAR'ckV Lrvisf - 

fime time the enemy applied to him for leSve to cirry 'oif\ 
their dead ; which circumflance confirmed the victory to -j 
him. He, therefore, granted -them a truce for that pur- ^ 
pofe, and then caufed himfehf to be carried to DelphH : 
where they were celebrating the PythLin games. I'herc ' ^ 
he ordered-a iblemn^proceflion in honour of the god, ^nd J 
confecrated to him the tenth of the fpoils he had taken in ', 
Afia. The offering amouiued to a huadred talents. 

Upon his return. to Sparta, he. was greatly bdoved by:' \ 
.the citizens, who admired the pcculiair temperance of hit^ [ 
life. For he did not, like other generals, come changed- '. 
from a foreign country, nor, in-fondnefs for the fafhioni ; 
ke had. feea there, difdain thofe of his owju. On tha^' j 
contrary, he Ihewed as rawch attachment to tho Spartan', 
oulloms, as thofe who had never paiFcd the Eurotas. Hf- ' 
changed not his repails, his baths^ the equipage of his , ,' 
wife, the ornaments of hia armour, or the furniture of* ] 
his houfc. He ever let his doors remain, which were b* .] 
old that they feemed to be thofe fet up by Ariflodemuf *;. ; 
Xenophon alfo alTuces us, that his daughter's carriage wu [ 
Dot in the leaft richer than thofe of other young ladiei.- 
Thefe carriages, called canathray and made ufe of by the 
virgins in their folemn proceilions, were a kind of woodeiij ' 
chaifes, made in the form of griiHns, or goat-ftags f • ' 
Henophon has not given us the name of this daughter of- | 
Age^aus: and Dicaearchus is greatly difTatisfied, that \ 
neither her name is preferved, nor th«it of the mother of:* ' 
Epaminondas. But we find by fome Lacedaemonian vc^-*%, 
fcriptions, that the wife of Agefilaus was called Cleora^ , 
and his daughters Apolia and rrolyta X^ We fee alfo at 
Lacedxmonthe fpear he fought with, which differs not- 
from others. 

As he obferved that many, of the citizens valued them- 
felves upon breeding horfes for the Olympic games, he- 
perfuaded his iifler Cynifca to make an attempt that way, 
and to try Ker fortuive in. the chariot-rrace in perfon* Tlu« 


^ Ari/lodemin, the Ton of Hercuks, and founder of the royal family 
©f Sparta, flpurifhed eleven hundred years, before the ChrtAian atraj, 
fo that the gates of Agcfilaus's palace, if fet up by Ariftodcmus, had" 
then flood feven hundred and erght years. 

f In the original .Tffltyfi^».^a;i'. . Cervorum eft fpecie tragelaphuS' • 
barha tantum et armorum villo diftans. Ptiw. 
J S/'jfe/ia and I*roaujfa, Cod. Vulcobr. 



to (hew the Greeks that a viAoiy of that kind did 
end upon any extraordinary fpirit or abilities^ but 
on riches and expence. 

phon, fo famed for wifdom, fpent much of his time 
31, and he treated him with^reat refped. He alfo 
him ^o fend for his fons, that they might have the 
of a Spartan education, by which they would gain 
: knowledge in t}ie world, the knowing how to 
id, and how to obey. . 

' the death of Lyfander, he. found out a confpiracy^ 
hat general had formed ^gainll him immediately 
s return from Afi^- And he was inplined to ihew 
Uc- what kind of man I^yfand^r really was, by 
g an orajLion found among his papers, which ha4 
♦mpofed for him by.Cleon of- HalLcarnaflus, and 
have been delivered by him to the people, in order 
Ltate the innovations he was meditating in the con- 
j. But one of the fenators having the perufal of 
finding it a xciy plaufible compofition, advifed 
not to dig. Lyfander put of his grave, but rather to 
the oration with him." The advice appeared rca- 
, and he fupprefTud the paper. 
or the perions who oppofed )x\s meafures mofl, h^ 
to ppen xeprifals upon them ; but he found means 
oy them as generals or governors. When inveflcd 
»wer, they ioon (hewed what unworthy and avari- 
len they were, apdin confequeuce were called to 
: fpr their proceedings. The^ he ufed to affifl 
1 their diilrefs, and labour to get them acquitted ; 
ch be m^de the^n friends and partizans inlkad of 
ries ; io that at lall he had no oppofitioii to contend 
For his royal colleague Agcfipoiis *, being the fon 
xile, very young, and of a mild and model): difpo- 
interfered not much in the affairs of governmeat, 
^05 contrived to make him yet more. tractable. The 
3gs, when they were in Sparta, eat at the fame 
Agefilaus,,kn?w that Agenpolis .was open to the 
ions of love as well as himfelf, and therefore con- 
turned the converfatign upon fome amiable young 

He eyen ^fTiAed him in his.view^ that way, and 
t him at lad to fix upon the fame favourite with 
. For at Sparta there is nothing criminal in thefe 


■* A^eijpolU was the foaof Pau&nias* 

attachments ; on the contrary, (as we have obfenflid in tin 
life of Lycargus,) fuck love is productive of the greate£ 
modefty and honour^ and its charadteriftic is an ambitioE 
to improve the objei^ in virtue. 

Ageiilaus, thus powerful in Sparta, .had the addrefs K 
-get Teleutias, his brother by .the mother'4£de, ^pointed 
admiral. After which> jie marched againft Corinth * 
with his land-forces, and took the long walls : Telentiai 
afilfling his operations by fea. The Argives, who wen 
then in pofTefiion of Corinth, were celebrating the Ifthmiai 
Oames : apd Agefilaus coming upon them as they weit 
engaged in the facrifice, drove them away, and fHzed 
upon all that they had prepared for the fellival. Thu 
,Corinthian exiles who attended him, deiired him to o» 
dertake the exhibition, as prefident ; but not.chooitiQ 
f-that, he ordered them to proceed with the folemnity, am 
ibayed to guard them. But when Jie was g«ne, the Ar 

fives celebrated the games over ^gain ; and fome wh 
ad gained the prize before,, had the fame good fbrtonej 
fecond time ; others who were vidorious then, were nom 
in the lift of the vanquiftied. Lyfander took the oppbr 
tunity to remark how great the cowardice of the Argire 
muft be, who, while they reckoned the preiidency at tho£ 
.game,s fo hoi>oiirable a privilege, did not dare to. rift 4 
battle for it. He was,- indeed, of opinion, .that a mo 
derate regard for this fort of diverfions was 'beft, and ap 
plied himfelf to embellifh the.choirs and public exercile 
pf Jiis own country. When he was at Sparta, he honoarei 
them with his prefence, . and fupported them with gita 
jiBcal and fpirit, never mifTmg any of the exetcifes of th 
ypung men or the virgin?. As for other entertainmenti 
£b much admired by the world, he feemed not even t 
knpw theni> 

One day Qallipedes, who had acqmred^great reputatioi 
anion? the <Greeks as a tragedian, and was univerfall 
carefled, approached and paid his refpeds to him^ .atftt 
which hie mixed with a pompous air in nis train, expe^j 


^ There were two expeditions of AgcfilMS af;ainft Ceriiith} Vk 
torch in this place contfoonds tbem j Whereas Xenophon* in bisioiixt 
lK>ok, has diAingvUhed them very clearly. The enterprize in whic 
Teleutias aflifted, did not fucceed ; for Iphicrates, the <Athenian gem 
rai, kept Corinth and its territories from feeling the effeds of Agef 
i»vs*s refentment. 

^%e woirlcl take Tome honourable notice of him. At laft he 
laid, *' Do not you know mc. Sir ?" The king cafling 
his eyes up. n him, p.nfwei-ed (lightly, " Are you not Cal- 
" lipedes the ftage-playcr ?" Another time, being afited 
to go and hear a man who mimicked the. nightingale to 
great perfedion, he refufed^ and (aid, " I have heard the 
'« nightingale, herfelf.!' 

Menecr^tes the phyiician, having Succeeded, in ibme 
.^eiperate cafes^ got the fuoiame of Jupiter. And he was 
, fo rain of the aippellationj that he made ufe of it in a let<- 
..ter to the king. " Menacrates Jupiter to king Agefilaqs» 
^'Jicalth.*' His i^nfwer be^an t^us : "King Ageiilaus 
^*' to Meaecrates, hi* fenfes,** 

While he was in the territories jof Corinth, he took the 

r.temple of Juno : and as he. flood looking upon the foldiert 

who were carrying off the piiioners and the rp6ilSf am- 

. hafladors came from Thebes with propofals of peace. He 

.had ever hated the city ; and now thinking it nece/Tary 

.toexprefs his contempt .for it, he pretended not to fee the 

. tmbaiTadors^ their a4drefs, though they were 

.,befbre him. ^Heaven, -however, revenged the affront. 

Before they were- gone, news . was brought him, that a 

; Spartans was £ut in pi^es by Iphicrates» 

This was one of the grcatefl loffes Jiis country had fuf- 

rtained for a long time : and befide being deprived of a 

. wunber of brave men, there was this farther mortification, 

:.that ther heavy-armed foldiers were beaten by tlie light* 

..armed,, and Lacedaemonians by mercenaries. 

Agefilaasinunediately marched to their afliilance; bat 

'.inding it too late, he returned to the temple of Juno> 

and acquainted the Bccotian ambafladors that he wa^ ready 

. lo give them audience. Giad of the opportunity to return 

rthe infultj they came, but made no mention' of the peace. 

• They only defired a fafe condud to Corinth. Ageiilaus, 

r provoked at the demand, anfwered, " If you are defirous 

i ** to fe^ your friends in the elevation of ruc9ejr8, to-morrow 

-^ you (hall do it with all the fecurity ypu can defire." 

Accordingly, the next day he laid waftc the territories of 

.Corinth, and taking them with him^ advanced to the 

very w^ls. Thus having fhewn th? ambafladors, that 

tbe Corinthians did not dare to oppbfe him, he difmiAed 

them : then he colle£led fuch of his countrymen as had 

cicapcd iA the bte adionj and inarched tq Lacedxmpn ; 

^ Plutarch's livz^ 

itaking care every day to move before it was ligltt, anH-to 
encamp after it was dark, to prevent the infults of the Ar- 
cadians, to whofe averfion and envy he, was no flranger. 

After this, to gratify the Achaeant*, he led his forces^ 
along with theirs, into Acarnania, where he made an im- 
jnenie booty, and defeated the Acarnanians in a pitched 
battle. The Achseans defired him to ilay till winter, ia 
^n-der to prevent the enemy from (owing their lands. But 
he faid, " The ftep he fhould take, would be the very 
*' reverfej for they would be more afraid of war, when 
*f they had their fields covered with com." The event 
jaftified his opinion. Next year, as foon as an army ap- 
peared upon their borders, they made peace with the< 

When Conon and Pharnabazus, with the Perfian fleet,, 
had made themfelves mailers of the fea, they ravaged the 
£oafls of Laconia ; and the walls of Athens were rebuilt 
with the money which Pharnabazus fupplied. The La- 
x:edsemonians then thought proper to conclude a peace 
with the Perfians, and fent Antalcidas to make their pro- 
pofals to Tiribazus. Antalcidas, on this occafion, aded 
an infamous part to the Greeks in Alia ; and delivered dp 
thofe cities to the king of Perfia, for whofe liberty Agefi- 
laus had fought. No part of the difhonour, indeed, fell 
upon Agefilaus. Antalcidas was his enemy, and he haf^ 
tened the peace by all the means he could devife, becaale 
h« knew the war contributed to the reputation and power 
of the man he hated. Never thelefs, when Agefilaus was 
told, '* the Lacedaemonians were turning Medes," he faid, 
•' No ; the Medes are turning Lacedaemonians.'* And as 
fome of the Greeks were unwilling to be comprehended 
in the treaty, he forced them to accept the king's ternuy 
by threatening them with war f- 


* The Acbaeans were In poflirflion of Calydon* which before had 
belonged to the i^toUans. The Acarnanians, now adifled by the 
Athenians and Bceotians, attempted to make themfelves maflers of it* 
But the Achaeans applied to the Lacedaemonian a for fuccours, who 
employed Agefilags in that bufinefs. Xzn. Cr. Hift. book W* 

. f The king of Pcriia's terms were: That theGrc;k cities in Afia* 
With the iflands of Ciazoraenae and Cyprus, Hiould remain to htm ) 
that all the other ftates, fmall and great, (hould be left free, excepting 
only Lemnos,^ Imbros, and Scyros, which, having been from time im- 
ntemorial fubjeft to the Athenians, fhould remain fo j and that fuch. 
as refufed to embrace the peace, (hould be compelled to admit it by 
force of arms. X jcn. Aellan. lib. v. 

This peace o/ Antalcidas was made In rtit ^tax btfox^Cbsvft^ ^87, 


is*vi€W in this was, to weaken the Thebans; for it 
[>ne of the conditions^ that the cities of Bccotia (hould 
?e and independent. The fubfequent events made the 
5r very clear. When Phcebidas, -in the n^oft unjufli* 
t manner, had feized the citadel of Cadmea in time 
11 peace, the Greeks in general expreflcd their indig- 
»n ; and many of the Spartans did -the fame ; partica- 
dy thoTe who were at variance. with Agefilaus. Thefc 
d him in an angry tone, " By whofe orders Phoebidas 
id done fo unjuft a thing?" hopinfi; to bring the blame 
L him. He fcrupled not to fay, in behalf ofPhoebidas, 
^u (hould examine the tendency of the adlion ; confider 
[lether. it is advantageous to Sparta. If its nature is 
chi it was glorious to do it without any orders." Yet 
Is difcourfe he was .always magnifying juflice, and 
ag her the firft rank among the virtues. '• Unfupport- 
l by juftice," faid-he, ''valour is good for nothing * ; 
id, if all men were. juft,. there would be no need of va- 
ur.'* If any one, in the courfe ofcci./erration, hap- 
fd to fay, " Such is the pleafure of the great king ;** 
rould anfwer, '* How is Jie greater than 1, if he is not 
ore jufl ?" Wiiich implies a niaxim indifputably right, 
juilice is the royal inflrument by which we are to take 
different proportions of human. excellence. 
fter the peace was concluded, the king of Periia fent 

a letter, whofe purport was to propofe a private 
idfhip, and the r^hts of hofpitality between themi 

he declined it. He faid, '* The public friendlhip 
as fufficient ; and while that lafled, there was no need 
fa private one.** 

tt he did not regulate hiscondud by thefe honourable 
iments : on the contrary, he was often carried away 
lis ambition and refentment. Particularly in this at- 

of the Thebans, he not only fcreened Phoebidas from 
uflunent, but perfuaded the Spartan commonwealth to 
I in his crime, by holding the Cadmea for themfelves, 

pattine the Theban adminiflration in the hands of 
bias and Leontidas, who had betrayed the citadel to 


This is not the only inAance, in which we find it was a maxim 
9% the Laeedcmonians, that a man ought to be i\n€i\y joit in h>8 
itc capacity, but that h€ nnay take what latitude he plea(e» in a 
ic one* provided bis country is a gainer by it. 


Phoebidas. Hence it was nataral to fafpedl^ that though 
Phcebidas was the inflrument^ the defign was formed by' 
Ageiilaus, and the fubfequent proceedings confirmed it 
beyond contradiction. For when the Athenians had ex- 
pelled the garrifon *, and reftored the Thebans to their 
liberty, he declared war againft the latter for putting to 
death Archias and Leontidas, whom he csilled^oIemarc^St 
but who in fadl were tyrants. Cleombrotus f ^ who upon 
the death of Agefipolis fucceeded to the throne, was ient 
with an army into Boeotia. For Agefilaus, who was now 
forty years above the age of puberty, and confequently 
cxcufed from fervice by law, was very willing to decline 
this commiffion. Indeed, as he had lately made war upon 
' the Phliafians in favour of exiles, he was aihamed now to 
appear in arms againft the Thebans for tyrants. 

There was then a Lacedaemonian named Sphodrias, of 
the party that oppofed Agefilaus, lately appomted gover- 
nor of Thefpia?. He wanted neither courage nor am- 
bition, but he was governed rather by fanguine hopes than 
good fenfe and prudence. This man, fond of a great 
name, and reflefting how Phoebidas had diflinguifhed 
himfelf in the lifts of fame by his Theban enterprize, was 
perfuaded it would be a much greater and more elorious 
performance, if without any dire<5lions from his fuperiors 
he could feize upon the Piraeus, and deprive the Athenians, 
of the empire of the fea, by a fudden attack at land. 

It isTaid, that this was a train laid for him by Pelopi- 
.das and Gelon, firft magillrates inBoeotiaJ. They ient 
perfons to himi who pretended to be much in the Spar- 
tan intereft, and who by magnifying him as the only man 
iit for fuch an exploit, worked up his ambition tilt he un- 
dertook a thing equally unjuft and deteftable with the af- 
fair of the Cadmea, but conduced with lefs valour, and 
attended with lefs fuccefs. He hoped to have reached the 
Piraeus in the night, but day-light overtook him upon 
the plains of I'hrialia. And we are told, that fomc light 


• See Xen. Grec. Hid. 1. v. whence it appears that the Cadmea 
was recovered b> the Athenian forces. 

•f Cleombrotus was the youngefl fon of Paufanias, and brother to 

J They feared the Lacedaemonians were too ftrong for them, and 
tfie/efofe put Sp)V'6n!i$ upon this atft of hoftUity againft the Athe- 
nJans, in order to draw them into the t^uarrtU 


Appearing to the foldiers to ftream from the temples of 
£leuiis> they were ftruck with a religious horror. Sphodrias 
himfelf loft hisfpirit of adventure, when he found Ins march 
could no longer be concealed ; and having coliedled fome 
trifling booty, he returned with diferace to Thefpiae. ^ 

Hereupon, the Athenians fent deputies to Sparta, to 
complain of Sphodrias; but they found the magillrates 
had proceeded againfl him without their complaints, and 
that he was already under a capital profecution. He had 
not dared to appear and take his trial ; for he dreaded the 
rage of his countrymen, who were afhamed of his con- 
du£b to the Athenians, and who were willing to refent 
the injury as done to themfelves, rather than have it 
thought that they had joined in fo flagrant an ad of in- 
1 Sphodrias had a fon named Cleonymus, young and 

I handfome, and a particular favourite of Archidamus, the 
i fon of Agefilaus. Archidamus, as it is natural to fup- 
I pofe, fhared in all the uneafinefs of the young man tor 
I his father ; but he knew not how to appear openly in his 
; behalf, becaufe Sphodrias had been a ftrong adverfary to 
! Agefilaus. However, as Cleonymus applied to him, and 
I intreated him with many tears to intercede with Agefilaus, 
i as the perfon whom they had mofl reafon to dread, he 
I Dndertook the commiflion. Three or four days pafled, 
during which he was reftrained by a reverential awe from 
fpeakingf of the matter to his father ; but he followed him 
up and down in filence. At laft when the day of trial 
was at hand, he fummoned up courage enough to fay, 
I \ Cleonymus was a fuppliant to him fpr his father. Age- 
- ■ filaus, knowing the attachment of his fon to that youth, 
I did not lay any injundtions upon him againll it. For 
i ' Cleonymus, from his infancy, had given hopes that he 
e would one day rank with the worthieft men in Sparta. 
Q Yet he did not give him room to expedl any great favour 
t in this cafe :. he only faid, *' He would confider what 
I " would be the conliftent and honourable part for him to 

« aa." 
a Archidamus, therefore, afhamed of the inefficacy of 

his interpofition, difcontinued his vifits to Cleonymus, 
though before he ufed to call upon htm many times in a 
day. Hence the friends of Sphodrias gave up thfc ijifivftX. 
for loft J till an intimate acguaintance of Agefilaus, HBsiv^d. 
C 2 EtymocX^i* 



Etymocles, in a converfation which paflbd between theia, 
dilcovered the fentiments of that prince. He told^ hinu 
*' He highly difapproved that attempt of Sphodrias, y^t 
** he looked upon him as a braver m^n, and was fenfibk 
** that Sparta had occafion for fucji foldiers as he." This 
was the way, indeed^ in which Agefilaus conftantly fpoke 
of the caufe, in order to oblige his fon. By this Cleo- 
nymus immediately perceived, with how much zeal Ar- 
chidamus had ferved^him; and the friends of Sphodrias 
appeared with more, courage in his behalf. Ageiilaus wgs 
certainly a moll affedionate father. It is faid, when his 
children wefe fmall, he would join in their fports ; and a 
friend happening to find him one day riding among them 
upon a ilicK, he defired him ** not to mention it, till he 
** was a father himfelf." 

Sphodrias was acquitted ; upon which the' Athenians 
prepared for war. This drew the cenfux:es pf the wor^d 
upon Agefilaus, who, to gratify an abfurd and childi(h 
inclination of his fon, obllruded the.courfe.of juflice, at>d 
brought his country under the i:eproach of fych flagrant 
offences againft the Greeks. As he found his colleague 
Cleombrotus * dilinclined to continue the war with the 
Thebans, he dropped the excufe the law furnifhed him 
with, though he had made ufe of it before, and marched 
himfelf into BoeQtia. The Thebans fuffered much from 
his operations, and he felt the fame from theirs in his 
turn. So that Antalcidas one day feeing him come off 
wounded, thus addrefTed him: "The Thebans pay yo|i 
*' well for tea,chinc; them to fight, when they had neither 
*' inclination nor lufRcient Ikill for it." It is certain the 
Thebans were at this time much more formidable in the 
jield than they had ever been ; after having been trained 
and exercifed in fo.m^ny wars with the Lacedaemonians, 
For the fame reafon their ancient fage, Lycurgus, in one 
of his three ordinances (railed Rbetray forbad them to go 
to war .with the. faipe enemy often 5 naniely, to prevent 
the enemy from leaKning their art. 

The allies of Sparta likewife complained of Agefilau^^ 
." That it was not in^any public <^u^rrel, but from an ob- 

" ilinatc 

'♦ • Xenophon fays, the jB/>£»ar; thought Agefilaus, as a more expc- 
rifoced general, would condudl the war better than Ckombrotuf. 
TV/ vioif has Dotbing to do in the text. .^-^ 
(K. D..I794.) 


"' fimatc fpirit of private refentment •, that he fought to 
" dcftroy the Theoans. For their part, they faid, they 
** were wearing themfelves out, without any occafion, by 
*' going in fuch numbers upon this or that expedition 
" every year, at the will of a handful of Lacedsemoni- 
" ans." Hereuponi Agcfilaus, defirous to ihew them 
that the number of their warriors was not fo great, or- 
dered all the allies to fit down- prom ifcuoufly on one fide, * 
and all the Lacedaemonians on the other. This done, the 
cryer ftHnmoned the trades to Hand up one after another ; 
the potters firft, and then the braziers, the carpenters, • 
the ma fens, in Ihort all the mechanics. Almolt all the 
allies rofe up to anfwer in one branch of bufmefs or 6ther, 
but not one of the Lacedaemonians ; for they were forbid- 
den to learn or exercife any manual art. Then Agefilaus 
fmiled and faid, " You fee, my friends,, we fend more 
" warriors into the field than you.*' 

When he^ was come as far as Megara, upon his return 
from Thebes, as he was going up to the lenate-houfe ia 
the citadel f , he was feized with fpafms and an acute pain 
in his right leg. • It fwelled immediately, the veiTels were 
diftended with blood, and there appeared all the figns of 
a violent inflammation. A Syracufan phyfician opened a 
vein below the ancle ; upon which the pain abated ; but 
the blood came fo faft, that it was not flopped without 
^reat diificulty, nor till he feinted away, and his life wa^ 
in danger. He was earned to Lacedxmon in a weak con- 
dition, and continued a long time incapable of fervice. 

In the mean time the Spartans met with (everal checks 
both by fea and land. • The mod confiderable lofs was at 
Leu6lra J, which was the firft pitched battle the Thebana 
gsined againic them. Before the lall mentioned adion, 
^U parties were difpofed to peace, and the ilaics of Greece 

C3^ ftnt 

• *rf»U priVJite rcfcnttnert 'and enmity which Ageftlaus entcrtamed 
a^^infl the Tbcbans, went near to bring ruin both upon hiinitlf and 
his country. 

•(- Xenophon (Flellan. 337, is Ed. St.) fays, it was as be was going 
(r9m the temple of Venus to the ftnate-hcuie. 

J Some manufcripts have it legym j but here is no necefllity to alter 
the received reading ; though Palmer infills fomuch upon it. For that 
of Leu ^ra Was certainly the firft pitched battle in -which the Thebans 
defeated the Athenians j and they efFeacd it at the firft career/ Be- 
fidies. It appears {irom Xtnophon^ (Hellm. 34^925.) tVxaft. K'z^b^AaM^ 
WAS joct diea recovered of tin Hjiicicfs rocr.tloucd \». xVift UxU 

30 Plutarch's lives. 

fent their deputies to Lacedaexnon to treat of it. Among 
thefe was Epaminondas, who was celebrated for hisf eru- 
dition and philofophy, but had as jret given no proofs of 
his capacity for commanding armies. He faw the other 
deputies were awed by the prefence of Age^aus^ and he 
•was the only one who preferved a proper dignity and free- 
dom both in his manner and his proportions. He made 
a fpeech in favour, not only of the Thebans, but of 
Greece in general { in which he (hewed that war tended 
to aggrandife Spafrta, at the expence of the other ftates ; 
and infixed that the peace fhould be founded upon juilice 
and equality ; becaufe then only it would be lalHng, when 
all were put upon an equal footing. 

Agefilaus perceiving that the Greeks liflened to him 
with wonder and great attention, afked him, " Whether 
"he thought it jull and equitable that the cities of Breotia 
** fhould be declared free and independent." Epaminon- 
das, with great readinefs and fpirit, anfwered him with 
another queftion, '^ Do you think it reafonable that all 
*' the cities of Laconia fhould be declared independent f*' 
Agefilaus, incenfed at this anfwer, flarted up, and infixed 
upon his declaring peremptorily, *' Whether he agreed to 
*' a perfect independence forBoeotia?'* and Epaminondas 
replied as before, " On condition you put Laconia in the 
** fame flate." Agefilaus now exafperated to the lafl de- 
cree, and glad of a pretence againft the Thebans, ftruck 
their name out of tile treaty, and declared war againfl 
them upon the fpot. After the refl of the deputies had 
'£gned fuch points as they could fettle amicably, he dif- 

■ miffed them ; leaving others of a more difficult nature to 
be decided by the fword. 

As Cleombrotus had then an army in Phocis, the Ephori 
fent him orders to march againft the. Thebans. At the 

■ fame time they fent their cpmmiflaries to affjinble the 
allies, who were ill inclined to the war, and cohfideVed it 
as a great burthen upon them, though they durft not con- 
tradi£l or oppofe the Lacedaemonians. Many inaufpicious 
iigns and prodigies appeared, as we have obferved in the 
life of Epaminondas ; and Protheus * the Spartan oppofed 


• Protheus propofed that the Spartans fhould diiband their army 
according to tfieir engagement ; that all the Aates (hould carry their 

■ contributions to the temple of ApoUo, to be employed only in making 



the war to the utmoft of his power. But A^efilaus could 
not be driven from his purpofe. He prevailed to have 
hoftilities commenced ; in hopes, tliat while the reft of 
Greece was in a flate of freedom, and in alliance- with 
Sparta, and the Thebans only excepted, he fliould have 
an excellent opportunity to chaiUle them. That the' war 
was undertaken to gratify his refentment, rather than upon 
rational motives, appears from hence : the treaty was con- 
cluded at Lacedaemon on the fourteenth of 'Juney and the 
Lacedaemonians were defeated at Leuftra on the fifth of 
July ; which was only twenty days after. A thoufand 
citizens of Lacedaemon were killed there, among whom 
were their king Cleombrotus and the flower of their army, 
who fell by his fide. The beautiful Cleonymus, the fon 
of Sphodrias,was of the number: he was flruck down three 
ieveral times, as he was fighting in defence of his prince, 
and rofe up as often ; and at lafl was killed with his fword . 
in his hand*. 

After the Lacedaemonians had received this unexpefled ? 
blow, and the Thebans were crowned with more glori- 
ous fuccefs than Greeks had ever boaHed, in a battle with - 
Greeks, the fpirit and dignity of the vanquiflied was, 
notwithilanding, more to be admired and applauded than 
that of the conquerors. And indeed, if, as Xenophon 
lays, •* Men of merit, in their convivial converfations let 
" fall feme expreffions that deferve to be remarked and . 
C 4 " preferved; . 

Wampcn f*:c*i al fhould oppofe the liberty of the cities. This, he faid, . 
would give the caofc the fanftioh of Heaven, and the ftates of Greece 
would at all times be ready to embark in it. But the Spartans only 
laughed at this advice ; for, as Xenophon adds,-.>' It looked as if the 
•♦ gods were already urging on the Lacedaemonians to their ruin/' 

♦ Epaminondas placed his beft troops in one wine, and thofe he lead '- 
depended on in the other. The former he commanded in perfon ; to 
"the latter he gave dircd>ions, that, when they found the enemy's charge 
too heavy, they (hould retire leifurely, fo as to expofe to thenj a (loping 
/rone* Cleombrotus and Archidamus advanced \o the charge with great . 
vigour; but, as they preffed on the Theban wing which retired, they 
gave Epaminondas an opportunity of charging them both in fiank and 
front ; which he did with fo much bravery, that the Spartans began to 
give way, efpecially after Cleombrotus was Oain, whofe dead body, how- 
ever, they recovered. At length they were totally defeated, chiefly . 
by the (kill and condu^ of the Theban general. Four thoufand Spar- 
tans were killed on the field of battle; whereas the Thebans did not 
lofe above three hundred. Such was the fatal battle of Leu€ira, wherein 
•the Spartans loft their fyperiorjcy in Grfiecey which iVie^ Yv3A\xd^ txwx 
five hundred years, ' 

32 PLUTARCtt^S LiVE^;. 

•* prefcrved J certainly the'noblfe behavionr and ithc ISTC" - 
*' prefiions of furch perfonSi when flruggling with advcr- 
•* fity, claim our notice much'more." When the Spar- 
tans received the news of the overthrow at Leadra, it • 
happened that they were celebrating a feftival, and the 
city was full of ftrangers ; for the troops of young men 
and maidens were at their exercifes in the theatre. The - 
Ephoriy though they immediately perceived that their af- 
fairs were ruined^ and that they had loft the empire of - 
Greece, would not fuffer the fports to break off, nor any 
of the ceremonies or decorations of the feftival to be 
omitted; but having fent the names of the killed-to their 
refpeftive families, they ftayed to fee the exercifes; the ► 
dances, and all other parts of the exhibition concluded ♦•. 

Next morning, the names of the killed, and of thofe who * 
furvived the battle, being perfsftly . afccrtaxncdy the fr- 
thers and other relations of the dead, appeared in pnblic, 
and embraced each other with a cheerful air, aiid a gene- 
rous rride ; while the relations of the furvivors ihiit " 
themfelves op^.as in time of mourning. And if any one 
was forced to %o out upon bufinefs, he fliewed all the to- 
kens of forrow and humiliation both in his fpeech and 
countenance. The difference was ftill more remarkabfe 
among the matrons. They who expeded to receive their 
funs alive from the battle, were melancholy and filent*; - 
whereas thoie who had an account that their fons were 
ilain, repaired immediately to the temples to return thanks, • 
and vifited eacii other with all the marks of joy and elc? 

-The people, who were now deferted by their allies, and 
expedled that Epaminondas, in the pride of victory, would ' 
enter Peloponnefus^ called to mind the- oracle, which they- 
applied again to the lamenefs of Agefilaus. The fcniples "^ 
they had on, this occafion, difcouraged them extremely, 
and they were afraid the divine difpleafure had brought 


• But where wai the merit of a!l this ?• What could fuch a conduft' 
iiave for its fuppert but either infenfibility, or afte£>aticn? If they- 
foiir^d any reafon t9 rejoice in the glcrious deaths of thtir fr-iends and 
fellow-citizens, certainly the ruin of the Aate was an objei^t fufficiently 
ferlous to call them from tJic purfuits of feAIvity ! But, ^w Juptttr 
*vult ftrdere prius dementam i The infatuation of ambition and jealoufy 
drew upon them the Thtban war, and it feemcd to lad upon ihcrt-y 
even when they had felt its fatal coiifiquencrs. 


tifotk them the late calamity^ for expelling^ a found man 
fiom the throne, ana prtrcning a lame one, in fpite of the 
extraordinary warnings Heaven had given them againft itr 
Neverthelefs, in regard of his virtue, his authority, and 
renown, they iooked upon him as the only man who could 
retrieve thdr afFdirs; for, beiide marching under his ban- 
ners as thjirprince and general, they applied to him in 
cuery internal diforder of the .commonwealth.- At pre- 
fect they were at- a lofs what to do with. thofe who had fled 
ft^m the battle. The Lacedsemonians call fuch perfons/r«- 
fantas *. In this cafe they did not choofe to fet fuch mark} 
of difgrace. upon them as the- hws directed, becaafe they 
were fo numerous and powerful, that there was reafon to 
apprehend.-it'imigh^ occaiion an infurreflion. For fuch 
p^ons are not only excluded all offices, but it is infamous 
toantermarry with them. • Any man that meets them is ftrikethem. They are obliged to appear in 
a forlorn manner, and iii a vile habit, witn patches of di* 
vers colours ; and to wear their beards half (haved and 
half anihaved. To put fo rigid a law as this in execution^ 
at a time when the offenders were fo numerous, and when 
tke comqaonwealth had fo much occaHon for foldiers, was 
both impoliiio and dangerous. ^. 

Iftv thia perplexity they had recourfe to Agefilaiis, ' 
and inveiled him with new powers of legiflation. But he, 
without making. any addition, retrenchment, or change^r 
went, into <he aiiembly, and told the Lacedaemonians « .. 
" 'The laws (hould ileep that dayi and refume their an- 
" thority the day following, and retaui it for ever.** By 
this *means.- he prefer yed ^o the ftate its laws entire, as 
well as the obnoxiotts perfons from- infamy. .' Then, in or- 
der to j-aife tl^e youth out of the depreflion and melancholy 
undeif w)uch.they laboured, iie entered Arcadia at the head 
of^lhem^^ He avoided a battle, indeed, with great care, 
\m\ie> took a little townof thf Maatineans, and ravaged 
tiie;flat country. ^ This reftored Sparta to her fpirits in 
fome degree, and gaye . hec reafon. to . hope that fhe was 
not abfolutely.loU^.^. 

Soon after this-, Epaminondas and his allies entered 
Laconia. His infantry amounted to forty thoufand men, 
ixduitveof the light-armed, andthofe who,, without arms, 
C 5 followed. . 

34 Plutarch's lives. 

followed only for plunder. For, if the whole were reck« 
oned« there were not fewer than feventy thoufand that 
poured into that country. Full fix hundred years were 
elapfed fince the iirfl eflablifhment of the Dorians in La- 
cedaemon, and this was the iirfl time, in all that long 
period 9 they had feen an enemy in their territories ; none 
«ver dared to fet foot in them before. But now a new fcene 
of hoflilitfes appeared ; the confederates advanced without 
reiiilance^ laying all wafte with fire and fword, as far as 
the Eurotas, and the very fuburbs of Sparta. For, as 
Theopompus informs us, Agefilaus would not fufFer the 
Lacedaemonians to engage with fuch an impetuous torrent 
of war. He contented himfelf with placing his belt in- 
fantry in the middle of the city, and 6ther important 
pofb ; and bore the menaces and infults of the Thebans, 
who called him out by name, as the firebrand which had 
lighted up the war, and bade him fight for his country, 
upon which he had brought fo many misfortunes. 

Agefilaus was equally difturbed at the tumult and dif- 
order within the city, the outcries of the old men, who 
moved backwards and forv^rds, expreffing their grief and 
indignation, and the wild behaviojir of the women, who 
were terrified even to madncfs at the (houts of the enemy, 
And the flames which afcended around them. He was in 
pain, too, for his reputation. Sparta was a great and 
powerful flate at his acceflion, and he now faw her glory 
wither, and his own boalls come to nothing. It feems, 
he had often faid, " No Spartan woman ever faw the 
" fmoak of an enemy's camp." In like manner, when 
an Athenian difputed with Antalcidas, on the fubjeft of 
valour, and faid, '* Wc have often driven you from the 
*'. banks of the Cephifus,'* Antalcidas anfwered, *' But 
.'* we never drove you from the banks of the Euro tas." Near 
akin to this, was the repartee of a Spartan of lefs note, to 
a man of Argos, who faid, " Many of you deep on the 
*' plains of Argos." The Spartan'anfwered, " But not 
'^ one of you fleeps on the plains of Lacedaemon.'* 

Some fay, Antaclidas was then one of the Ephori, and 
that he conveyed his children to Cythera, in fear that Sparta 
would be taken. As the enemy prepared to pafs the Eu- 
rotas, in order to attack the town itfelfi Agefilaus relin- 
quilhed the other polls, and drew up all his forces on an 
eminence in the middle of the city. It happened that the 



river was much fwoln with the fnow which had fallen in 
great quantities, and the cold was more troublefbme to the 
Thebans than the rapidity of the current ; yet Epami- 
nondas forded it at the head of his infantry. As he wa$ 
pafling it> fomebody pointed him out to Agcfilaus ; who, 
after having viewed him for fome time, only let fell this 
cxpreilion, " O adventurous man !" All the ambition of 
Epaminondas was to come to an engagement in the city, 
and to eredl a trophy there ; but finding he could not draw 
down Ageiilaus from the heights, he decamped, and laid 
waile the country. 

There had long been a difafFedled party in Laccdaemon, 
and now about two hundred of that party leagued together, 
and feized upon a llrong poft, 'called the IJforium, in which 
flood the temple of Diana. The Lacedcemonians wanted 
to have the place ftormed immediately : But Agefilaus, 
apprehenilve of an infurreclion in their favour, took his 
cloak and one fervant with him, and told them aloud, 
" That they \A miliaken their orders. I did not order 
** you," faid he, " to take poll here, nor all in any one 
".place, but fome there (pointing to another place), and 
" fome in other quarters,? When they heard this, they 
were happy in thinking their defign was not difcovered ; 
and they came out, and went to feveral polls as he dire^ed 
them. At the fame time he lodged another corps in the 
Iffiiriunty and took about fifteen of the mutineers, and put 
th<em to death in the night. 

Soon after this, he difcovered another, and much greater 
confpiracy, of Spartans, who met privately in a houfe be- 
longing to one of them, to confider of means to change 
the form of government. It was dangerous either to bring 
them to a trial in a time of fo much trouble, or to let their 
cabals pafs without notice. Agefilaus, therefore, having 
confulted with the Ephoriy put them to death without the 
fonnality of a trial, though no SparXan had ever fuffered 
in that manner before. 

As many of the neighbouring burghers and of the Helots 
who were enlifted, flunk away from the town, and deferted 
to the enemy, and this greatly difcouraged his forces, he 
ordered his fervants to go early in the morning to the 
quarters, and where they found any had deferted, to hide^ 
Uieir arms, that their numbers might not be known. 


Hidorians do not agree as tariic time when theThetans 
quitted Laconia. Some fay the winter foon fbrcedthem. 
to retire ; the Arcadians being impatient of a campaign at 
that feafon^ and falling off in a very diforderly manner: 
others affirm, that the. Thebans ftayed full three months; 
in which time they laid wafte almoft all the country. Theo-* 
poropus writes, that at the very juncture the govemorsL. 
of Boeotb had fent them orders to return, there came st 
Spartan, named Phrixus, on the part of Agefilausi and 
gave them ten talents to leave Laconia. So that, ac-' 
cording to hin^ they . nqt only executed all that they in^ 
tended, but had money from the enemy ,to defray the «x- 
pences of their return. For my part,. I cannot conceive 
how Theoppmpus came- to be acquainted with thi^ parti- 
cular, which other hiflorians knew nothing of. 

It is univerfally agreed, however, that Agelilaus faved . 
Sparta by^controuling his native paffions of obttinacy and- . 
ambition, and purfuing no meafures but what were fafe# 
He could not, indeed, after the late blowi reftore her to 
her former glory and power. As healthy bodies, long ac- . 
Guftomed to a drift and,regular diet,-oftcn find one devia- 
tion from that regimen fatal, fo one mifcarriage brought . 
that flourifhing ftate to decay. Nor is it to be wondered 
at. Their conftitution was admirably formed for peacey 
for virtue; and harmony ; but when they wanted fo add- 
to their domintons by force of arms, and to make acquifi— - 
tions which Lycurgus thought urineceflary to their happi-* 
nefs, they fplit upon that rock he had warned them to avoid* . 

Agefilaus now declined the fervice- on account of his^ 
great age. But his^fon Archidamas, having received fomev 
fuccours from Dionyiius the Silician tyrant, fought th& 
Arcadians, and gained that which is called the tearUjs bat-* 
tie J for he killed great numbers of the enemy, withouUi 
loAng a man himfelf. 

NotJiing could aftbrd a greater proof of the weaknefs oP* 
Sparta than this vidory. Before, it had been fo common,* 
and fo natural a thing for Spartans to conquer, that on . 
fuch occafions they offered no greater facrifice than a cock;- 
the combatants were not elated, nor thofe who received; 
the tidings of vidtory overjoyed. Even when that great 
hattle was fought at Mantinea, which Thucydides has fo- 
well defcribedptheii^/^wvprcrcnted the pcrfoiv who brought 
J them. 

tiiem- the firft -news of their fucceft, with nochiflf^ buc m 
mefs of meat from the public .table. But now, when an 
account of this battle was brought^ and Archidamus ap« 
proached the town, they -were not able to contain them^' 
fdves. Firft his father advanced to meet him with-tears of 
joy, and after him the magillrates* . Multitude* -of old men 
and of women flocked- to the. river, ftf etching, out their 
hanils, and bleffing the gods;, as if Sparta had walhed off 
her late unworthy ftairis, and feen her glory ftream out 
lafrclh. . Till that hour the men were lb much aihamed of 
the \o(s they had. fultained, that, it is faid, they could not 
even carry it^with anuncmbarr^iTed countenance to the : 

When Epamiriondas re-eftabTi(hed MeUcne, and the ana-.- 
cient inhabitants returned to it from all quarters, the Spar- . 
tans had not courage to oppofe him in the field. But it 
gave them ^reat concern, and they could not look upon \ 
Agefilaus. without anger,, when they confide red that in his . 
reign they had loft a country full as exteniive as Laconia> . 
and fuperior in fertility to all the provinces of Greece; a ; 
country whofe revenues they had long called their own. . 
For this reafon»- Agefilaus rejedted tbe peace, which the 
Thebans. offered him ; not choofing formaJly to give up t^ .. 
them, what they were in fa£l poA'efled of. But while he was 
centendinglbr what he could not recover, he was near lofing . 
Sparta itfelf, through the fuperior genefallhip of his adver- 
hry, . The Mantin^ans had feparated again from their al* 
liance with Thebes, and called in the Lacedaemonians to . 
their affiftance. - Epaminondas being appjrifed that Agefi- 
laus was upon his march to Mantinea, decamped from s 
Tegea in the night, unknown to the Mantineans, and . 
tooksa different road to Lacedaemon, from that iAgefilaus . 
vtas uponj -fo that -nothing was more likely than that he : 
'wouldj^have come upon the -city in->this-defencelefs ftate, , 
aodjiave taken itwitheafev. But Eoithynus, of Thefpine^ , 
is Calliiihencis relates it^ ot fome Cretan,^ according to ■< 
XenophoHf informed Agefilaus of the defign, who fent a 
liorieman to alarm the cityi and not long after entered it . 

In a little time the Thebans pafTed the Enrotas^ and at^ - 
ticked the town. Ageiilaus defended it with a vigour 
above his years;- He Ulvt th&t this was not the time (as^ 

38 , Plutarch's lives. 

it had been) for iafe and cautious meafures, but rather for 
the boldeft and mod defperate efForts ; infomuch that the 
means in which he had never before placed any confidence, 
or made the leaft ufe of, llaved off the prefent danger, and 
j^atched the town out of the hands of Epaminondas. He 
^refted a trophy upon the occafion,and Ihewed the children 
and the women how glorioufly the Spartans rewarded 
their country for their education. Archidamus greatly 
diftinguifhed himfelf that day, both by his courage and 
agility, flying through the bye-lanes, to meet the enemy 
where they prefled the hardeil, and every where repulfiilg 
them with his little band. 

But Ifadus, the fon of Phcebidas, was the m$ft extraor- 
dinary and firiking fpedacle, not only to his countrymen, 
but to the enemy. He was tall and beautiful in his per- 
fon, and jufl growing from a boy into a man, which is the 
time the human flower has the greateil charm. He was with- 
out either arms or clothes, naked and newly anointed with 
oil ; only he had a fpear in one hand, and a fword in the 
other. In this condition he ruihed out of his houfe, and 
having made his way through the combatants, he dealt Ms 
deadly blows among the enemy's ranks, flriking down 
every man he engaged with. Yet he received no^ one 
wound himfelf; whether it was that Heaven preferved him . 
in regard to his valour, or whether he appeared to his ad- 
verfaries as fomething more than human. It is faid, the . 
Efhori honoured him with a chaplet for the great things 
he had performed, but, at the fame time, fined him a 
thoufand drachmas for daring to appear without his armour. 

Some days after this, there was another battle before 
Mantinca. £paminondas« after having routed the £rfl 
battalions, was very eager in the purfuit ; when a Spar- 
tan, named Anticrates, turned fhort, and gave him a wound, , 
with a fpear, according toDiofcorides, or, as others fay," 
.with a fword. And, indeed, the defcendants of Anti- 
crates are to this day called machartones^ f^word/men, in 
Lacedaemon. This aftioa appeared fo great, and was fo 
acceptable to the Spartans, on account of their fear of . 
Epaminondas, that they decreed great honours and rewards 
to Anticrates, and an exemption £om taxes to his poiierity ; 


• Diodorus Siculus attributes this action to Grillus, the fon of Xe- 
fiophon^ who, he hyi^ was killed immediately aftcr« But Plutarch** , 
account fcems btiiex groundedt 


one of which^ named Callicrates *, now tn}oy^, that pri- 

After this battle> and the death of £paminondas> the 
Greeks concluded a peace. But Agefilaus, under pretence 
•that the MeiTenians were not a Hate, infilled that they 
fiiould not be comprehended in the treaty. All the reft, 
kowever, admitted them to take the oath> as one of the 
ftates ; and the Lacedemonians withdrew^ intending to 
continue the war, in hopes of recovering Meflenia. Agefi- 
has could not, therefore, be confidered but as violent 
and oblUnate in* his temper, and infatiably fond of hollili- 
ties, fince he took every method to obitru^ the general 
peace, and to protradt the war ; though at the fame time, 
through want of money, he was forced to borrow of his 
friends, and to demand unreafonable iubfidies of the peo- 
ple. This was at a time, too, when he had the faireft op- 
portunity to extricate himfelf from all his dillreffes. Be- 
fides, after he had let flip the power, which never before 
was at fuch a height, loft fo many cities, and feen his 
country deprived of the fuperiority both at fea and land, 
ihould he have wrangled about the property and the rc- 
venaes of Meffene ? 

He loft ftill more reputation, by taking a command un- 
der Tacho$, the Egyptian chief. It was not thought 
Suitable to one of the greateft charadlers in Greece, a man 
who had filled the whole world with his renown, to hire out 
his perfon, to give his name and his intereft for a pecuniary 
confideration, and to a£t as captain of a band of mercena- 
ries, for a barbarian, a rebel againft the king his mafter. 
Had he, now he was upwards of eighty, and his body 
full of wounds and fears, accepted again of the appoint- 
ment of captain-general, to fight for the liberties of Greece, 
his ambition, at that time of day, would not have been en- 
tirely unexceptionable. For even honourable purfuits muft 
hare their times and feafons to give them a propriety ; 
Of rather, propriety, and the avoiding of all extremes, is 
the charadleriftic which diftinguifties honourable purfuits 
fi'om the difhonourable. But A^efilaus was not moved by 
thu confideration, nor did he think any public fervice un- 
worthy of him ; he thought it much more unbecoming to 
4ead an inadive life at home, and to fit down and wait till 


f Near £ve hvadred yean aflcri 

40 ' P L U T AH C ir^S- ' L I VE J^. ^ 

death fhould (Irike his blow. He therefore rfiied a bodr 
of mercenaries, and fitted out a fleet, with the money which 
Tacho6 had fent him, and then fet fail; taking with him 
thirty ;Spartans for his counsellors, as formerly. 

Upon his-arrival ifl'iEgypt, all the great officers of the 
kingdom came immediately to pay their court to him. In* 
deed, the name -and charadler of Agefilaus had raifed great 
cxpedations ia the -/Egyptians in general, and they 
ctowded to the fhore to get a fight of him. But when they 
beheld no pomp or grandeur of appearance, and faw only 
a little old man, and in as mean attire, feated on the grafe 
by the fea-fide, they could not help regarding the thing in 
a ridiculous light, and obferving, that this was the very 
thing reprefented in" the fable*, '* The mountain had 
*' brought forth a moufe.'* They were flill more fur- 
prifed at his want of politanefs, when they brought him 
fuch prefents as were commonly made to Grangers of di* 
flindion, and he took' only .the flour,- the <yeal, and the 
. gee{€, and refufed the pafties, thefweet-mcatsr and per- 
fumes; and when they prefled him ^to -accept- them, he / 
iaid, ** They niight carry: them to the Helots »*^. Thco- 
phraftus tells us, he was pleafed with the paf>ynes, on ac-. 
count of its thin and pliant texture, which made it very- 
proper for chapleta; and, when he left ^gypt, Jic aiked.. 
the king for fome.of it. >. 

Tachos was preparing for the-^ar; and Agefilaus, upon ' 
joining him, was greatly difappointed to find he^had not 
the conMuand of all the forces given him, but only that of 
the mercenaries. Chabrias, the- Athenian, was admiral-: 
Tachoa, however, referved to him^felf the chief dire^ion, 
bath at fea and.landi «. This^ wasthe £rji difagreeable cip-> 
cumflance that occurred to Agefilaus ; and others foon fol- 
lowed. . The vanity and infolence of the Egyptian gave . 
him great pain, but heAvas forced to bear them^^ He coo- ^ 
fented to fail Avith him againft the Plicentcians ;> and, con- 
trary to his^dignity^and nature, fubmitted to the Barbariai^ 
till he could findan opportunity tofhake offhis yoke. That 
opportunity foon prefented itfelf. . NeAanabisf, coufin to 


* Atiienae^us^makee Tachos fay this, and Agefilati& anfwer, *< YoU 
«* wm find roe a Ikm by and by.'* 

t Ai'f4^iof fignifies either coufin or nepbtgaf* But, according tp Vifh^, 
SaruB, Nc^labanis was tbe-foo of_Tachas* . 

Tachos; who e<nnmattded part of the forces, revolted, ani^' 
was proclaimed king by the ^Egyptians. 

In confeqaence of this; Neftafiabis fent ambafladors to • 
Agefilatis, to intreat his afliftahce. " He made the fame ap- 
plication to Chabrias, and proniiffd them both great re- 
wards. Tachos'was apprifed of thefe proceeding, and 
begged of them not to abandon him. Chabrias lillened to 
\a% reqiiefl, and endeavoured alfo to appeafe the refentment 
of Agelilaus, and keep him to the* caufe he had embarked ^ 
in. Agefilaus anfwered, " As for yoir, Chabrias, you came - 
"hither ay a volunteer, and, therefore, may a«fl as you ^ 
" thirtk proper; but I was fent by my country, upon the ' 
•''application of theiEgyptians, for a general. It would 
**^not then be right' to commence hollilities againft the 
'''people, to whom I was fent as an aflift^nt, except Sparta 
'''Ihould give me fuch orders." At the fame time he 
fent fome of his officers home, with inftrudrtirns to accufe ' 
Tachos, and to defend the caufe of Nedlanabis; • The two • 
rival kings alfo applied to the Lacedaemonians; the one 
as an ancient friend and ally, and the other as one who 
lad a greater regard for Sparta, and would give her more 
Yiluable proofs of his attachment. ^- 

The Licedsemonians gave the -Egyptian deputies the ' 
hearing, aTid this public anfwer, *' That they iliould leave 
" the bufinefs to the care of Agefilaus." But their private 
iftUrudtions to him were^ ** to do what fhould appear mofl 
" advantageous- to Sparta.?- Agefilaws had no fooner re- 
ceived thisTordef, tha'irKd "withdrew with his mercenaries, - 
and went over to Neftanabis$ covering this Itrange and 
feandalous proceeding -with the pretence of afting in tbe 
Wft manner fof his country*': when that flight veil is taken 
off, its right name is treachery, and bafe defertion. It b 
ttoei the Lacedaemonians by placing a regard to the ad van- 
taw of theip country, in the firft rank of honour and virtue, 
left thenifalves no criterion of juflice, but the aggrandife- 
sfeaf of^parta* 


* ^(endpeoiv h^fr firceee^d welt ^nong^'iif defending Af^efllaas with 
r«fpe^ tokii undertaking" the expeditions into iEgypt. He reprcfents 
Mm^pleafed with the hopes of making TadiOii fome return i'orliis many 
fcrvices tcvtbe LacedaBmoniaos} of re florin;, throug;h his means, thJe 
Creek cities in Afnito the;4' iibcrty, andOf revengiog the ill offices done.:, 
the Spartans by the king ©f Perfia. But it was in vain^ov xh^t \v\ilorvW0k 
to attempt to exculpate hinii with rtfpe€t to his dclttuu^ T«^Owi^ 
fy/iJcJi Plutarch jaiUjr treats as an a^ i)i treachery. 


Tachos, thus abandoned by the mercenaries, took to 
flight. Butj at the fame time, there rofe up in Mendes 
another competitor, to difpute the crown with Ne£tanabis ; 
and that competitor advanced with a hundred thoufknd 
men, whom he had foon affembled. Neftanabis, to en- 
courage Ageiilaus, reprefented to him, that though the 
numbers of the enemy were great, they were only a mixed 
multitude, and many of them mechanics, who were to be 
defpifed for their utter ignorance of war. *' It is not 
** their numbers," faid Ageiilaus, '* that I fear, but that 
** ignorance and inexperience, you mention, which ren- 
*' ders them incapable of being pradtifed-upon by art or 
'* iiratagem : for thofe can only be exercifed with fuccefs, 
*' upon fuch as, having fkill enough to fufpeft the defigns 
" of their enemy, form fchemes to countermine him, and, 
" in the mean time, are caught by new contrivances. 
'* But he who has neither expectation nor fufpicion of that 
*• fort, gives his adverfary no more opportunity, than he 
** who llands iHll, gives to a wreftler." 

Soon after the adventurer of Mendes fent perfons to 
found Agcfilaus. This alarmed Nedanabis : and when 
Agefilaus advifed him to give battle immediately, and not 
to protraft the war with men who had feen no fervicc, 
but who, by the advantage of numbers, might draw a line 
of circumvallation about his trendies, and prevent him in 
moil of his operations ; then his fears and fufpicions in- 
creafed, and put him upon the expedient of retiring into 
a large and well-fortified town. Ageiilaus could not well 
digeft this inftance of dillruft ; yet he was afhamed to 
change fides again, and at lall jeturn without effeding 
any thing. He therefore followed his ftandard, and en- 
tered the town with him. 

However, when the enemy came up, and began to epen 
their trenches, in order to enclofe him, the ^Egyptian, 
afraid of a fiege, was inclined to come immediately to 
an engagement ; and the Greeks were of his opinion, be- 
caufe there was no great quantity of provifi'ons in the 
place. But Agefilaus oppofed it; and the i£gyptians, on 
that account, looked upon him in a worfe light than be- 
fore, not fcrupling to call him a traitor to their king. 
Thefe cenfures he now bore with patience, becauie he was 
waiting a favourable moment for putting in execution a 
defign he had formed. 



^ The defign was this. The enemy, as we have obferved* 
were drawing a deep trench round the walls, with an in* 
tent to fhut up Nedbinabis. When they had proceeded 
fo far in the work, that the two ends were almoft ready 
to nieet^ as foon as night came on, Ageiilaus ordered the 
Greeks to arm, and then went to the Egyptian, and faid, 
" Now is the time, young man, for you to fave yourfclf, 
** which I did not choofe to fpeak of fooner, lell it (hould 
** be divulged and loft. The enemy with their own hands 
" Ijave worked out your fecurity, by labouring fo long 
" upon the trench, tliat the part which is finifhed will 
" prevent our fuifering by their numbers, and the fpace 
" which is left puts it in our power to fight them upon 
" equal terms. Come on then; now fhew your courage ; 
" fally out along with us, with the utmoft vigour, and 
*' iave both yourfelf and your army. /The enemy will not 
*' dare to ftand us in front, and our flanks are fecured by 
•' the trench." Neftanabis now admiring his capacity, 
put himfelf in the middle of the Greeks and advancing to 
the charge, eaiily routed all that oppofedhim. 

Agefilaus having thus gained the prince's confidence, 
availed himfelf once more of the fame ftratagem, as a 
wreftler fometimes ufes the fame flight twice in one day. 
^j fometimes pretending to fly, and fometimes facing 
about, he drew the enemy's whole army into a narrow 
place, enclofed with two ditches that were very deep, and 
foil of water. When he faw them thus entangled, he ad- 
vanced to the charge, with a front equal to theirs, and 
fecured by the nature of the ground againft being fur- 
nmnded. The confequence was, that they made but little 
lefiftance ; numbers were killed, and the reft fled, and 
were entirely put to the rout. 

The Egyptian, thus fuccefsfiil in his afi^airs, and firmly 
eftaV)tifhed in his kingdom, had a grateful fenfe of the 
ibrvices of Agefilaus, and preffed him to fpend the winter 
with him. But he haftened his return to Sparta, on ac- 
count of the war flie had upon her hands at home ; for he 
knew that her finances were low, though, at the fame 
time, fhe found it neceflTary to employ a body of mercena- 
ries. Nedanabis difmifled him with great marks of ho~ 
sour, and, befides other prefents, furniihed him with two 
hmdred and thirty talents of iiiver, for the expences 
of the Grecian war. But^ as it was winter^ he vsssx mv\i 

44' plutarch's Livi)?: 

a * ftbrm which drove him upon a defert fhore in Afriat,' 
called the Haven of Menelaus : and there he died, at the 
age of eighty-four yeari; of which he had reigned fbrty- 
one in Laced aemon. Above thirty yiMrs of that time ne 
made the greateft figure, both as to reputation and power, 
being looked upon as commander in chief, and, a»it wcre» 
king of Greece, tiH the battle of Leuflra. 

It was the cuftom of the Spartans to bury perfons of 
ordinary rank in the place \vh«-e they expired, when they 
happened to die in a foreign country, but to carry the 
corpfes of their kings home. And as the attendants o? 
Agefiiaus had not honey to prefeVve the body, they em- 
balmed it with melted wax, and fo conveyed it to Lace- 
damon. His fon Archidamus fucceeded to the crown, 
which dcfcended in his family to Agis, the ^^ from ^ 
Agefiiaus. This Agis, the third of that name, was aflaiir* 
nated by Leonidas, for attemptbg to reftore the ancient^ 
difcipline of Sparta. 


X HE people of Romeappearr, from the firft, to have been 
affedled towards Pompey, much in the fame manner as 
Prometheus, in iEfchylus, was towards Hercules, when 
after that hero had delivered him from his chains, he fays, . 

The fire I haie<?, but the fon I Icve.^ 

For never did the Romans entertain a ilronger and more 
rancrous hatred for any general, than for Strabo the far- 
ther of Pompey. While he lived, indeed, they were afraid- 
of his abilities as a foldier, for he had great talents for 
war ; but upon his doath, which happened by a ftroke of 
lightenmg, they. dragged his corpie irom the bier, on the 
way to the funeral pile, and treated it with the greateft 
indignity. On the other hand, no man ever experienced - 
from the fame Romans an attachment more early beguQ»'- 
xnore difmterefled in ail the flagcs of his p^ofperity, or 


• Of the tragedy olVnmahcut feUafid^ from which this)ine Is takenr, 
Wt have only A me fragments remaining. J upiter had chained Frocit- 
theus toiht rocks oi Caucafus, and Hercules the fon of Jupiter r6» 


POMPEY. ^45 

rtROFC eonllant and faithful in the decline of his fortunp, 

jthan Pompey. 

The ible caufe of their averdon to the father, was his 
infatiable avarice ; but there were many caufes of their af- 
fedlion for the fon ; his temperate way of living, his ap- 
plication to martial exefcifesj his eloquent and perfuafive 
addrefs, his &riGt honour and hdejity, and the eafmefs pf 
accefs to him uppn all o.ccalions ;. for no man was ever lefs 
importunate in afking favours*, or niofe gracious in con- 
erring thcjp, V When he gave, it was without arrogance, 

,and when he received, .it* was with dignity. 

In his you^ he had a very engaging countenance, whiqh 
fpoke for hi|n before he opened his lips. Yet th^t grace 
of a/pe6t was not unattended \yith dignity, and ami^l his 
youthfnl bloom there was a venerable and princely air. 
His hair naturally v^url^d a.Httle before; ^yhich, together 
with the fluning nipifture ^nd quick turn pf his eye f, 
produced a Wronger likenefs of Alexander the Great, than 

' that which appeared in the ftajtues of that prince. So tha,t 
fome ferioufly gave him the name of Alexander, and he 
did not refufe it ; .others applied it to him by way of ridi- 
cule. And Lucius PhilippusJ, a man of confular dignity, 
as he was one day pleading for him faid, *• It w^s no 
'" wonder if Philip was a lover pf Alexander." 

We are told that Flora, the, courtezan, tpok apje^uj:^, 
in her old age, in fpeaking, of the commerce IheMd with 
Pompey ; and (he ufed to fay, .flie could neyer quit . his 
embraces without giving him a bite. She added, .that 
Geminius, one of rompey's acquaintance, had a pafiion 

;for her, ^nd gave her much trouble with his folicitations. 

^t l2L&, ihe told him, ihe could not confent pn account 


Tfte Latin tranflator has taken ^in^r^nce^k in a palTive renfe-^funi 
^f»kUm nemo ejfit^ qui yel dtju'wri an'mo ^ti obs Je altqmd fateretur. But 
ib^'a incoiifiitent with the contraft which imioediately follows. 

One of the mannfcripts has it, 'fl? fAij^eyo? wpolipojr — and Dacier ap- 
pears to have folbwcd it— f^r U iTj avait point d'bomme plus referee qui 
hi a iUmand r da fir*ukti» 

t *Yyfch5 fignifics not pnly moifiurty bat fixihilify. Lucian has 
^ycolu? fA.B?M9» And rm frtfi r» ofjcfAola fv^fxvt vyfoln^ feems more 
applicable to the latter fenfe. . 

I Lucius Marcius Pbilipputt one of the greauA orators of h\6-,UfOfc* 
vHe was. fotl^r-iP'^^iv io AagaiiuSf liarin% married hu tnoXVict M'Civ 
, Horace Tpfaks ofbiiPt lib, ep* 7. 

46 Plutarch's lives. 

of Pompey, Upon which he applied to Pompey for his J 
permiiTion, and he gave it him, but never approached her t 
afterwards, thougJi h€ feemed to retain a regard for her. i 
She bore the lofs of him, not with the ilight uneafinefs of * 
a prollitute, but was long fick through forrow and regret, t 
It is fa id that Flora was fo celebrated for her beauty and r 
fine bloom, that when Cascilius Metellus adorned the i 
temple of Caftor and Pollux with ftatues and paintings, i 
he gave her pidure a place among them. 

Demetrius, one of Pompey's freedmen, who had great : 
inter eil with him, and who died worth four thoufand ta- : 
lents had a wife of irrefiiHble beauty. Pompey, on that . 
account, behaved to her with lefs politenefs than was na- 
tural to him, that he might not appear to be caught by : 
her charms. But though he took his meafures with io i 
much care and caution in this refpeft; he could not efcape i 
the cenfure of his enemies, who accufed him of a com- • 
jnerce with married women, and faid he often neglected, • 
or gave up, points eflential to the public, to gratify his ; 
miflrefles. • 

As to the fimplicity of his diet, there is a remarkable > 
faying of his upon record. In a great illnefs, when his : 
appetite was almoll gone, the phyfician ordered him a ' 
thrulh. His fervants, upon inquiry, found there, was not 
one to be had for money, for the fcafon was paft. They 
were informed, however^ that Lucullus had them all the 
year in his, menageries. This being reported to Pompey, 
he faid, *' Does Pompey's life depend upon the luxury of 
" Lucullus ?** Then, without any regard to the phyfician, 
he eat Tomething that was eafy to be had. But this hap- 
pened at a later period in life. 

While he was very young, and ferved under his father, 
who was carrying on the war againft Cinna*, one Lucius 
Terentius was his comrade, and they flept in the fame tent. 
This Terentius, gained by Cinna's money, undertook to 
afTaflinate Pompey, while others fet fiJ-e to the general's 
tent. Pompey got information of this when he was at 
fuppcr, and it did not put him in the leafl confufion. tHe 
drank more freely, and carcffed Terentius more than 
iifual ; but when they were to have gone to reft, he ftole 


• In the year of Rome 666,* And as Portpcy was bom the fame 
jrcar with Cicero, viz. in the year of Rome 6^7^ he niuft, iathU war 
w/VA CInna, have been nineteen year* old* 


cat of the tent> and went and planted a guard about his 
father. This done^ he waited quietly for the event* 
Terentius, as foon as he thought Pompey was afleep, drew 
his fword, and ilabbed the coverlets of the bed in man/ 
places, imagining that he was in it. 

Immediately after tJiis, there was a great mutiny in the 
camp. The ibldiers, who hated their general, were de- 
termined to go over to the enemy, and began to ftrike 
their tents and take up their arms. The general dreading 
■the tumult, did not dare to make his appearance. But 
Pompey was every where; he begged of them with tears 
to (lay, and at laft threw himfelf upon his face in the gate- 
way. There he lay weeping, and bidding, them, if they 
would go out, tread upoii him. Upon this, they were 
afhamed to proceed, and all, except eight Jiundred, re- 
turned and reconciled themfelves to their general. 

After the death of Strabo, a charge was laid that he had 
converted the public money to his own ufe, and Pompey, 
as his heir, was obliged to anfwer it. Upon inquiry, he 
found that Alexander, one of the enfranchiied flavcs, had 
fecreted moll of the money; and he took care to inform 
the magillrates of the particulars. He was accufed, how- 
ever, himfelf, of having taken fome hunting-nets and 
books out of the fpoils of Afculum; and, it is true, his 
father gave them to him when he took the place ; but he 
loft them at the return of Cinna to Rome, when that 
general's creatures broke into, and pillaged his houfe. 
In this affair he maintained the combat well with his ad- 
verfary at the bar, and fliewed an acutenefs and firmncfs 
above his years ; which gained him, fo much applaufe, that 
Antiftius, the praetor, who had the hearing of the caufe, 
conceived an affedlion for him, and offered him his 
daughter in marriage. The propofal accordingly was 
made to h4s friends. Pompey accepted it; and the treaty 
was concluded privately. The people, however, had 
fome notion of the thing from the pains which Antiftius, 
took for Pompey; and at laft, when he pronoimced the 
fentence, in the name of all the judges, by which Pompey 
was acquitted, the multitude, as it were, upon a iienal 
given, broke out in the old marriage acclamation of Imo/ui. 

The origin of the term is faid to have been this. When 
the principal Romans feized the daughters of the Sabines, 
who were come to fee the games they were celebrating to 

,^4f8 pLUTARC'fi^s xrv^s. 

entrap tliem» fome herdfinen and fliepherds laid held S 
a virgin remarkably tall and handfome ; and» left ihe 
ihould be taken from them, as they, carried her ofF, they 
. wed all the way they went, Talafio. Talafius was a 
young man, univerfally beloved and admired ; therefore 
^\\ who heard them, delighted .with. the intention, joined 
in the cry, and accompanied them with plaudits. They 
^ell us, the marriage of Talafius proved fortunate, and 
thence all bridegrooms, by way of mirth, were welcomed 
with that acclamation. This is the moft probable account 
1 can find of the term *. 

Pompey in a little time married Antiftia; and after- 
wards, repaired to Cinna's camp. But finding fome unjuft 
. <harges laid againft him there, he took the firft private 
opportunity to withdraw. As he was no where to be 
found, a rumour prevailed in the army, that Cinna had 
put the young man to death: Upon which, numbers who 
hated Cinna, and could no longer bear with his cruelties, 
attacked his quarters. He fled for his life; and bein^ 
overtaken by one of the inferior officers, who purfued 
him with a drawn fwprd, he fell upon his knees, and 
oiFered him his ring, which was of no fmall value. The 
officer anfwered, with ^great ferocity, "I am not con>e 
'' to fign ajcontra^, but to punifh an impious and lawleis 
** tyrant," and then killed him, upon the fpot. 

Such was the^nd of Cinna ;, after vyhprn C;arbo, a ty- 
rant ftill more favage, . took the reins of government. It 
was not long, however, before Sylla returned to Italy, to 
the great fatisfadion of moll of the Romans, who, in their 
prefent unhappy circumftances, thought the change of 
their mailer no fmall advantage. To fuch a defpierftte ftate 
had th^ir calamities brought them, that no longer Jnoj^yklg 
for liberty, they fpught only the mpft tolerable, fervitudo. 

At that time Pompey was in the Picene, whith<;r he 
had retired, partly becaufe he had lands there, butnuofiC 
on account pt an old attachment which the cities ki that 
diftrift had to his famih-. As he^pbferved that the beft 
and moll confi4erable of the citizens left their houfes, dnd 
toolc refuge in Sylla^ as ip a pprt, he refolved to do 
the fame. At the fan)e.time he thought it did not becomp 
him<»to go like a. fugitive who wanted protection, but ra- 
ther in a refpedtabie manner at the. head of an army. He 


* See more of this in the lift oJ 'P.otttaVa^. 

'poMPEir. 49 

tliercForc tried what levies he could make in the Picene»» 
and the people reidily repaired to his ftandardj rejeiliDg 
the applications of Carbo. On this occarion,one Vindius 
happening to iay, ** Pompey is jufl come from unJer the 
^ hands of the pedagogue, and all on a fad Jen is become 
" a demagogue among you," they were fo provoked, 
that they tell upon him and cut him in pieces. 

Thus Pompey, at the age of twency-thrc?, vithout a 
commiiTion from any fuperior authority, crccrcd liimfelf 
into a general ; and having placed his tribunal in the moll 
public part of the great city of Auximum, by a formal de- 
cree commanded the Ventidii, two brothers who oppofed 
him in behalf of Carbo, to depart the city : Pie enlilled 
foldiers; he appointed tribunes, centurions, and other 
officers, according to the cftablilhed cuftom. He did the 
fame in all the neighbouring cities ; for the partifahs of 
Carbo retired and gave place to him, and the reft were 
glad to range themfelves under his banners. So that in a 
Bttle time he raifed three complete legions, and furnilhed 
himfelf with provifions, beafts of burthen, carriages ; ia 
ihort, with the whole apparatus of war. 

In this form he moved towards Sylla, not by hafty 
marches, nor as if he wanted to conceid himie'f . for hd 
fiopped by the way to harafs the enemy, and attempted 
to draw off from Carbo, all the parts of Italy through 
.which 'he palTed. At laft, three generals of the oppohte 
party, Carinna, Coelius, and Brutus, came againft him a!l 
at once, not in front, or in one body, but they hemmed 
him in with their three armies, in hopes to demoiifh him 

Pompey, far from being terrified, aflembled all his 
fMcet^ and charged the army of Brutus at the head of his 
cavalry. The Gauliih horfe on the enemy's fide fnftained 
thfi||& Oiock; but Pompey attacked the foremoft of them, 
wio was a man of prodigious ftrength, and brought him 
down with a pufh of his fpear. The reft immediately 
^d, and threw the infantry into filch diforder that the 
;Brhole was foon put to flight. This produced fo great a quar- 
rel among the three generals, that t;hey parted, ^nd took 
/eparate routes. In confequence of which, the cities, con- 
ipluding that the fears of the enemy had made them part, ■ 
adopted tjie interefts of Pompey, 

* Now the March of Ancona* 

$0 Plutarch's lives. 

Not long after, Scipio the conful advanced to engage 
him. But before the infantry were near enough to dif- 
cbarge their lances, Scipio's foldiers faluted thofe of Pom- 
pey, and came over to them. Scipio, therefore, was forced 
to fly. At laft Carbo fent a large body of cavalry againft 
Pompey, near the river Arfis. He gave them fo warm a 
reception, that they were foon broken, and in the purfuit 
drove them upon impradlicable ground ; fo that finding 
it impoffible to efcape, they furrendered themfelves with 
their arms and horfea. 

Sylla had not yet been informed of thefe tranfaftions ; 
but upon the firft news. of Pompey's being engaged with 
ib many adverfaries, and fuch refpedlable generals, h% 
dreaded the confequence, and marched with all expeditioa 
to his affiftance. Pompey having intelligence of his ap- 
proach, ordered his officers to fee that the troops were 
armed and drawn up in fuch a manner, as to make the 
handfomeil and moft gallant appearance before the com- 
mander in ciiief. For he expected great honours from 
him, and he obtained greater. Sylla no fooner faw Pom- 
pey advancing to meet him, with an army in excellent 
condition, both as to age and fizc of the men, and the 
fpirits which fuccefs had given them, than he alighted ; 
and upon beinjg faluted of.courfe by Pompey as imperaiar, 
he returned his. falutation with the fame title : though no 
one imagined that he would have honoured a young man, 
not yet admitted into the fenate, with a title for which 
he was f:ontending with the Scipios and the Marii. The 
reft of his behaviour was as refpeftful as that in the firll 
interview. He ufed to rife up and uncover his heads 
whenever Pompey came to him ; which he was rarely ob- 
ierved to do for any other, thoughhe had ajiumbcr of pcr- 
fons of diilindion about him. 

Pompey was not elated with . thefe honours, Qn the 
, contrary, when Sylla wanted to fend him into Gaul, where 
Metellus had done nothing worthy of the forces under his 
his diredlion, he faid, *' It was not right to take the com- 
*' mand. from a man who was his fuperior both in age and 
*** chara£ler; but if Metellus fhould .deiire his afhftance in 
'* the condud of the war, it was at his fervice." Metellus 
accepted the propofal, and wrote to him to come ; where- 
vupon he entered Gaul, and not only (ignalized his own 
valour and capacity, but excited once more the fpirit of ad- 


venture in Metellns, which was almoft extingulfhed with 
age : jiift as brafs in a ftate of fulion is faid to melt a cold 
plate, fooner than fire itfelf. But as it is not ufual, when 
a champion has diftinguifhed himfelf inthe lifts, and gained 
the prize in all the games, to record or to take any no- 
tice of the performances of his younger years ; fo the ac- 
tions of Pompey, in this period, though extraordinary in 
themfelves, yet being eclipfed by the number and im- 
portance of his later expeditions, I (hall forbear to men- 
tion, left, by dwelling upon his firft efTays, I ftiould not 
leave myfelf room for thofe greater and more critical 
events which mark his chara6^er and turn of mind. 

After Sylla had made himfelf mafter of Italy, and was 
declared didlator, he rewarded his principal officers with 
riches and honours ; making them liberal grants of whatever 
they applied for. But he was moft ftruck with the excellent 
qualities of Pompey, and was perfuaded that he owed more 
to his fervices than thofe of any other man. He therefore 
refolved, if poffible, to take him into his alliance; and, as 
his wife Metella was perfedlly of his opinion, they per- 
fiiaded Pompey to divorce Antiftia, and to marry -Emilia, 
the daaghter-in-law of SylIa,whom Metella had by Scaurus, 
and who was at that time pregnant by another marriage. 

Nothing could be more tyrannical than this new con- 
trail. It was fuitable, indeed, to the times of Sylla, but 
it ill became the charafter of Pompey to take ^Emilia, 
pregnant as (he was, from another, and bring her into his 
noufe, and at the fame time to repudiate Antiftia, diftrefled 
as ftie muft be for a father whom ftie had lately loft on ac- 
count of this cruel huftjand. For Antiftius was killed in 
the fenate-houfe, becaufe it was thought his regard for 
Pompey had attached him to the caufe of Sylla. And her 
mother, upon this divorce, laid violent hands upon her- 
felf. This was an additional fcene of mifery in that tra- 
gical marriage ; as was alfo the fate of iEmilia in Pom- 
pey*s houfe, who died there in child-bed. 

Soon after this Sylla received an account that Perpen- 
tia had made himfelf mafter of Sicily^ where he afforded 
an afylum to the party which oppofed the reigning 
powers. Carbo was hovering with a fleet about that 
jlland ; Domitius had entered Africa ; and many other 
perfons of great diftindion, who had efcaped the fury of 
the profcriptions by flight, had taken refuge there* ?ot£v- 

^2 Plutarch's 'LIVES. 

pcj vvas fent againfl them with a confiderable armament. 
' He foon forced Perpenna to quit the ifland ; and having 
recovered the cities, which had been much harafled by 
. the armies that were there before his, he behaved to them 
all with great humanity, except the Mamertines, who were 
feated in Meflina. That people had refufed to appear be- 
fore his tribunal, and to acknowledge his jarifdidtion, al- 
leging, that they ftood excufed by an ancient privilege 
.granted them by the Romans. He anfwered, ** Will you 
' *' never have done with citine laws and privileges to men 
- " who wear fwords ?*' His behaviour too, to Carbo, in 
. his misfortunes, appeared inhuman. For, if it was ne- 
cefTary, as perhaps it was, to put him to death, he iliould 
have done it immediately, and then it would have been 
the work of him that gave orders for it. But, inftead of 
that, he caufed a Roman, ,who had been honoured with 
three confulihips, to be brought in ^hajins before his tribu- 
nal, where he fat in judement on him, to the regret of all 
the ipedlators, and ordered him to be led off to execu- 
tion. When they were carrying him off, and he behead 
the fword drawn, he was fo much difordered at it, that he 
was forced to bpg a moment's refpite, and a private plape 
ibr the neceflities of nature. 

Caius Oppius*, tlie friend of Caefar, writes, that Pom- 
pey like wile treated Quintus Valerius with inhumanity.— 
For, knowing him to be a man of letters, and that fe.w 
were to be compared to him in point of. knowledge, he 
took him (he fays) afide, and after he had walked with 
him till he had fatisfied himfelf upon feveral points Qf 
learning, commanded his fervants to take him to the 
Iblock. But we muft be yery cautiops how we give credit 
to Oppius, when he fpeaks of the friends and enemies of 
Caefar. Pompey, indeed, was under the neceflity of punilh- 
ing the principal enemies of Sylla, particularly when they 
were taken publicly. But others he fuffered to efcape, 
jand even affilled fome iii getting off. 

He had refolved to chailife the Himereans for attempt- 

-ing to fupport his enemies, when the orator Sthenis told 

him, *' He would adi unjufUy, if he pafTed by the perfdn 

:f * that was guilty, and puniihed the innocent." Pompey 

• aiked 

• The feme who vrotc an account of the SpanlAi war. He was alfo 
. a biographer ; but his works of that kind are lo(l. He waf mean enough 
^o write 4 treaufe to fliew that Caefario was not the fon of Csefar. 

POM PET. 53 

afked him, '' Who was the guilty pcrfon," and he an-' 
fwercd, •' I am the man. I perfuaded my friends, and 
'* compelled my enemies, to take the meafures they did.'* 
Pompey delighted with his frank confeffion and noble 
fpirit, forgave him firft, and afterwards all the people of 
Himera. Being informed that his foldiers committed 
great diforders in their excuHions, he fealed up their 
fwords, and if any of them broke the feal, he took care 
to have them punilhed. 

While he was making thefe and other regulations in 
Sicily, he received a decree of the fcnate, and letters 
from Sylla, in which he was commanded to crofs over to 
Africa and to carry on the war with the utnioft vigour, 
againfl Domitius, who had allembled a much more power- 
ful army than that which Marius carried not long before- 
from Africa to Italy, when he made himfelf mailer of-, 
Rome, and of a fugitive became a tyrant.- Pompey foon 
finiflied his preparations for this expedition ; and leaving', 
the command in Sicily to Memmius, his fifter's hufband, 
he fet fail with a hundred and twenty armed vefiels, and 
eight hundred ilor£lhips,4aden with proviiions, arms, mo* 
ney, and machines of war. Part of his fleet landed at 
Utica, and part at ,Carthage ; immediately after which • 
feven thoufand of the enemy came over to him; and he »• 
had brought with him fix legions complete. • 

On his arrival, he met with a whimfical adventure. Some 
of his foldiers, it feems, found a treafure, and Ihared con- ■ 
fiderable fums; . The, thing, getting air, the rell of the ' 
troops concluded, that the place was fidl of money, which ' 
the Carthaginians had hid there in fome time of public 
diftrefs. Pompey, therefore, could make no ufe of them for 
feycral days, as they were fearching for treafures ; and he 
Kad nothing to do but walk about and amufe himfeif with 
ti« fight of fo. many thoufand s digging and turning op- 
tiie ground. At lall, they gave up the point, and bade 
him lead, them wherever he pleafed, for they were fulli- 
ciently punifhed for their folly. 

Domitius advanced to meet him, and put his troops in 
order of battle. There happened to be a channel between 
them, cragg) and difncult to pafs. In the morning it be- 
gan, moreover, to rain, and tJie wind blew violently ; 
infomuch that Domitius, not imagining there would be 
aoy adion that day, ordered his army to retire, "BxXt^om- 

41' pIutarch's live)?: 

a-i ftbrm which drove him upon a* defert ihore in Africst,' 
called the Haven of Menelaus y and there he died, at the 
age of eighty-four yeari ; of which he had reigned forty- 
one in Laced aemon. Above thirty years of that time he 
made the greateft figure, both as to reputation and power, 
being looked-upon as commander in chief, and^ a» it were» 
king of Greece, tiH the battle of Leuflra. 

It was the cuftom of the Spartans to bury perfons of 
ordinary rank in the place where they expired, when they 
happened to die in a foreign country, but to carry the. 
corpfes of their kings home. And as the attendants of 
Agefilaus had not honey to prefevve the body, they em- 
balmed it with melted wax, and fo conveyed it taLacc- 
dasmon. His Ton Archidamus fucceeded ta the crown, 
which defcended in his family to A gis, the fifth from ' 
Agefilaus. This Agis« the third of that name, was afiaflT* 
nated by Leonidas, for attemptbg to reftore xht ancient^ 
difoipline of Sparta. 


X. HE people of Romeappcarr, from the firf!, to have been 
afFedlcd towards Pompey, much in the fame manner as 
Prometheus, in iEfchylus, was towards Hercules, whea 
after that hero had delivered him from his chains, he fays. 

The fire I hate^» but the fon I lcv«« ^ 

For never did the Romans entertain a ilronger and more 
rancrous hatred for any general, than for Strabo the fa^. 
ther of Pompey. While he lived, indeed, they were afraid - 
of his abilities as a foldier, for he had great talents for 
war J but upon his death, which happened by a flroke of 
lightening, they. dragged his corpfc from the bier, on the 
way to the funeral pile, and treated it with the greateft 
indignity. On the other hand, no man ever experienced - 
from the fame Ronwms an attachment more early beguQ,^ 
xnore diiinterefled in all the ftagcs of his p^ofperity, or 


• Of the tragedy ofPnmefbcus feteafed^ from which this line h takerr, 
we have only A me fragments remaining. Jopiter had chained Proixit- 
theus to ibe recks ol Caucafus, and HcccuUs^ the fon of Jupiter re^ 

POMPET. ^45 

tnorc eonftant and faithful in the decline of his fortune, 
than Pompcy. 

The iole caufe of their averfion to the father, was his 
infatiablc avarice ; but there were many caufes of their af- 
fedion for the fon ; his temperate way of living, his ap- 
plication to martial exefcifes^i his eloquent and perfuafive 
addrefs, his flrid honour and fidelity, and the eadnefs pf 
accefs to him uppn all opcafions ;. for no man was ever lefs 
importunate in alking favours*, or mo^e gracious in con- 
fprring thejn. When. he gave, it was without arrogance, 
and when he received, it* was with dignity. 

In his youtji he had a very engaging countenance, whiqh 
ipoke for hipi before he opened his lips. .Yet th^t erace 
of afpedt was not unattended ^ith dignity, and amidlt his 
youthfnl bloom there was a venerable and princely air. 
His hair naturally ^url^d a..little before j ^yhich, together 
with the tuning nipifture §nd quick turn pf his eye f, 
produced a ilrdnger likenefs of Alexander the Great, than 
that which appeared in the flatues of that prince. So th^t 
fome ferioully gave him the name of Alexander, and he 
did not refufe it ; .others applied it to him by way of ridi- 
cule. And L\icius PhilippusJ, a man of confular dignity, 
as he was one day pleading for him faid, " It was no 
•" wonder if Philip was a lover pf Alexander." 

We are told that Flora, the. courtezan, tpok apje^ujre* 
in her old age, in fpeaking^ of the <;ommerce fbe Md with 
Pompey ; and (he ufcd to fay, .fhe. could pever quit, his 
embraces y/ithout giving hiin a bite. She added, that 
Geminius, one of Pompey *s acquaintance, had a pafiion 
Tor her, and gave her much trouble with his folicitations. 
^t lail, fhe told him, ihe could not confent pn account 


Tire Latin tranflator has taken ^in^r.vcti in a pailive fenfe— («« 
• fttidem nemo effef, qui wl ajuiori ati'tmo futi ah Jt aVqtiid fattretur. But 
tint if incohniUbt with the contrail which imiDediately follows. 

Ofic of the manofcripts has it, 'fi? /btij^iro^ wpolffoi — and Dacier ap- 
pears to have followed itf^ar U M*y tvult p^int d^btmme flat refamn qui 
hi a demand r dcs ftrnfktu 

f *Tyfcl»)? fignifies not pnly moifiure^ but fmhility, Lucian hM 
.^f 0%? ficTutfir. And rm wip* ra ofjificila fv^fA,v9 vypoI*j? fecms more 
applicable to the latter fenfe. 

I Locius Marcius PhUippast one of the greatcft orators of hls^tlmj^^ 
vHe was father-ia-JUw to Augadus^ havin| maniftd UitnoXYitt KvCvv 
, Horace /peaks ofhiip, lib, e/». 7, 


pey looked upon this as his opportunity, and he palTed 
the defile with the utxnoil expedition. The enemy flood 
upon their defence, but it was in a diforderly and tumul- 
tuous manner, and the refinance they made was neither 
general nor uniform. Beiides, the wind and rain beat in 
their faces. The ftorm incommoded the Romans too, for 
they could not well dilHnguifh each other. Nay, Pompey 
himfelf was in danger of being killed by a foldicr, who 
afked him the word, and received not a fpeedy anfwcr.— 
At length, however, he routed the enemy with great 
/laughter ; not above three thoufand of them efcaping out 
of twenty thoufand. The foldiers then faluted Pompey 
imperator, but he faid he would not accept that title while 
the enemy's camp flood untouched : therefore, if they 
chofe to confer fuch an. honour upon him, they muft firffc 
make themfelves mailers of the entrenchments. 

At that inftant they advanced with great fury againfl 
them. Pompey fought without his helmet, for fear of 
fuch an accident as he had jull cfcaped. The camp was 
taken, and Domitius flain; in confequence of which, moil 
of the cities immediately fubmitted, and the reft were 
tJiken by affault. He took Jarbas, one of th3 confederates 
of Domitius prifoner, and bellowed his crown on Hiemp- 
fal. Advancing with the fame tide of fortune, and while 
his army had all the fpirits infpired by fuccefs, he entered 
Numidia, in which he continued his march for feveral 
days, and fubdued all that came in his way. Thus he re- 
vived the terror of the Roman name, which the barbarians 
had begun to difregard. Nay he chofe not to leave the 
favage bealls in the defcrts without giving them a fpeci- 
men of the Roman valour and uiccefs. Accordingly he 
fpent a few days in hunting lions and elephants. The 
whole time he pafled in Africa, they tell us, was not above 
forty days ; in wl»ich he defeated the enemy, reduced the 
whole country, and brought the affairs of its kings under 
proper regulations, though he was only in his twenty- 
fourth year* 

Upon his return to Utica, he received letters from Sylla, 
in which he was ordered lo fend home the reft of his army, 
and lo wait there with one legion only for a fucceflbr. This 
gave him a great deal of uneafinefs, which he kept to him- 
felf, but the army exprefled their indignation aloud ; in- 
iiwnuch that when he in treated them to return to Italy, 



they launched out into abufive terms againft Sylla, and 
declared they would never abandon Pompey, or fufFer 
him to trtift a tyrant. At firft he endeavoured to pacify 
them with mild reprefcntations ; and when lie found thoie 
had no efFedt, he defcended from the tribunal, and retired 
to his tent in tears. However, they went and took him 
thence, and placed him again upon the tribunal, where 
they fpent great part of the day ; they infilling that he 
ihould ilay and keep the command, and he in perfuading 
them to obey Sylla' s orders, and to form no m\v faflion,. 
At laft, feeing na end of their clamours and importunity^ 
he affured them, with an oath, ** That he would kill liim- 
*• feif, if they attempted to force him.** And even thU 
hardly brought them to defift. 

The firft news that Sylla heard was, that Pompey hacj* 
revolted ; upon which he faid to his friends, *' Then it 
*' is my fate to have to contend" with boys in my old- 
" age.'* This he fiid becaufc Marius, who was very 
young, had brought him into fo much trouble and dan- 
ger. But when he received true information of the affair, 
and obferved that ail the people flocked out to receive him* 
and to conduct him home with marks of great regard, he 
refolved to exceed them in his regards, if poiTibl^. Ke, 
therefore, hailened to meet him, and embracing him ia 
the mod affedtionate manner, falated him aloud by the 
fir name of Magnus, or the Great : At the fame time he 
ordered all about him to give him the fame appellation. 
Others fay, it was given him by the whole army in Africa,, 
but did not generally obtain till it was authorifed by 
Sylla. It is certain, he was the lafl to take it himfelf,. 
and he did not make ufe of it till a long time after, when 
he was fent into Spain with the dignity of pioconful againfl 
Scrtorius. Then he began to write himielf in his letters 
and in all his edi<^ Pompey the Great; for the world was 
accaflomed to the, and it was no longer invidious. 
Jn this refpetl we may juAIy admire the wifdom of the 
ancient Romans, whp bellowed on their great men fuck 
honourable names and titles, not only for military achieve- 
ments, but for the great qualities and arts which adorn 
civil life. Thus the people gave the furname oi Maximus 
to Valerius *, for reconciling them to the fenate after a 
D 4 violent 

• This was Marcus Vkltnut, the brother of Va\wml?>3\>\it^>\M 
wbo was dictator. 


violent diflention, and to Fabius RuUus for expelling^ 
fome perfons defcended of eafranchifed flaves *, who had 
been admitted into the fenate on account of their opulent 

When Pompey arrived at Rome, he demanded a triumph^ 
in which he was oppofeil by Sylla. The latter alleged, 
'*" That the laws did not allow that honour to any pcrfon 
" who was not either conful or praetor f . Hence it was, 
•' that the firft Scipio, when he returned viflorious from 
*• greater wars and conflidls with the Carthaginbns in 
** Spain, did not demand a triumph ; for he was neither 
** conful nor prajtor." He added, ** That if Pompey, who 
** was yet little better than a beardlefs youth, and who 
*' was not of age to be admitted into the fenate, fiiould 
** enter the city in triumph, it would bring an odium both 
*' n^on tfie dictator's power, and thofe honours of his 
'* friend." Thefe arguments Sylla infilled on, to lliew 
him he would not allow of hia triumph, and that, in cafe 
he perfifted, he would chaflife his obftinacy. 

Pompey, not in the lead intimidated, bade him confi- 
der, " That more worlhipped the rifing than the fetting 
•* fun ;" intimating that his power was increafing, and 
Sylla's upon the decline. Sylla did not well hear what 
he faid, but perceiving by the looks and geftures of the 
company that they were ftruck with the exprejfiion, he 
afked what it was. When he was told it, he admired the 
fpirit of Pompey, and cried, " Let him triumph ! Let 
** him triumph !'* 

As Pompey perceived a flrong fpirit of envy and jea- 
loufy on this occafion, it is faid, that to mortify thofe who 
gave into it the more, he refolved to have his chariot 
drawn by four elephants ; for he had brought a number 
from Africa, which he had taken from the kings of that 
country. But finding the gate too narrow, he gave up 
that defign, and contented iiimfelf with horfes.. 

^ Hit 

• It was net his expelling the defcendants of cnfranchlftd flaves the- 
fenate, nor yet his glorious vidcries, which procuied Fablusthe fur- 
name of j bur. his reducing tiiei populace of Rome into foue 
tribes, who before were difperftd an ong all the tribes, and by that, 
means had too much influence in cledlions and other public affairs,. 
Thefe were calle^l tribus urbanue. Liv. ix. 46. 

+ Livy (Lib. xxxi.) tells us, the fenate rcfufed L. Cornelius Lcntulus 
a triumph, for the fame rcafon, though ihcy thought his achiev^cati. 
worth/ oftliRt honour. 

poivfpEY. , . 57; 

His foldiers, not having obtained all they expedled. 
were inclined to diilurb the procefllon, but he took no 
pains to fatisfy them : he faid, ** He had rather give up. 
" his triumph, than fubrait to flatter them*" Wht-reupon, 
Servilius, one of the moil conlidecable men in Rome, and 
one who had been mod vigorous in oppofing the triumph, . 
declared, •' He now found Ppxapey really the Great, and . 
"^ -worthy of a triumph.*' 

There is no doubt that Jie might then have been eafily . 
admitted a fenator, if he had defired it; but his ambition 
was to purfue honour in. a more uncommon track. It^ 
would have beennothing ftrangc, if Pompey had been a fena- 
tor before the age fixed for it; but it was a very extraordi- 
nary inflance of honDur, to lead up a triumph before he was 
a finator.. . And it contributed not a little to gain him the 
afFe^ions of the multitude.; the peo^>le were delighted to . 
fee him, after his triumph, clafs with, the equeflrian order. 

Sylla was not without uneaiinefs at finding him advance 
fo fafl in reputation and power ; yet he could not think 
of. preventing it, till witK a high hand,, and. entirely 
aeainfl nis will, Pompey raifed Lepidus * to the conful- • 
fhip, by alfifling. him with all his interefl in the eledion, ■ 
TJven Sylla feeing him condudled home by the people, . 
through the forum, thus addreiled him : *' I fee,, young . 
" man, you are proud of your viftory. And undoubt- 
'* ediy it was a great and extraordinary thing, by your 
" management of the people, to obtain for Lepidus, the 
" in Rome, the return before Catulus, one of 
" the worthiefl and the beft. But awake, I charge you, 
" and. he .upon your guard. For you have now made 
** your adverfary flronge^than yourfelf." . 

The difpleafure. Sylla entertained in his heart againfl 
Poinpey, appeared mofl plainly by his will. He left con- 
fidcurable legacies to his friends, and appointed them guar- 
duns to his fon,.but he never once mentioned Pompey. 
Tlie latter, notwithflanding, bore this with great temper 
and moderation ; and when Lepidus and others oppofed 
his beipg buried in the Campus Martius, and his having . 
the honours of a public funeral, he interpofed, and by 
his prefencs not only fecured, but did honour to the pro- 
ceffion. . 

D '5 , Sylla's 

• Marcus iEmilius Lepidos> who by Pompcy's ihtcTcft vav^^c\w?.^ 
cooftiJ with Qs^Lutatias Catulus, in the year of Rome 67 5, 


Sylla's^redktions were verified foon after his death* 
Lepidus wanted to ufurp the authority of a diftator ; and 
Jjis proceedings were not indireft, or veiled with fpecious 
pretences. He immediately took up arms, and aflembled 
the difafFeded remains of the fadions which Sylla could 
not entirely fupprefs. As for his colleague Catulus, the 
uncorrupted part of the fenate and people were attached 
to him, and, in point of prudence and juftice, there was 
not a man in Rome who had a greater charafter ; but he 
was more able to diredl the civil government, than the 
operations of war. This crifis, therefore, called for Pom- 
pey, and he did not deliberate which fide he (hould take. 
He joined the honeft party, and was declared general 
againll Lepidus, who by this time had reduced great part 
of Italy, and was mafler of Cifalpine Gaul, where Brutus 
afted for him with a confide rable force, 

• When Pompey took the field, he eafily made his way 
in other parts, but he lay a long time before Mutina, 
which was defended by Brutus. Mean while Lepidus ad- 
vanced by hafty marches to Rome, and fitting down be- 
fore it, demanded a fecond confullhip. The inhabitants 
were greatly alarmed at his numbers ; but their fears were 
diflipatcd by a letter from Pompey, in which he affured 
them, he had terminated the war without llriking a blow. 
For Brutus, whether he betrayed his army, or they be- 
trayed him, furrendered himfelf to l^ompey ; and having 
a party of horfe given him as an elcort, retired to a little 
town upon the Po. Pompey, however., fent Geminius 
the next day to defpatch him ; which brought no fmall 
ilain upon his charader. immediately after Brutus camq 
over to him, he had informed the fenate by letter, it was 
a mcafure that general had voluntarly Uvlopted ; and yet 
on the morrow he put him tg death, and wrote other let-r 
ters, containing lieavy charges againft him. This was the 
father of that i^rutus, who, logethei ^with Cailius, flew 
Ca;fiir. But the fon did not rei -mblc the father, either 
in war or in his death, »ts c^ppears from the life we have 
given of him. Lepidus, being foon driven out of Italy, 
3ed into Sardinia, where he died of grief, not in confe- 
quence of the ruin of his aft'airs, but of meeting with a 
billet, (as we are told) by which he difcovered that his 
wife had diihonoured his bed. 

POMP£Y. 5^ 

At that time, Scrtorius, an officer very difFerent from 
Lepidus, v/as in pofTefTion of Spain, and not a little for- 
midable to Rome itfelf ; all the remains of the civil wari- 
being coliefted in him, jufl as in a dangerous difeafe all 
the vicious humours flow to a diilempered part. He had. 
already defeated feveral generals of lefs dillindion, and 
he was then engaged with Metellus Pius, a man of great 
charader in general, and particularly in war; but age. 
feemed tp have abated that vigour, which is neceffary ror 
feizing and making tJie beft advantage of critical occa- 
fions. On the other hand, notliing could exceed the ar^- 
dour and expedition with which Sertorius fnatched thofe 
opportunities from him. He came on in the mod daring 
manner^ and more like a captain of banditti, than a com- 
mander of regular forces ; annoying with ambufcades, and. 
other unforcfeen alarms, a champion who proceeded by 
the common rules, and whofe fkiil lay in the management 
of heavy armed forces. 

At this juncture, Pcmpey having an army without em- 
ployment, endeavoured to prevail with the fenate to fend • 
jum to the afTiflarxe of Metellus. Mean time, Catulus 
ordered him to dilband his forces ; but he found various 
pretences for remaining in arms in the neighbourhood of 
Rome ; till at lail, upon the motion of Lucius Philippus,, 
he obtained the command he wanted. On this occanon, . 
we are told, one of the fenators, fomewhat furprifed at 
the motion, afked him who made it, whether his meanr> 
ing was to fend out Pompey [pro conjule'] as the reprefen- 
tativ^ of a conful ? *' No," anfwered he, ** but [pro coa-^ 
'^ fulil^us'] as the reprefentative of both confuls;" intima- 
ting by this the incapacity of the confuls of that year. 
. When Pompey arrived in Spain, new hopes were ex- 
ited, as is ufual upon the appearance of. a new general. 
of reputation ; and fuch.of the Spaniih nations as were 
not \er/ firmly attached to Sertorius, began to change 
their opinions, and to go over to the Romans. Sertorius- 
then exprelfed himfelf in a very infolent and contemp- 
tuous manner with refpecl to Pompey: he faid, *« He 
** (hoiild. want no other weapons than a rod and ferula to 
•* challife the boy with, were it net that he feared the old 
*' woman ;" meaning Mctellas. But in fad it was rom- 
pey he was afraid of, and on his account he carried oaKU 
operations with much greater caution. For McteWvis ^2i\e; 

6q plhtablCil's. uvrs; 

into a courfe luxury and pleafure, whkh no- onecovld 
have expcdled, and changed ihe fimplicity of a'foldierV 
life for a life of pomp and parade. Hence Pompey gained 
additional honour and intereil ; for he cultivated plain- 
ncfs and frugality more than ever; though he had not, in. 
that refp eft, much to cor reft in hjmfelf, being naturally 
fober and regular in his defires. * 

The war appeared in many forms ; but nothing touched . 
Pompey fo nearly as the lofs of Lauron, which Sertorius 
took before his eyes. Pompey thought- he had blocked. 
up the enemy, and fpokc of it in high terms, when fud- 
denly he found himfelf furrounded, and being afraid to. 
move,, had the mortification to fee the city laid in aflies in. 
Jus prcfence. However, in an engagement near Valencia, , 
l^c .defeated Hcrcnnius and Perpenna, oiiicers of confider- 
able rank, who had taken part with Sertorius, and aftcd as. 
his lieutenants, and killed above ten thoufand of their men.. 

Elated with this advantage, he hallened to attack Ser- 
torius, that Metellus might have no fhare in the viftory. 
He found him near the river Sucro, and they engaged near . 
the clofe of day. Both were afraid Metellus Ihould come 
up ; Pompey wanting to fight alone, and Sertorius to have. 
but one gcnei»l to fight with. The ifTue of the battle was. 
do ibtful ; one wing in each army being viftorious. But 
of the two generals Scrturius gained the greatell honour^, 
for he routed the battalions that oppofed him. As for. 
Pompey, he was attacked on horfeback by one of the, 
enemy*s infantry, a man of uncommon fize. While they 
vr«re clofe engaged with their fwords, the flrokes hap- 
pened to light on each other's hand, but with different. 
fnccefs ; Pompey received only a flight wound, and he. 
lopped off the other's hand. Numbers then fell upon 
Pompey, for his troops in that quarter were already bro- 
ken ; but he efcapfd beyond all expeftation, by quitting^ 
his horfe, with gold trappings and other valuable furni-' 
ture, to the barbarians, who quarrelled and came to blows 
about dividing the fpoil. 

Next morning at break of day, both drew up aeain,. 
to give the finilhing ftroke to the viftory, to which botlu 
laid claim. But, upon Metellus coming up, Sertorius re- 
tired, and his army diiperfed. Nothing was more com-, 
mon than for his forces to difpcrfe in that manner, and 
afterv\*ards to knit again ,- fo that Sertorius was often feen 


poivrpEr/ 6x 

wandering alone^ and as often advancing agaiu at tlie 
hfead of a hundred and fifty thoufand men, like a torrent 
fwelled witli fudden rains. 

After the battle, Pompey went to wait on Metelliis ; 
and, upon approaching him, he ordered his li<!^ors. to 
lower the fafces, by way of compliment to Metcllos, as 
nis.fupeirior. . But Metejlus would jiot fufFer it ; ^nd, in- 
deed, in all; refpefts he behaved to Pompey with great 
politenefg, taking nothing upon him on account of hi» 
confular flignity, or his being the older man, except to 
give the word* when they encamped together. And very 
often they had feparate camps j for the enemy, by his 
artful and. various jneafutcs, by making his appearance at 
different places almofl at the fame inllant, and by draw- 
ing them from one action to another, obliged them to di- 
vide* . He cut. off their provifions, he laid wafte the 
country, he made himfelf mafter of the fea ; the confe- 
quence of which was, that they were both forced to quit 
their own provinces, and to go into^ thofe of others for 
flip plies. . 

Pompey, having exhaufled molt of his own fortune in" 
fupport of the war, applied to the fenate for money to, 
pay the^, troops, declaring he would return with his army 
to Italy, if they did not fend it him. Lucullus, who was . 
thc^n coofuj, though he was upon ill terms with Pompey, 
took care to furnilh him with the money as foon as pof- 
fible ; becaufe he. wanted to bg employed, himfelf in the 
Mithridatic war, and he .was afraid to give Pompey a 
pretext to, leave Sertorius, amd tofolicit the command 
againft Mithridates, which was a more honourable, and 
yet appeared a lefs difficult commiflion. 

Mean time Sertorius was aflaffinated by his own offi- 
cers * ; and Perpenna, who was at the head of the confpi- 
rators, undertpok to fupply his place. He had, indeed, 
tJic fame troops, the fame magazine? and fupplies, but he 
Itad jiot the iame underilanding to make a proper ufe of 
them. Pompey immediately took the field, and having 
intelligence that Perpenna was greatly embarrafied as to 
the meafures hcfftiould take, he threw out ten cohorts as a 
bait for him* with -orders to fpread themfelves over the 


*' It was three years after the confulate of LucuUuS) iViU ^^tXoiVa% 
was aflaflinated^ 

62 Plutarch's lives. 

plain. When he found it took, and that Perpenna wa» 
bufied in the purfuit of that handful of men, he fuddenl/ 
made his appearance with the main body, attacked the 
enemy, and routed him entirely. Mofl of the officers fell 
in the battle ; Perpenna hinifelf was taken prifoner, and 
brought to Pompcy, who commanded him to he put to 
death. Neverthclefs, Pompey is not to be accufcd of in- 
gratitude nor are we to fuppofe him (as fome will have 
It), forgetful of the fervices he had received from that of- 
ficer in Sicily. On the contrary, he afted with a wifdom 
and dignity of mind that proved very falutary to the pub- 
lic. Perpenna having got the papers of Sertouus into his 
hands, (hewed letters by which fome of the mofl power- 
ful men in Rome, who were defirous to raife new com- 
motions, and overturn the efta'olifhment, had invited Ser- 
torius into Italy. But Pompey fearing thofe letters might, 
excite greater wars than that he was then finifhing, put 
Perpenna to death, and burnt the papers without reading 
them. Ho ftaycd juft long enough in Spain to compofe 
the troubles, and to remove fuch uneafmefies as might 
tend to break the peace ; after which he marchud back to 
Italy, where he arrived, as fortune would have it, when, 
the Servile war was at the height. 

CrafTus, who had th^ command in that war, upon the 
arrival of Pompey, who, he feared, might fnatch the 
laurels out of his hand, refolved to come tQ a battle, how- 
ever hazardous it might prove. He fucceeded, and killed 
twelve thoufand three hundred of the enemy. Yet for- 
tune, in fome fort, interweaved this with the honours of 
Pompey ; for he killed five thoufand of the flaves, whom 
he fell ill with as they fled after the battle. Immediately 
upon this, to be beforehand with Crafllis, he wrote to the 
fenate, '* That Craffus had beaten the gkdiators in a 
** pitched battle, but that it was he who Jiad cut up the 
*^ war by the roots." The Romans took a pleafure ia 
fpcaking of this one among another, on account of their 
regard for Pompey ; which was fuch, that no part of the 
fuccefs in Spain, againfl Sertorius, was afcribed by a man 
of them, either in jefl or earneft, to any but Pompey. 

Yet thcfc honours and this high veneration for the man» 
were mixed with fome fears and jealoufies that he would 
not difband his army, but, treading in tlie fleps of Sylla, 
r^jfc himk]!t by tjie fword to fovereigri power, and main-. 


tain himfelf in it> as Sylla had done *. Hence, the num- 
ber of thofe that went out of fear to meet him, and con- 
gratulate him on his return, was equal to that of thofe 
who went out of love. But when he had removed this 
fufpicion, by declaring that he would difmifs his troops 
immediately after the triumph, there remained oii*y one 
more fubje^tfor envious tongues ; which was, that he paid 
more attention to the commons than to the fenate ; and 
whereas Sylla had deftroyed the authority of the tribunes, 
he was determined to re-eltablilh it, in order to gain the 
afFedlions of the people. This was true : For there never 
was any thing they had fo much fet their hearts upon, or 
longed for fo extravagantly, as to fee the trihunitial power, 
put in their hands again. So that Pompey looked upon it 
as a peculiar happinefs, that he had an opportunity to 
bring that aiFair about ; knowing that if any one fliould 
be before hand with him in this defign, he ihould never 
find any means of making fo agreeable a return for the 
kind regards of the people. 

A fecond triumph was decreed him f, together with the 
confullhip. But thefe were not confidered as the moft ex- 
traordinary inftances of his power. The ftrongeft proof 
of his greatnefs was, that CrafTu?, the richell, the moft 
eloquent, and moft powerful man in the admin iftration, 
who ufed to look down upon Pompey and all the world, 
did not venture to folicit the confulfhip without firll aik- 
ing Pompey 's lea^e. Pompey, who had long wiilied for 
an opportunity to lay an obligation upon him, received 


• Cicero, in his epiftles to Attlcus, fays, Pompey made but little fe- 
CTCt of this unjuftifiablc ambition. 'I he paini'. es are ren)arkab]e. 
MjonduM enim in modum Cneius ncfler Syl/atii regt%i Jimihtudmem CGncbp.*9',t i 
£tc«( ffoi T^iyu, nihil ilU unquutn minus cbjcure tulit. Lib. vii. ep. 9. 
** Oor friend Fumpey is wonder tuliy delirous oi «>biaining a power like 
" that of Sylla i i tell you no more than what 1 kno*^', for he n.akes 
*' 60 fecrct of it." And again, Jfoc turpe Cr.eius nojirr Linnio ante cogiia-^ 
vit\ ita Sylla turit animus ejus, et p^ofripturit, ibiJ. ip. 10. ** Pompey 
^* has been forming this mfamous defiwin for thctc two years paf) j fo 
** fliongly is he bent upon imitating Sy;la,and profcribing like him." 
Hence we fee how hippy it was for Rome, that in the civil %vars, CxCaVy 
and not Pompey, proved the conqueror. 

•f- He triumphed towards the end of the yearof Rome 681, and at the 
fame time was declared conful for the yc;.r cnfuing. 7 his was a pecu* . 
liar honour, to gain the confulatc without firfl bearing l\\e lubot^'vcv^kX^ 
offices 5 but hjs tvw triumphs, and great ferYiqes, excused VA2k\ dtNva^- 
fjon fwm the cotxmoo rules. 

64. Plutarch's lives* . 

the application with plea.fure, and made great intereil with* 
the people in his behalf; declaring he fhould take their 
giving him Craflus fof a colleague, a^ kindly as their favour, 
to himfelf. 

Yet when they were ele£led confiils, they disagreed in 
every thing, and were embroiled in all their meafurcs, 
CrafTus had moft intcreft with the fenate, and Pompcy 
with the people. For he had reftored them the tribunitial 
power, and had fuffcxed a law to be made, that judges. 
Ihould again be appointed out of the equeftrian order *. 
However, the moll agreeable fpeftacle of all to the people 
was Pompey himfelf, when he went. to claim his exemp- 
tion from ferving. in the wars. It was the cuftom for a . 
Roman knight, when he had fervcd the time ordered by. 
law^ to lead his horfe into the forum, before the two ma- 
glftrates called cenfors ; and after having given account of 
the generals and other officers under whom he Lid made . 
his campaigns, and of his own anions in them, to de- 
mand his difcharge. On thefe occafions they received 
proper mi^rks of honour or.difgrace, accQjding to their 

Gellius and Lentulus were then cepfors, and had taken .♦ 
their feats in a manner that became their dignity, to re- . 
view the whole equc^ftrian order, when Pompey was feqn , 
at a dift nee with all the badges of his office, as conful, . 
leading his horfc by the bridle. As foon as he was near . 
eno,ugh to be obferved by the cenfors, he ordered his lie- 
tors to make an opening, and advanced,^ witt Ids horfe in ,. 
hand, to the foot -of the tribunal. The people were, 
ilruck with admiration, and a profound filence took place ; - 
at the fame time a jpy^ mingled with reverence, was vL- - 
fibje in the countenances of the cenfors. The fenior cen- » 
for then addrefTed him as follows : ♦* Pompey the Greats 
** I demand of you, whether you have ferved all the cam- • 
" paigns required bylaw?" He anfwered with a loud 
voice, ** I have fervcd them all; and all under myfelf, as , 
" general.*' The people were fo charmed with this an- y 
fvver, that there was no end of their acclamations : At laft, 
the cenfors rofe up, and conduced Pompey to his houfe, . 

to J 

• L. Aurellus Cotta carried .that point when he was praetor j and . 
Plwiarch (aysaga'wy becaufe Calus Gracchus had conveyed that privi- 
Je^c to the knjghts 5fty years before. 



to indulge the multitude^ who followed him whh the loud* 
eft plaudits. 

When the end of the confulftiip approached, and his 
difference with CrafiTus was iacreaiing daily, Caius Au- 
reiius, a man *vho was of tne equcllrian order, but had 
never intermeddled with flate aiFairs, one day, when the 
people were met in full ailembly, afcended the rofira, and 
faid, '* Jupiter had appeared to him in a dreain, and com- 
" manded him to acquaint the confuls, that tiicy niuft 
" take care to be reconciled before they laid down their 
•' office.'* Pompey llood ftiil, and held his peace ; but 
CrafTus went and gave him his hand, and faluted him in 
a friendly manner. At the fame time he addrefled the 
people, as follows : *• 1 think, my fellow-citizens, there 
** is nothing diihonourable or mean in making the firft 
*' advances to Pompey, whom you fcrupled not to dig- 
«* nify with the name of tie Great, when he was yet but 
«'' a beardlefs youth, and for whom you voted two triumphs 
*' before he was a fenator." Thus reconciled, they laid 
down the confulfhip. 

CrafTus continued his former manner of life; but Pom- 
pey now feldom chofe to plead the caufes of thofe that 
applied to him, and by degrees he left the bar. Indeed, 
he feldom appeared ia public, and when he did, it waa 
alwavs with a great tram of friends and attendants ; fo 
that It was not eafy either to fpeak to him or fee him, but 
in the midfl of a crowd. He took pleafure in having a 
number of retainers about him, becaufe he thought it 
ave him an air of greatnefs and majelly, axwi he was per- 
uaded tlut dignity fhould be kept from being foiled by 
the familiarity, and indeed by the very touch of the many. 
For thofe who are raifed to greatnefs by arms, and know 
not haw to defcend again to the equality required in a re* 
public, are very liable to fail into contempt when they re- 
lumc the robe of peace. The foldier is defirous to pre- 
/erve the rank in the /brum vyhich he had in the field; and 
he who cannot diftinguifh himfelf in the field, thinks it 
intolerable to give place in the adminiflration too. When 
therefore the la,tter has got the man who Ihone in camps 
and triumphs, into the affemblies at home, and finds him 
attempting to maintain the fame pre-eminence there, of 


* Ovatius Aurcfiusi 


65 Plutarch's LIVES. 

courie he endeavours to humble him; whereas, if the war- 
rior pretends not to take the lead in domeftic councils^ he 
is readily dlowed the palm of military glory. This foon 
appeared from the fubfequent events. 

The power of the pirates had its foundation in Cilicia. 
Their progrefs was the more dangerous, becaufe at firft it 
was little taken notice of. In the Mithrid^ttic war they 
affumed new confidence and courage, on account of fome 
fervices they had rendered the king. After this, the Ro- 
mans being engaged in civil wars at the very gates of their 
capital, the Tea was left unguarded, and the pirates by 
degrees attempted higher things; they not only attacked 
fhips, but iflands and maritime towns. Many perfons, 
diilinguifhed for their wealth, their birth, and their ca« 
pacity, embarked with theni, and aflifted in. their depre- 
dations, as if their employment had been worthy the am- 
bition of men of honour. They had in various plac)5S 
trfenals, ports, and watch-towers, all ftrongly fortified. 
Their fleets were not only extremely well- manned, fup- 
plied with fkilful pilots, and fi,:ted for their bufinefs by 
their lightnefs and celerity ; but there was^ a parade of va- 
nity about them more mortifying than their ftrength, ia 
gilded fterns, purple canopies, and plated oars; as if they 
took a pride and triumphed in their villainy. Mufic re- 
founded, and drunken revels were exhibited on every coaft. 
Here generals were made prifoners ; thci'e the- cities the 
pirates had taken were paying their ranfom; all to the 
great difgrace of the Roman power. The number of 
their galleys amounted to a thoufand, and the cities they 
were mailers of, to four hundred. 

Temples, which had ftood inviolably facred till that 
time, they plundered. They ruined the temple of Apollo 
at Claros, that, where he was worfhippedj bnder the title 
of Didymaeus*, that of the Samothrace, that 
of Ceres f at Hermiona, that of -^fcalapius at Epidaurus, 
thofe of Neptune in the Illhmus, at Taenarus and in Ca- 
lauria, thofe of Apollo at Adtium and in the ifle of JLeucas, 


• So called from Didyme, in the territories of Miletus. 

f Paufanias (in Laconic) tells u» the Lacedaemonians worfhip Ccret 

vnder t\t name of Cbthonla : and (]n Corintbiac.) he gives us the rcafon 

of her having that name. ^* The Arrives fay, that Chthonia, the daugl>- 

** ter of CoJontas, having been faved out of a conflagration by Ceics* 

" and conveyed to Hefmione, built a tcmp\e to iVvaii ^oddcCs^ who wa» 

^ wor/h/pped there under the name oi ChiYvoma.'' 


thofe of Juno at Samos, Argos, and the promontory of 
Lacinium *. 

They likewife ofFered llrange facrifices ; thofe of Olym- 
pus I meanf ; and they celebrated certain fecret mylhries, 
among which thofe of Mithra continue to this day 4^, being 
originally inftituted by them. They not only infuhed the 
Romans at fea, but Jnfefled the great roads, and plundered 
the villas near the coaft : They carried oiF Sextilius and 
BeJlinus, two praetors, in their purple robes, with all 
their fervants and li^ors. They feized the daughter of 
Antony, a man who had been honoured with a triumph, 
as (he was going to tier country-houfe, and he was forced 
to pay a large ranfom for her. 

But the moil contemptuous circumftance of all was, that 
when they had taken a prifoner, and he cried out tliat he 
was a Roman, and told them his name, they pretended 
to be ftruck with terror, fmote their thighs, and fell upon 
their knees to afk him pardon. The poor man feeing them 
thus humble themfelves before him, thought them in ear- 
ned, and faid he would forgive them ; for fome were fo 
officious as to put on his ihoes, and others to help him on 
witji his gown, that his quality might no more be miftaken. 
When they had carried on this farce, and enjoyed it for 
fome time, they let a ladder down into the fea, and bade 
him go in peace ; and, if he refufed to do it, they pulhcd 
him off the deck, and drowned him. 

Their power extended over the whole Tufcan fea, fo 
that the Romans found their trade and navigation entirely 
cut off. The confequence of which was, that their mar- 
kets were not fupplied, and they had reafon to apprehend 
a famine. This, at laft, put them upon fending Pompey 
to clear the fea of Pirates. Gabinius, one of Pompey's inti- 
xaate friends, propofed the decree ||, which created him, 


• The printed text gives ui the erroncojs reading of Leueanlumy but 
two manufcripts gives us Lacinium* Livy often mentions Jtino Lacinia, 

f Not on mount Olympus, but in the city of Olympus, nearPhafelis 
in Pamphylia, which was one of the receptacles of the pirates. What 
fort of facrifices. they ufed to offer there is not known. 

J Accotding to Herodotus, the Peifians worfhipped Venus under 
the name of Mithres, or Michra; but the fun is worfhipped in that 

H This law was made in the year of Rome 686. The crafty ttvbMtvt^ 
when he propcfed it, did aot name Pompey. Fompcy was now Vcv x\\^ 
the thirty-ninth year of his age. His friend G abinlus, as ap^oari Uqccw 
Cicero, wm8 a aua of infamous chara«5ier« 


68' Plutarch's iiVirs.' 

X not admiral, but monarch, and invelled him with abfolut^ 
power. The decree gave him the empire of the fea as 
far as the pillars of Hercules, and of the land for four 
hundred furlongs from the coafts. There were few parts 
of the Roman empire which this commilfion did not take 
in; and the moll confiderable of the barbarous nations, 
and moft powerful kings, were moreover comprehended 
in it. Befide this, he was impowered to choofe out of the 
fenators fifteen lieutenraits, to adl under him, in fuch di- 
ftridts, and with fuch authority as he ihould appoint. 
He was to take from the qua^ftors, and other public re- 
ceivers, what money he pleafed, and equip a fleet of two 
hundred fail. The number of marine forces, of mariners 
and rowers, was left entirely to his difcretion. 

When this decree was read in the aflembly, the people 
received it with inconceivable pleafure. The moft refped- 
able part of the fenate faw, indeed, that fuch an abfolute 
and unlimited power was above envy, but they confidered 
it as a real objed of fear. They therefore all, except 
Csefar, oppofed its pafling into a law. He was for it, not 
oot of regard for Pompey, but to infmuate himfelf into the 
good graces of the people, which he had long been court- 
ing. The reft were very fevere in their cxpreillons againft 
Pompey; and one of the confuls venturing to fay*, " If 
*' he imitates Romulus, he will not efcape his fate," was 
in danger of being pulled in pieces by the populace. 

It is true, when Catulus rofe up to fpeak againft the hyr, 
out of reverence for his perfon they liftened to him yith « 
great attention. • After he had freely given Pompj?y the • 
honour that was his due, and faid much in his ppdifc, he 
advifed them to fpare him, and not to expofjs-fuch a man - 
to To many dangers; ♦' for where will yoi^find another,'* 
faid he, " if vou lofe him?" They anfwered with one - 
voice, '* Yourl*elf." Finding his arguments had no efte6l, . 
he retired. Then Rofcius mounted the roftrum, but not * 
a man would give ear to him. However he. made figns . 
to them with his lingers, that they. Ihould not appoint » 
Pompey alone, but give him a colleague. Incenfed at the . 
propofal, they fet up fuch a Ihout, that a crow, which 
was flying over the forum, was ftunned with the force of 
it, and fell down among the cro^d. Hence we may con-. . 


' T/JC confuis of this year were Calpmh^MStl^VCo^ and, AcUias Glabrio* 

POMTEY. -69 

that when birds fall on fiich occafions, it is not be- 
the air is fo divided with the fhock as to leave a 
t, but rather becaufe the found flrikes them like a 
when it afcends with fi)ch force, and produces fo 
: an agitation. 

aflembly broke up that day, without coming to 
folution. When the day came that they were, to 
eir fuffrages, Pompey retired into the country ; and, 
eiving information that the decrte was pafl'ed, he 
;d to the city by night, to prevent the envy which 
Idtudes of people coming to meet him, would have 
I. Next morning at break of day he made his ap- 
ce, and attended the facrifice. After which, he 
ned an aflembly, and obtained a grant of almoft as 
nore as the firft, decree had given him. He was im- 
;d to fit out iive hundred galleys, and to raife ajn 
)f a hundred .and twenty thoufand foot, and five 
id Jiorfe. Twenty-four fenators were fele£led, who . 

been generals or praetors, and were appointed his 
ants ; and he had two quxflors given him. As the 
f provifions feii immediately, the people were greatly 
:, and it gave them occafion to fay, " The very 
e of Pompey had terminated the war." 
^ever, in purfuance of his charge, he divided the 
VIediterranean into thirteen parts,appointing a lieu- 
for each, and afligning liira a fcKdron. By thus 
ng his fleets in all quarters, he «lofed the pirates 
^rere in a net, took great nunwers of them, and 
t them into harbour. Such of their ve/Tels as had 
;d and made off in time, or could efcape the general 
retired to Cilicia, like fo many bees into a hive, 
k thefe he propofed to go himfeif with fixty of his 
Ileys ; but firlt he refolved to clear the Tufcan fea, 
I coafls of Africa, Sardinia, Corfica, and Sicily of 
tical adventurers ; which he effefted in forty days, 
3wn indefatigable endeavours and thofe of his lieu- 
. But, as the conful Pifo was inidulging his malig- 
home, in wailing his ftores and difcharging Ms fea- 
» fent his fleet round to Brundufium, and went him- 
land through Tufcany to Rome, 
son as the people were informed of his approach* 
cnt in crowds to receive him, in the fame manner 

had done a few days before^ to condudl him on his 
1794.) ^Vi. 

70 Plutarch's LIVES. 

way. Their extraordinary joy was owing to the fpecd 
with which he had executed his commifllon, fo far beyond 
alt expeftation, and to the fuperabundant plenty which 
reigned in the markets. For this reafon Pifo was in dan- 
ger of being depofed from the confulfhip, and Gabinius 
had a decree ready drawn up for that purpofe. But Pom- 
pey would not fuffer him to propofe it. On the contrary, 
his fpeech to the people was full of candour and modera- 
tion; and when he had provided fuch things as he wanted, 
he went to Brundufium, and put to fea again. Though he 
was ftraitened for time, and in his hafle failed. by many 
cities without calling, yet he flopped at Athens. He entered 
the town and facrificed to the gods; after which he ad- 
dreffed the people, and then prepared to reimbark imme- 
diately. As he went out of the gate he obferved two in* 
fcriptions, each comprized in one line. 

That within the gate was — 

But know tbyfelf a man, and be a god» 
That without— 

We wiih'd, we fawj wc lovM, and wc ad'or*d. 

Some of the pirates who yet traverfed the A?as, made 
their fubmiffion ; yind as he treated them in a humane man- 
ner, when he hadthem and their fhips in his power, others 
entertained hopes of mercy, and, avoiding the other offi- 
cers, furrendered themfelves to Pompey, together with 
thejr wives and children. He fpared them all ; and it was 
principally by their meins that he found out. and took a 
number who were guilty of unpardonable crimes, and 
therefore had concealed themfelves. 

Still, however, there remained a great number, and in- 
deed the moft powerful part of thefe corfairs, who fent 
their families, treafures, and all ufelefs hands, into caftles 
and fortified towns upon Mount Taurus. Then they 
manned their fhips, and waited for Pompey at Coracefium, 
in Cilicia. A battle enfued, and the pirates were defeated ; 
after which they retired into the fort. But they had not 
been long befieged before they capitulated, and furrendered 
themfelves, together with the cities and iflands which they 
had conquered and fortified, and which by their works, 
SIS well as iitoation^ were almofl impregnable. Thus the 


war was finilhedt and the whole force of the pirates de« 
itxbycd, within three ninths at the farthefl. 

Befide the other vefl'els, Pompey took ninety fliips with 
beaks of brafs ; and the prifoners amounted to twenty thou- 
fand. He did not choofe to put them to death, and at the 
£une time he thought it wrong to fuffer them to difperfc, 
hecaufe they were not only numerous, but warlike and ne- 
i ceilitous, and therefore would probably knit again and 
j give future trouble. He refleded, that man by nature is 
neither a favage nor an unfocial creature; and when he be- 
comes fo, it is by vices contrary to nature; yet even^hon 
he may be humanized by changing his place of abode, and 
accufloming him to a new manner of life; as beafts that 
are naturally wild, put off their fiercenefs, when they 
are kept in a domeftic way. For this reafon he determined 
to remove the pirates to a great diftance from the fea, and 
bring them to tafte the fweets of civil life, by living in 
cities, and by the culture of the ground. He placed fome 
of them in the little towns of Ciiicia, which were almoft 
defolate, and which received them with pleafure, becaufe 
at the fame time he gave them an additional proportion of 
lands. He repaired the city of Soli*, which had lately 
been difmantled and deprived of its inhabitants by Ti- 
granes, king of Armenia, and peopled it with a number 
of thefe corTairs. The remainder which was a confider- 
able body, Jie planted in Dyma, a city of Achaia, which, 
though it ha<i a large and fruitful territory, was in want 
:4>f inhabitants. 

Such as looked, upon Pompey with envy, found fault 
with thefe proceediogs; but his conduct with refped to 
Metellos in Crete, was not agreeable to his beft friends. 
This was a relation of that Metellus who commanded in 
coQjiindlion with Pompey in Spain, and he had been fent 
into, Crete fome time iJcfore Pompey was employed in this 

I war. For .Crete was the fecond nurfery of pirates after 
Ciiicia. Metellus had deftroyed many nefts of them there, 
and die remainder, who were beiieged by him at this time, 
addrefled themfelyes to Pompey as fuppliants, and invited 
Jiim into the ifland, as included in his commiflion, and 
falling within the diflance he had a right to carry his arms 
\ iron the fea. Heliflened to their application, and by let-* 



• He called it after hi$ own name PompciopolU. 

72 Plutarch's lives. 

ter enjoined Metellus to take no farther Heps In the war. 
At the fame time he ordered the cities of Crete not to obey 
Metellus, but Lucius Oflavius, one of his own lieutenants^ 
whom he fent to take the command. 

Odlavius went in among the beiieged, and fought on 
their fide. A circumftance which rendered Pompey not 
only odious^ but ridiculous. For what could be more 
abmrd, than to fuffer himfelf to be fo blinded by his envy 
and jealoufy of Metellus, as to lend his name and autho- 
rity to a crew of profligate wretches, to be ufed as a kind 
of apulet to defend them. Achilles was not thought to 
behave like a man, but like a frantic youth carried away 
by an extravagant pafllon for fame, when he made figns 
to his troops not to touch He£lor, 

Led fome (Irong arm (hould fnatch the glorious prize 
Before Pelidcs. 

But Pompey fought for the common enemies of man- 
kind, in order to deprive a praetor, who was labouring to 
dcftroy them, of the honours of a triumph. Metellus, 
however, purfued his operations, till he took the pirates 
and piit them all to death. As for Odlavius, he expofed 
liim in the camp as an obje£l of contempt, and loaded him 
with reproaches, after which he difmiiled him. 

When news was brought to Rome, that the war with 
the pirates was £ni(hed, and that Pompey was beflowin^ 
his leifure upon viiiting the cities, Maniliut, one of the 
tribunes of the people, propofed a decree^ which gave 
him all the provinces and forces under the command of 
Lucullus, adding likewife Bithynia, which was then go- 
verned by Glabrio. It direfted him to carry on the war 
againft Mithridates and Tigranes; for wh^ch porpofe he 
was alfo to retain his naval command. Tliis was fubjefting 
at once the whole Romun empire to one man. For, the 
provinces which the former decree did not give him, 
Fhrygia, Lycaonia, Galatia, Cappadocia, Cilicia, the Up- 
per Colchis, and Armenia, were granted by" this, toge- 
ther with all the forces, which, under Lucullus, had de* 
feated Mithridates and Tigranes. 

By this law, Lucullus was deprived of the honours he 

had dearly earned, and had a perfon to fucceed him in his 

triumph, rather than in the war ; but that was not the 

thing which afFcdled the patricians moflt They were per- 

3 fuadcd^ 

POM PET. 73 

lizacled, 'indeed, that Lucullus was treated with iajafticc 
and ingratitude; but it was a much more painful circum- 
fiance, to think of a power in the hands of Pompey, which 
they could call nothing but a tyranny*. They therefore 
exhorted and encouraged each other to oppofe the law, and 
maintain their liberty. Yet when the time came, their 
;fear of the people prevailed, and no one fpoke on the occa- 
(ion but Catulus. He urged many arguments againfl the 
bill j and when he found they had no efFed upon the com- 
.mons, he addrefTed himfelf to the fenator.s, and called 
upon them many times from the rf^rum, *' To feek fome 
-'* mountain, as their ancellors had done, :fome rock whi- 
*" ther they might fly for the prefervation of liberty." 

We are told, however, that the bill was pafl'ed by all" 
-^the tribes f, and almoU the.fame univerfal authority con- 
ferred upon Pompey in his abfence, which Sylla did not 
-gain but by the fword, and by carrying war into the 
! bowels of his country. When Pompey received the letters 
which notified his high promotion, and his friends, who 
happened to be bv, congratulated him on the occa(ion» 
he is faid to have knit his brows, fmote his thigh, and ex- 
prcffed himfelf as .if he was already overburthened and 
wearied with the weight of power {: " Alasl is there 
'** no end of my conflitts? How much better would it have 
'** been to be one of the undiftinguifhed many, than to be 
*' perpetually engaged in war? Shall I never be able to 
•'« fly from envy to a rural retreat, to domeftic happinefs, 
•" and conjugal endearments?" Even his friends were un- 
.aWe to bear the diffimulation of this fpeech. They knew 
tllEt the flame of his native ambition and lufl of power 
tw&s'lilown up to a greater height by the difFer^nce he had 
''' ■ . with 

*■"■-"'■ ■ ' . ■■ 

-* • Wc ha^eth^n got at laft, faVd iHcy, a rovercign ; the republic 
-*=kcliangtd Into a monarchy ; the ferTices of Lacullus, the hoiioar of 
^XTbbrio andMarciuSi two zealous and worthy fenators, aie to be 
I ■*< to-ificed to the promotion of Potnpey. Sylla never carried his ty- 
I «%nnnt fo far;" 

I -f tWo great men fpoke in faTour of the law, namely, Cicero and 

I Caefar. The former aimed at the confulate, which Poirpey's party 
.cookl mope e^fily proeure. him, than that.of Catulus and the fhnate. At 
for Caefar^ lie wat delighted to fee the people infennbiy lofe that re- 
1 poblican fpirit and love of liberty, which might one day obllru^ the 
^ vaft deHgns he had already formed. 

1 Is it poffible to read this without recollecting the CvttuVvai OcA« 
rafter of our Richard the Third ? 


with Lucullus, and that he rejoiced the more in the prefefit 
preference, on that account. 

His a6Vions foon unmafked the man. He caufed public 
notice to be given in all places within his commiflion, that 
the Roman troops were to repair to him, as well as the 
' idngs and princes their allies. Wherever he went, he 
annalled the ads of Lucullus , remitting the fines he had 
impofed, and taking away the rewards he had given. Jn 
ihort, he omitted no means to (hew the partizans of that 
general, that all his authority was gone. 

Lucullus^ of courfe, complained of this treatment ; and 
their common friends were of opinion, that it would be 
beft for them to come to an interview; accordingly they 
met in Galatia. As they had both given^^ Jiftinguifhed 
proofs of military merit, the li/Sors had entwined the rods 
of each with laurel. Lucullus had marched through a 
.country full of flourifhing groves, but Pompey's route was 
; 'dry and barren, without the ornament or advantage of 
V woods. His laurels, therefore, were^arched and withered ; 
which the fervant of JLucullus no fooner obferved, than 
they freely fupplied them with frefh ones, and crowned 
his fafces with them. This fcemed to be an omen thAt 
Pompey would bear away the honours and rewards of 
Luculluis's viftories. Lucullus had been conful before 
Pompey, and was the older man, but Pompey's t\y;0 
triumphs gave him the advantage in point of dignity. 

Their interview had at firft the face of great politenefs 
and civility. They began with mutual compliments and 
congratulations : But they foon loft fight even of candour 
.and moderation; they proceeded to abufive language; 
Pompey reproaching Lucullus with avarice, and Lucullus 
accuiing Pompey of an infatiable luft of power; infomuch 
that their friends found it difficult to prevent violence. Af-v 
ter this, Lucullus gave his friends and. followers lands in 
Galatia, as a conquered country, and made other conii- 
derable grants. But Pompey, who encamped at a. little 
diflance from him, declared he would not fuffer his orders 
to be carried into execution, and feduced all his foldiers, 
except fixteen hundred, who, he knew, were fo mutinous 
that they would be as unferviceable to him as they had 
been ill-affeded to their old general. Nay, he fcrupled 
not to jdifparage the.condudl of Lucullus, and to reprefent 
hi* adlions in a defpicable light. *' The battles of Lucul- 


""' lusi^* h^faid, " were only mock-battles, and he had fought 
*' with nothing but the Ihalows of kings; but that it was 
•* left for him to contend -u'ith real ilrengtk, and well- 
" difcipJined armies ; iince Mithridates had betaken him- 
*• fclf to fwords and ihiclds, and knew how to make a 
•" proper ufe of his cavalry." 

On the other hand,'Lucullus defended himfelf by obferv- 

ing, *' That it was nothing new to Pompey to fight with 

''phantoms and fhadows of war: fot, like a daftardly 

*' bird:, he had been accuftomcd to prey upon thofe whom 

''* he had not killed, and to tear the poor remains pf ^ 

" dying oppofition. Thus Re had arrogated to himfelf 

*' the conqueft of Sertorius, of Lepidus, and Spartacus, 

'** which originally belonged to Metellus, to Catulus, and 

'** Craflus. Confeqnently, he did not wonder that he was 

'*' come to ^laim the honour of finilhing the, wars of Ar^ 

' *' ftienia and Pontus, after he had thVuft himfelf into the 

** triumph over the fugitive flaves." 

In a little time Lucullus departed for Rome; and 
•Pompey having fccured the fea from Phoenicia to the Bof- 
phorus, marched in quefl of Mithridates, who had an 
army of thirty thoufand foot, and two thoufand horfe, 
'but durft not ftand an engagement. That prince was in 
poffelTion of a ftrong'^nd fecure poll upon a mountain, 
which he quitted upon Pompey's approach, biecaufe it was 
deftitute of water. Pompey encamped in the fame place; 
and conjeduring, from the nature of the plants and the 
crevices in the mountain, that fprings might be found, he 
ordered a number of wells to be dug, and the camp was 
in a fhort time plentifully fuppHcd with water *. He was 
not a little fiirprifed that this did not occur to Mithridates 
•during tlie whole time of his encampment there. 

After this, Pompey followed him to his new camp, and 
drew a line of circumvallation round him. Mithridates 
/?ood a fiege of forty-five days, after which he found means 
to Ileal off with his befl troops, having firil killed all the 
fick, and fuch as could be of no fervice. Pompey over- 
took him near the Euphrates, and encamped over againft 
him; but fearing he might pafs the river unperceived, 
he drew out his troops at midnight. At that time Mithri- 
idates is faid to have had a dream prefigurative of what 

E 2 >N^."i 

• P:iolu8 JEmilia$ hid done the fame thing lon^ bttot^ \ti l\ft "W*» 
cedonhn war. 

j6 Plutarch's lives. 

was to befal him. He thought he was upon the Pontic 
fea, failing with a favourable wind, and in fight of the 
Bofphorus; fo that he felicitated his friends in the (hip, 
like a man perfeftly fafe, and already in harbour. But 
fuddcnly he beheld himfelf in the moft deftitute condition, 
fwimming upon a piece of wreck. While he was in all 
the agitation which, this dream produced, his friends 
awaked him, and told him that Pompey was at hand. 
He was now under a neceffity of fighting for his camp, 
and his generals drew up the forces with all poilible ex- 
pedition. ^ 

Pompey feeing them prepared, was loth to rifk a battle 
in the darki He thought it fufficient to furround them, 
fo as to prevent their flight; and what inclined him Hill 
more to wait for day-light, was the confideration that his 
troops were much better than the enemy's. However, the 
oldefl of his ofHcers intreated him to proceed immediately 
to the attack, and at lafl prevailed. It was not indeed 
very dark ; for the moon, though near her fetting, gave 
light enough to diftinguifh objeds. But it was a great 
difadvantage to the king's troops, that the moon was fo 
low, and on the backs of the Romans; becaufe (he pro- 
jeded their fhadows fo far before them, that the enemy 
could form no juft eftimate of the dillances, but thinking 
them at hand, threw their javelins before they could do 
the lead execution. 

The Romans perceiving their miftake, advanced to the 
charge with all the alarm of voices. The enemy were in 
iuch a confternation that they made not the leaft ftand, 
and, in their flight, vafl: numbers were flain. They lofl; 
above ten thoufand men, and their camp was taken. As 
for Mithridates, he broke through the Romans with eight 
hundred horfe, in the beginning of the engagement. 
That corps, however, did not follow him far before they 
difperfed, and left him with only three of his people ; 
one of which was his concubine Hypficratia, a woman of 
fuch a mafculine and daring fpirit, that the king ufed to 
call her Hypficrates. She then rode a Perfian horfe, and 
was drefTed in a man's habit, of the faftiion of that na- 
tion. She conjplained not in the leaft of the length of 
the march; and befide that fatigue, {he waited on the 
king, and took care of his horfe, till they reached the 



cafUe of Inora*, Avherc the king's treafure, and his mofl ' 
valuable moveables were depofited. Mithridates took out 
thence many rich rolaes, and bellowed them on thofe who 
repaired to him after their flight. He furniftied eadi of 
his feiends, too, with a quantity of poifon, that none of 
them, againll their will, might come alive into the ene- 
my's hands. 

From Inora his defign was to go to Tigranes in Arme- 
nia. But Tigranes had given up the caufc, and fet a price 
of no lefs than a hundred talents upon his head. He 
therefore changed his route, and having paffed the head - 
of the Euphrates, direfled his flight through Colchis. 

In the mean time, Pompey entered Armenia, upoki the ' 
invitation of young Tigranes, who had revolted n-bm his 
father, and was gone to meet the Roman geneVal at the 
river Araxes. This river takes its rife near the fource of 
the Euphrates, but bends its courfe eallward/aM empties 
itfelf into the Cafpian fea. Pompey. and young Tigranes, 
Jin their march, received the homage of the cities through 
which they pafled. As for Tigranes the father, he had 
been lately defeated by Lucullus; aud now, being in- 
formed that Pompey was of a mild and humane difpofi- ' 
tion, he received a Roman garrifon into his capital j and 
taking his friends and relations with him, went to furren- ' 
der himfelf. As he rode up to the entrenchments, two • 
of Pompey 's liJiors came and ordered him to difmount, 
and enter on foot; afluring. him that no man was ever 
feen on horfeback in a Roman camp.- Tigranes obeyedj» ^ 
and even took off his fword, and gave it them. As looa 
as he cam'e befpre Pompey, he pulled off his diadem, and 
attempted to lay it at his feet. What was ftill worfe, he 
was going to proflrate himfelf, and embrace his knees. 
But Pompey preventing it, took him by the hand, and 
placed him on one fide of him, and his Ton on the other* 
Then addreffing himfelf to the father, he faid, " As to 
" what you had loft before, you loft it to Lucullus. It 
" was he who took from you Syria, Phoenicia, Cilicia, 
*' Galatia, and Sophene. But what you kept till my^ 
" time, I will reftore you, on condition you pay the Ro- 
** mans a fine of fix thoufand talents for the injury yoa 
E 3 ** have 

♦ It feemjj from a paflage in Strabo, (B. xii.) that, inftead q£ Itwa^ 
■wc fhould rea:f, Shoria : For that was one of the mav\^ loxw^^^^ \Kv« 
thridar^* had buiit between the greater and the kCi MmtxCvai* 


5* have ddne them. Your fon I wiU make king af So* 
** phene. 

Tigrancs thought himfelf fo happy in thefe terms, and 
.in finding that the Romans faluted him king, that in the 
joy of his heart he promifed every private foklicr half a 
mina^ every centurion, tea- ,/«///«/', and every tribune a ta- 
lent. But his fon was little pleafed at the determination; 
and when he was invited to lupper, he faid, " He had no 
" need of fuch honours from Fomppy; for he could find 
" another Roman." Upon this, he was bound, and re- 
ferved in chains for the triumph. Not long after Phraates, 
king of Parthia, fent to demand the young prince, as his 
fon- in-law, and to propofe that the Euphrates fhould be the 
boundary between him and the Roman empire,. Pompey 
anfwered, " That Tigranes was certainly nearer to his fa- 
•' ther.than his father-in-law; and as for the boundary, 
.*« juftice Ihould dire£l it." 

When he had defpatched this a^r, &e left Afranius to^ 
take care of Armenia, and marched himfelf to the coun* 
tries bordering on mount Caucafus, through which her 
muft neceflariiy pafs in feargh of Mithrjdatcs, The Al- 
banians and loerians are the prii^v^ipal nations in thofe 
parts. The Iberian territories touch upon the Mofchian 
mountains and the kingdom of Pontus; the Albanians 
ftretch more to the eafl, and exteniJ to the Cafpian fea. 
i'he Albanians at firll granted Pompey a paflage : But as 
winter overtook him in her dominions^ they took the op- 
portunity of the Saturnalia, which the Romans obferve 
teligiouily, to aflemble their forces to the number of forty 
^houfand men, with a refolution to attack them; and for 
th.nt purpofe pajfTcd the Cyrnus f • The Cyrnus rifcs in the 
Iberian mountains, and being joined in its courie by the 
Araxes from Armenia, it diicharges itfelf, by twelve 
mouths, into the Cafpian fea. Some fay, the Araxes does 
not run into itf, but haaa fcparate channel, and empties 
itfelf near it into the fame fea. 

Pompey fufFered them to p^fs the river, though it was in 
his power to have hindered it; and when they were all got 
over, he attacked and routed them, and killed great num- 

♦ Straho and Pliny call this river Cyrus^ and fo Plutarch probably 
v^rote it. 

f Tills is Strabo*s opinion, In which be is followed by the modera 

tc'rs on the fpot. Their king fent ambaffadors to beg for 
mercy; upon which Pompey forgave liina the violence he 
hati offered, and entered intij alliance with him. This 
done; he marched againil the Iberians, who were equally 
numerous and more warlike; and who were very ddirous " 
toiignalizc their zeal repuliing Pompey. 
The Iberians were never fubjeft to the Medes or Perfians : 
They efcaped even the Macedonian yoke, becaufe Alex- 
ander was obliged to leave Hyrcania in hafle. Pompey, 
however, defeated this people too, in a great battle, in 
which he killed no lefs than nine thoufand, and took above • 
tefn thoufand prifoners. , . 

After this, he threw himfelf into Colchis ; and Servilius 
came and joined him at the mouth of the Phafisi wfththe 
fleet appointed to guard the Euxine fea. The purfuit of 
Mithriaates was attended with great difiicuUies : for he 
had concealed himfelf among the nations fettled about the 
Bofp horns and the Palus Ma&otis. * Betides^ news was 
brought Pompey that the Albanian^' had revolted, and 
t^ken up arms again. The defire of revenge determined 
bim to march back, and chai^fe them.. Hut it was witli^ - 
iifiinite trouble and danger that he paffed theCymus again, 
the barbarians having fenced iton- their iide with palli- 
fades all along the banks'^ And when he was aver he had 
a large country to traverfe, which afforded no water. This 
hit difHculty he provided againft, by filling ten thoH&nd 
bottles ;" and purfuing his march, he found the enemy 
dirawn up on the banks of the river Abas*, to the number 
of fixty thoufand foot, and twelve thoufand horfe, but ma- 
ny of them ill-armed> and provided with nothing of the 
defenfive kind but fkins of beafls. 

They were commanded by the king's brother, named 
Gofis ; who, at the beginning of the battle, fingled 6ut 
Pompey, and rufhing in upon him, ftruck his javelin into 
the joints of his breaft-plate. Pompey in return run .him 
tiirough with his fpear, and laid him dead on the fpot. It 
19 (aid that the Amazons came to the afliftiince of the bar- 
barians from the mountains near the river Thermodon, and 
fought in this battle. The Romans, among the plunder 
of the field, did, indeed, meet with bucklers .in the form of a 
£ 4 half- moon, 

• Thh river takes its rife in t'»e mountains of Albania, an J fails into 
the Cafpian fea. Ptolemy calls it Albanuu 

Bo Fl/UTAHCrM's iivfisr. 

half-moon, and fuch bufkif® as the Amazons wore;" but 
there was not the bodyof a woman found among the dead. 
They inhabit that part of Mount Caucafus which ftretchesr 
towards the Hyrcanian fea, and are not hext neighbours 
TO the Albanians ; for Gelas and Leges lie between ; but 
they meet that people , and fpend two months with them 
every year on the banks of the Thermodon^ After which 
they-retire to their own country, where they live without 
the company of men. 

After this aftion, Pompcy defigwed to make his way to- 
the. Cafpian fea, and march by its coafls into Hyrcania f ; 
but he found the number of venomous ferpents fo trouble-' 
ibme, that he was forced to return, when three days march 
more would have carried kirn as far as he propofed l,^ 
The next route he took was into Armenia the Lcfs, where 
ht gave audience to ambaifadoFS from- the kings of the 
Elymasansll and Medes, and difmi^d* them with letters^ 
expreiiive'of his regard. Mean* time the king of Parthiar 
Jbacl entered Gordycne, and was doing infinite damage to 
the fiibje£U of Tigranes. Againft him Pompey fent Afra^ 
juus^ who put him to theroute, and purfaedhim as far as- 
the province of Arbelis. 

Among all the concubines of Mitfendatirs that^were 
brought before Pompey, he touched not one, but fent them 
to their parents or hufbands ; for moft of them were either 
daugJiters or wives of- the great officers and principal per- 
fons of the kingdom. But Stratonice, who was the iirfb 
favourite, and had the care of a fort where the beft parr 
of the king's treafure waslodged, was the daughter of a* 
poor old muiician. She fung one evening to Mithridates- 


• The Albanian forces, according to Strabo, were namcrous, but 
lU-difciplined. Their offenfivc weapons were darts and arrows, and 
their delenfivc armour was made of the (kins of hearts. 

Plutarch merntions the Cafpian fea after Hyrcania. But as that ft a lies 
very near Albania, there was no neceiruy for Pompey to g^ through- 
Hyrcania to it. Perhaps Plutarch meant the other extre.mty of the 
Cafpian fea. 

X Tftuv o^ov «/A£p&> earoerx^f* The former EngHfh tranflator cr» 
roncoufly renders this, was forced to retreat after tine Jrys march. 

II Strabo (Lib. xvi.) places the Elymxans in that p^rt of Affyria- 
which borders upon Media, and mentions three provinces belonging to 
them <}abiane, Meffabatice, and Corbiane. He adds, that they were 
powerful enough to rcfufe fubniiflion to the king of Farthia,. 

POMP£Y. 8l 

at an entertainment, and he was fo much pleafed with he 
that he took her to his bed that night, and fent the old 
man home in no very good humour, becaufe he Jiad taken 
his daughter, without condefcending to fpeak one kind • 
word to him. But when he waked next morning, he faw 
tables covered with veilels of gold and filvfir, a great re- 
tinue of eunuchs and pages, who offered him choice of 
rich robes, and before his gate a horfe with fuch magni- . 
ficent furniture, as is provided for thofe who are called . 
the king's friends. All this he thought nothing but an 
infult and burlefque upon him, and. therefore prepared for 
Hight ; but the fervants Hopped him, and aifured him, 
that the king had given him the houfe of a rich nobleman 
lately decea^d, .and that what he faw was only the firft- 
fruits — a fmall earned of the fortune he intended him. 
At lall he fuffered himfelf to be perfuaded that the fcene 
was not vifionary ; he put on the purple, and mounted the 
horfe, and, as he rode through the city, cried out, *' All 
" this is mine." The inhabitants, of courfe, laughed at 
him i and he told them, ** They fliould not be furprifed 
•' at this behaviour of his, but rather wonder that he did j 
" not throw Hones at them,".. 

From foch a* gtoricus foufce fprungSxRATONicE. *- 

She furrendered to Pompey the caftle, and made him ma- " 
ny magnificent prefents ; however, he took nothing but 
what might be an ornament to the folemnities of religion, 
and add luftre to his triumph. •. The reft he defirea (he 
would keep for her own enjoyment.' In like manner, 
when the king of Iberia fent him a bedftead, a table, and 
a throne, all of mafTy gold, and begged of him to accept 
them as a mark of his regard, he bacic the quaeftors apply , 
them to the purpofes <^ the* public revenue, r 

In the caftlc of Caenon he found the private papers of 
Mithridates ; and he read them- with ^me pleafure, be- 
caufe they difcovered that prince's real charadler. Frorat 
thefe memoirs it appeared, that he had taken off many 
perfons-by poifon, among whom were his own fon Aria* 
rathes and Alcaeus of Sardis. His pique againll the 
latter took its rile merely from his having better horfts 
for the raco thaii he. There were alfo interpretations., 
both of Us own dreams and thofe of lus wVvt^ *, axv^xVe^ 
lafciri<3i/5 kn^rs vvhich had pafTed betweewbim ^.^^^^^-^ 

E 5 tvVHV^- 

82 >lutablch's lives. 

nime. Tbeophanes pretends to fay^ that there: was found 
among thofe papers a memorial compofed by Rutilius*, 
exhorting Mithridates to roaffacre.all the Romans in Afia. 
But moft people believe this was a malicious invention of. 
Theophanes, to blacken Rutilius^ whom probably he 
' ^ated> becaufe he was a perfed contrail to him ; or it 
might be invented by Ppmpey, whofe fkther was repre- 
iei^ted inRotilius's hiijtories as one of the worll of men. 

From Cseaon Pompey marched to Amifus ; where his 
infatuating ambition put him upon very obnoxious mea- 
fures. He had cenfured Lucullus much for difpofing of 
provinces at a time whea the war was alive, and for bc- 
nowing other confiderable gifts and honours, which con- 
querors ufe to grant after their wars are abfojutely termi- 
nated. And yet when Mithridates was mailer of thcBof- 
phorus, and had aiTembled a very refpedable army again, 
the fame Pompey did the very thing he had cenfured. — 
As if he had finiftied the whole, he difpofed of govern- 
inents, and diitributed other rewards. among his friends. 
On that occafion many princes and generals, and among 
them twelve barbarian kings, appeared before him ; and 
to gratii'y thofe princes, when he wrote to the king of 
Parthia, he refiled to give him the title of King of Kings, 
by which he was ufualiy addrefTed. 

He was pair.onateiy defirous to recover Syria, and paf- 
iing from thence through Arabia, to penetrate to the Red 
Sea, that he might go on conquering- every way to the 
occcn which furrounds the world. In Africa he was. the 
firft whofe conquefts extended to the Great Sea ; in Spain 
he llrctched the Roman dominions tp the Atlantic ; and in 
his late purfuit of the Albanians, he wanted but little of 
reaching ti^e Hyrcanian fea» In order, therefore, to take 
the Red^ea too into the circle of hh wars, be began his 
march ; the rather, becaufe he faw it difficult to hunt out 
Mithridates with a regular force, and that he. was much 
harder to deal with in his flight thau in battle. For this 
jeafon, he faid, " He would leave hina a ftronger enemy 
*' than the'Romans to cope with, which was famine.'* In 
pnrfuance of this intention, he ordered a number of.ihips 


* p. Rutilius Rufus was conful in iIk year of Rome 64.9. Cicero 
^ivc8 hin> a great cbara^cr. He vwi alicrwards banifticd into Afia» 
3nd when Sy}la recalled hini, he refufcd to return. He wrote a Ro- 
xn.fij hi/iory In Creek, which Appian made ^ttax >aCt o(» 


to cruife ^bout, and prevent any veflela from entering the 
Boiphorus with proviiions ; and that death fliould be the 
puniihment for fuch as were taken in the attempt. 

A» he was upon his march with the beft part of his 
army, he found the bodies of thofe Romans, who fell in 
the unfortunate battle between Triarius * and Mitb'ridates, • 
ftill uninterred. He gave them an honourable burial; 
and the omiifion of it ieems to have contributed not a lit- 
tle, to the averfion the army had for LucuUus* 

Proceeding in the execution of his plan, he fubdued the * 
Arabians about. mount Amanns, by hi» lieutenant Afra* 
nius, and defcended himfelf into Syria; which he con- 
verted into a Roman province, becaufe it had no lawiuj 
luB^f . He. reduced Judaea, and took its king Ariftoblus 
prwner. . He founded fome cities,-^ and fet others free ; 
puniihing the tyrants who had enflaved them. But moft of 
his time was i'pent in adminiilering juftice, and in decidiag 
the.difputes between cities and princes. Where he cdnid • 
nctt go himfelf, he fent his friends v The Armenians and 
Parthians, for inftance, having referred the difference they : 
Juud about fome territory, to his deciiion, he fent three aif« 
' bitrators to iettle the affair. •- His reputation as to power ' 
Was great, and it was equally refpe^ble as to virtue and 
mod$;ration. : This was . the thin^ which palliated moffc 
of his faults, and thofe of his mmillers* He knew not - 
how to retrain or punifh the offences of thofe he employ- 
ed, but he gave fo gracious a reception to thofe who came 
to <:omplain of them, that they went away not ilUfatbfied 
wi(h all they had fuffered from, their avarice and oppieC* - 

His flrii favourite wasDeihetritis his'enfranchifed flavcT; : 
a young man, who, in other re(pe£ts, did not want ander- - 
ftanding. but who made an iniolent ofe of his good fbr- - 
tone. They tell us this ftory of him. Cato the philo(b- 
pher, then a young man, but already celebrated • fbr his 

virtue - 

• TriaHus was defeated by Mithr idate» three years before Poinpey-*t > 
march into Syria. He had twenty-three tfibtines, and a hundred and" ' 
fifty centurions killed in that battle ; and his cain(> was taken*. ^ * 

•f Pompey took the temple x>f Jerufalenff killing ho lefs thaA twehre 
tboufand jews in the adion. He entere<( the 'temple contrary to their 
law, but had the moderation not to touch any of the>holy ofienAls^ or . ' 
the treafure belonging to it. AriAobulus prefented hjiiii with ^^^joi^Aev -^ 
vine, valued. at five hundred talents, which he aiterfftt4% oonSitAt^XftAC "^ 
19 iZi^ifiii/7/e tff/trpirer Capitolintt^ 


virtue and grcatnefs of rtind, went to fee Antioch, when. 
Pompey was not there. According to cuftom, he travelled 
on foot, but his friends accompanied him on horde back. 
When he approached the city, he (aw a great number of 
people before the gates, all in white, and oa the way a 
troop of young men ranged on one fide, and and of boys on . 
the other. This gave the philofopher pain; for he thou g lit 
u a compliment intended him, whicji he did not want. — 
However, he ordered his friends to alight ai)d walk with. 
him. As foon as. they were near enough to be fpoke with, 
the mailer of the csremouies, with a crown on bis head, and 
a.flaff. of o£ice ia his hand, came up and aiked them, 
" Where they had left Demetrius, and. when he might 
** be expeded? Cato's companions laughed, but Cato laid 
only, *' Alas, poor city I" and fo pafled on. 

Indeed^ others might the better endure the infolence 
of Demetrius, becaufe Pompey bore with it himfelf. Very 
often, ^ when Pompey was waiting to receive company^ 
Demetrius feated himfelf in a difrefpedful manner at 
tables with his cap of liberty • pulled overhis cars. Be- 
fore his return to Italy he had purchafed the plcafanteii 
villas about Rome, with magnificent apartments for en ^ 
tertaining his friendsf ; and fome of the moft elegant and 
expenfivc gardens were knQwn by his name. Yet Pompey 
himfelf was fatisfied withan indifferent houfe till his third 
triumph, Afterwards, he built .that beautiful and cele-. 
brated theatre in Rome ; ^nd as an appendage to it^ built 
himfelf a houfe, mucji handfomer than the former, but not 
oilcntatioufly great ; fpr he whp.came to be mailer of it 
aftier him, at his firil entrance was furprifed, and aiked,. 
•' Where was the room in which Pompey the Great ufed . 
•* to fup ?'* Such i$ the account we have of thefe matters. „ 

The king of Arabia Petraea had hitherto confidered the. 
Romans in no formidable light, but he was really afraid. 
of PoAipey, and fent letters to acquaint hinij that he was., 


♦ The word Ifiofno* fignlfieshere the cap of liberty i»vom by frecd- 
men, not the flaps of a robe, which was all that the other Romans had < 
to cover thtir heads with. Indeed, they went ftare-headed. 

-f The Latin tranflator renders t^v ^C»}T»ptwi' ra . K«M»r«, ^«/- 
tbsrrima gymnajia \ and Dacier, les plus hfaujt farces feur hs exerchei de la 
jeunejjk \ but Athenaeus (l.x. ) gives ua a more appofite fenfc of the word ' 
-^qniptct, y.0tAE(a'S«i T« av^VQcrxct,. Dining-rooms might be called 
nCvTfsftct, becaufe youth and mirth convey fimilar idcas^ 


Beady to obey all his commands. Pompey, to try the fin- 
cerity of his profeffions, marched againft Petra. Mauy 
blamed this expedition, lookin^; upon it as no better than 
a pretext to be cxcufed purfuing Mithridates, againft 
whom they would have had him turn, as againft the 
ancient enemy of Rome ; and an enemy, who, according 
to all accounts, had fo far recovered his ftrength^ as to 
propofe marching through Scy thia and P^onia liito Italy. 
On the other hand, Pompey was of opinion .^hat it wat 
much eafker to ruin him when at the head of an army, 
than to take him in his flighty and therefore would not 
ajnufe himfelfrwith.a frwitlefs purfuit, but rather chofe to 
wait, for a new emergency, and, intjie.mean time, to turn 
his .arms to another quarten-. 

Fortune foon refolved the doubt.* He had advanced 
near Petra, and .encamped for that day, and was taking 
fome exercife on horfeback .without the trenches, when 
mefTengers arrived from Pontusy and it was plain they- 
bro light good news, becaufe the points of their .fpear« 
were crowned with laurel. The foldiers feeing this, ga- 
thered - about Pompey, who was inclined. tg finilh his 
exercife before he opened the packet 5 but they were fo^ 
earneft in their intreaties, that they prevailed , upon him 
to alight and take it. He entered the camp with it in 
his hand ; and as there was no tribunal ready, and the, 
* ibid iers. were too impatient to raife one of turf, which 
was the common method, they piled a number of pack- 
faddles one upon another, upon which Pompey mounted, 
and gave them this information : *' Mithridates is' de^d. 
*^ He killed himfelf upon the revolt of his fon Pharnaces. 
**-And Pharnaces has feized all that belonged to his fa- 
** ther>; which he declares he. has done for himfelf and* 
•*^ the Romans." 

At this news the army^ as might be expedled,: gave a 
loofeto their joy, which they expreffed in facrifices to the 
godsj. and in reciprocal entertainments, as if ten thou- 
land -of their enejnies had been ilain in Mithridates. Pom- 
peyyhaving thus brought tJie campaign and the whole war 
to a conciufion fo happy, and fo -far beyond his hopes^ 
immediately quitted Arabia, traverfed the provinces be- 
tween that and Galatia with- great rapidity, and foon 
arrived at Amifus. There he found many prefents from 
Pharnaces, and feveral corpfes of the royal famW^ , wsiom 

^& tlv.takjgm^s lives. 

which was tliat of Mithridates. The face of that prince 
cquld not be eafily known, becaufe the embalmers had not 
taken out the brain, and by the corruption of that, the 
features were disfigured. Yet fome that were curious to 
wamine it, by the fears. A^ for Pompey, 
he would not fee the body, but, to propitiate theavenging 
deity », £bnt it to Sinope, flowever, he looked upon 
and admired the magnlEcence of his hjibix, and the iize 
ax^d beauty of his arms. The fcabbard.of the fword, 
which coft four hundred talents, was itolen by one Publius, 
who fold it to> Ariarathes. . And. Caius, the foller^brother 
of Mithridates, took the- diadem, which, wais. of moil ex- 
auiilte workmanihip, and gave, it privately to Fauftus, the 
u)n of Sylla, who had begged it of him. . This efcaped 
tli0 knowledge of Pqmpey, but Pharnaces difcavering it 
afterwards, puni(hed the perfons guilty of the theft. 

Pompey having thoroughly fettled tlie affairs of Afia, 
prpceeded in his return to Rome with more pomp and fo- 
lejgnnitv. When he, arrived at Mitylene,. he declared it a 
free city, foji the fake of Theophane^, who. was born 
th^re. He was prefent at the annjiverfary exercifes of the 
poets, whofe fole fubjed that year was the anions of Pom- 
pey. . And he was fo much pleafed with their theatre, th^t 
tie. took a plan of it,- with a defxgn to build one like it at 
Rome, but greater and more noble. , When he came to 
Rhodes^ he attended the declamations of all the Sophills, 
amd prefcnt^d each of them with a talent. Pofidonius com- 
mitted the difcourfe to writings which he mude before him 
ftgainil the pofition of H^rmagora^, anotiier profeflbr of 
rhfrtoric, concerning Invention in general t« He behaved 
with equal munificence to the philpfophers at Athens, and 
gave the people fifty talents for the repair of their city. 

He hoped to return to Italy the greateft and.happieft of 
men, and that his family would meet his affeflion with 
equal ardour. But the deity whofe care it is .always to 
mix fbme portion of evil with the higheft and. moll fplen- 
did favours of fortune,, had been long preparing him a fad 


• Nemefis. 

f Herrragoras was for rcducHijr inventtrn under two general heads, 
tl^c reafoD of the procefs, and the ftate of-ihe qucftion ; which limita- 
tion Cicero difapproved as much as his maAer Pofidonius. Vid& Ci- 
CBR.'dc Invent. Rhetor. Lib. i. 

This Fofidonius, w^ho is of Apamea, is not to be confounded with 
^£doniu8 of Alcx^ndt'iA^ \!iA^ difeiple of Zeno.. 



FOlvrPEY. 87 

welcoma m his houfe. Mucia *, in. his abfencCi had.dif- 
honoured his bed. While he was at a diftance, he difre- 
garded the report, but upon his approach to Italy, and a. 
more matu're examiiiaiion into thje atfair, he Tent her a di- 
vorce, without afTigning his reafons either then or af- 
terwards. The true reafon is to be found ia. Cicero's.. 

People stalked varioufly at Rome concerning Pbmpey'a 
iiatentions. Many diilurbed themfelves at the thought 
that he would march with his army immediately to Rome, 
and makfe himfelf fole and abfolute mailer thete.. Craflii* 
took his children and money, and. withdr^ew ; whether it 
was that he had fon^ real apprehenfions, or rather that he 
chofe to countenance the calumny > and add force, to the 
lling of envy ; the latter Teems the more prob;ible. But 
Pompey had no fooner fet foot in Italy,, than he called an 
aflembly of his Ibldiers, and. aft^r a kind and fuitable 
addrefs, ordered ihem to difperfe in their refpeftive cities, 
and attend to their own affairs tilj his triumph, on which . 
occafion the^y wer^ to repair to him again, .. 

As foon a5 it was known that liis troops were disbanded,. . 
an allonifliing change appeared in the face of things. The . 
cities feeing Pgrnpey the Great unarmed, andattended by 
a.few friends, as if he was returning only from a common . 
tour, poured' out their inhabitants after him, who con-^ 
duded him to Rome with the fmccrell pieafure, iind with . 
a.much greater force than that which he had difmifled;. 
fo that there would have been no need .of the. army, if he'- 
had formed any defigns.againft the itate. •. 

As the law did not. permit him to lenter the ci.ty before 
his triumph, he deiired the fenate to defer the eleftion of,, 
cqnfuls on his account, that he niight Jjy his prefence fup- 
port the intereft of Pifo. But Cato oppofed it, and the 
motion mifcarried. Pompey, admiring the liberty and . 
£rmnefs with which Cato maintained the rights and cuftoms. 
of his- country, at a ;ima when no other man would ap- 

♦ Mucia was fifter to MetelJus Celef, and to MetcHus Nepos, She^ 
was debauched by CaeOar ; for whicli reafon, when Pompey married 
Caefar's daughter, all the world bhnicd him for turning off a wife by 
whom he had three children to efpoufc the daughter of a man whom he 
had often, with a figh, called his ^Egifthus. Mucia's difloyaity mii^ 
haye been fcpy public, fince Cicero, in onectf h\w\eix«T« xo ft.\x\c>3LV^v!%v 
the divorce ofMacU meets with general appTobax\oi\% \A>a.\. ^^.ija* 

8* Plutarch's tiVES. 

pear fo openly for them, determined to gain him if poifi- 
ble; and as Cato had two nieces, he ofrered to marry the 
oae, and alked the other for his fon. Cato, however, 
fufpeifled the bait, and looked upon the propoled alliance 
as a means intended to corrupt his integrity. He there- 
fore refiifed it, to the great regret of his wife and filler, 
who could not but be dilpl^afed at his. rejeding fuck ad- 
vances from Pdmpey the. Great, . Meantime Pompey being 
de^rous to get the coniullhip fromfAfrapius, dillributed 
money for that purpofe among the tribes, and tjie voters 
went to receive it in Pompey'g own gardens.. . The thing 
was fo public, that Pompey was much cenfured for making 
that ofiice venal, which he had obtained by his great 
adlions, and opening a way to the. higheft honour in the 
ftate to thofc who . had money, but wanted merit. Cato 
th^n obferved to the ladies of his family, that they mull 
all have fhared in this difgrace, if they had accepted Pom- 
pcy's alliance ; upon which xhey acknowledged he was a 
better }udge than they of honour and. propriety. 

The .triumph \yas fo great,, that though it was divided 
^into two days, the time was far from .being Tufficient for 
displaying what was prepared to be carried in proceflion ; 
there remained ftill, enough to adorn another triumph. At 
the head of the (hew appeared the titles of the conquered 
nations ; Pontus, Armeniar. Cappadocia, Paphlagonia, 
Media, Colchis, the Iberians, the Albanians Syria, Cili- 
cia, Mefopotamia, Phoenicia,. Paleftine, Judsea, Arabia, the 
pirates fubdued both by fea and land. In thefe countries, 
it was mentioned that there were not lefs than a thoufand 
caftles, and near nine hundred .cities taken ; eight hun-. 
dred galleys taken from the pirates ; and thirty-nine defo- 
late cities repeopled* On the face of the! tablets it ap- 
pejared befides, that whereas the revenues of the Roman 
empire before thefe conquefls amounted but to fifty millions 
oi drach?nass by the new acquifitions they, were advanced 
to eighty-five millions; and- that Pompey had brought into 
the public treafury, in mbney, and in gold andfilver vc^flels, 
to the value of twenty thoufand tiiients, befides what he 
had dillributed among- the feldiers,- of whom he that re- 
ceived lead had fifteen hundred draclimas to his (hare. The 
captives who walked in the proceflion (not to mention the 
chiefs of the pirates) were the jbn of Tigranes, king of 
Aimenu, together with his wife and daughter; Zofima, 

PbMPEf. $9 

the wife of Tigranes, himfelf; Ariftobulus/king of Judaea'; 
the fifter of Mithridates, with her five fons; and Tome 
Scythian women. The hoftagss of the Albanians and 
Iberiane, and of the king of Coramagcne alfo appeared in 
the train : and as many trophies were exhibited as Pompey 
had gained vidories, either inperfon <irby his lieutenants, 
the number of which was not ImalJ. 

But the moft honourable circumftance, and what no other 
Roman coukl boafti was, that his third triumph was over 
the third quarter of the world, after his former triumphs 
had been over the other two. Others before him had been 
honoured with three triumphs; but his firft triumph was 
ever Africa, his fecond over Europe, and his third over 
Afia ; fo that the three feemed to declare him conqueror 
of the world. 

Thofe who delire to make the parallel between him and 
Alexander agree in all refpeds, tell us he was at this time 
rtot quite thirty-four, whereas, in fa6t, he was entering 
upon his fortieth year*. Happy it had been for him, if 
hie had ended his days, while he was bleft with Alexan- 
der's good fortune ! The reft of his life, every inftance of 
fticcefs brought its proportion of envy , andevery mifcarriag6 
was irretrievable. For the authority Which he had gained 
by his merit, he employed for others in a way not very 
honourable; and his reputation confequently finking, as 
* they grew in ftrength, he was infenfiWy ruined by the 
weight of his own power. As it happens in a fiege, every 
firong work that is take» adds to the befieger's force ; fo 
Csefar, when raifed by the influence of' Pompey,. turned 
that power which enabled him to trample upon his country, 
upon Pompey himfelf. It happened lu this manner* 

Lucullus, who had been treated fo unworthily by Pom« 
pey in Afia, upon his return to Rome met with the moft 
honourable reception from the fenate; and they gave him 
flill greater marks of their efleem after the arrival of Pom- 
pey; endeavouring to awake his ambition,' and prevail 
with him to attempt the lead in the adminiftration. But'his 
fpirit and a^ive powers were by this time on the decline ; 
he had given himfelf up to the pleafures of eafe, and the 


• It ihoulcf be forty-fixfh year, Pompey was born In the begmnin^ 
of the month of Auguft, in the year of Rome (ix hundred and iovVi^ 
feven^and hisr triumph wa& in the iamc month in Iht )tax ^^^t^% ^lk 
bundr^d and oiacty'two^ 


enjoyments of wealth. However, he bore op againff ' 
Popipey; with fome vigour at firft, and got his ads con- ' 
finned, which his adverfary had annollcd; having a ma- 
jority in the fenate, through the affittance of Cato. 

Pompey, thus worHed in the fenate, had recourfe to 
the tribunes of ths people and to the young plebians. 
Clodius, the moll daring and profligate of them all, re- 
ceived him with open arms, but at the fame time fubjedled ^ 
him to all the humours of the populace. He made him 
dangle after him in lYicf^rum in a maniTer far beneath his 
dignity, and infilled upun his fupporting every bill that 
he projpoCed, and every fpeech that he made, to flatter ^nd 
ingratiate himfelf with the people. And, as if the con- 
nexion with him had been an honour, inftead of a difgrace, 
he demanded ftill higher wages; that Pompey (hould give 
»p Cicero, who had ever been his faft friend, and of the 

freateft ufe to him in the adminiftration. And thefe wages 
e obtained. For when Cicero came to be in danger, 
and requeued Pompey's aiTiltance, he refiifed to fee hiBi> 
and, fhutting his gates aga'nfl thofe that came to intercede 
lor ium, went ou^ at a back-door. Cicero> therefore, 
dreading the iffue of the trial, departed privately from 

At this time Caefar returning from his province*, pn- 
dertook an affair, which rendered him very popular at 
prefent, and in its confequences gained him power, but 
proved a great prejudice to Pompey and to the whole com- 
monwealth. He was then foli<iiting his firft confulftiip, 
and CraflTus and Pompey being at variance; he perceived 
that if he fhould join the one, the other would be his 
enemy of courfe ; he therefore fet himfelf. to reconcile 
them. A thing which, ftemed honourable in itfelf, and ^ 
calculated for the public good ; but the intention was in- 
fidious, though deep laid and covered with the moft re- 
fined policy. For while the power of the ftate was di- 
vided, it kept it in an equilibrium, as the burthen of a fliip 
properly diftributed, keeps it from inclining to one fide 
more than another, but when the power came to be all 
colledled into one part, having nothing to counterbalance 


• It was net at the time of Cicero*^8 going into exile that Caefat re- 
turned from his province of Spain, which he had governed with the 
title of prasror, but two years before. Caefar returned in the year oC 
Rome 6y2i and Ciaro quicied Rome In the ^car 69 ^. 


it, it overfet and deflroyed the commonwealth. Hence it 
was, that when fome were obferving that the conilitutioQ 
was riiined by tlie difterence which happened afterwards 
between Cafar and Pompcy, Cato faid, •♦ You are under 
*' a great mift:ike: It was not their late difagreement, but 
*' their furmer union and connedion which gave the confti^ 
*' tipn the finl: i,nd |rrcateft blow." 

To this union Cxiar owed his confuifliip : And he was 
no fooner appointed than he began to make his court to 
the indigent put of the people, by propofing laws for 
fending out colonics, and for the diilribution of lands; by 
which he defcended from the dignity of a conful, and in 
fome fort took upop liim the office of a tribune. His col- 
league Bibulus oppofed him, and Cato prepared to fupport 
Bibulus in the moll flrenuous manner ; when Caefar placed . 
Pompey by him upon the tribunal, and a(ked him, before 
the whole aflembly, " Whether he approved his laws ?** 
and upon his anfwering in the afhrmative, he put thb far- 
ther qucitton, " TJien if any one (hall with violence op- 
** pofe thefe la^'s, will you come to the affiftance of the 
•' people." Pompey anfwered, " I will certainly come j 
f* and again flthofe who threaten to take the fworIl» I will 
*' bring Doth fword and buckler." 

. Pompey till that day had never faid any thing fo ob- 
noxious ; and his friends could only fay, by v^ay of apo« 
Iqgy, that it was an exprefiion which had efcaped tlim. But 
it appeared by the fubfequent events, that he was then en*^ 
tirely at C<tfar's devotion. For within a few days, to the 
Cirprife of all the vvorld, he married Julia, Caefar's daugh- 
ter, who had been promifed to Cxpio, and was upon the 
point of being married to him. To appeafe the resentment 
©f Caspio, he gave him his own dmighter, who had been 
before contratted to Fauilus, the fan of Sylla; and Caviar 
married Calpurnia, the daughter of Pifo, 

Pompey then filled the city with foldiera, and carried 
every thing with open force. Upon Bibulus the confuPs. 
paking his appearance in the forum, together with Lu- 
callus und Cato, the foldiers fuddenly fell upon- him, and 
broke his fa/ces. Nay, one of them had the impudence to. 
empty a bafket of dung upon the bead of Bibulus ; and 
two tribunes of the people who accompanied him, were 
wounded. The forum thus cleared of all oppofition, the 
law paffed for the divifion of lands. The people * ca.u%Vw\. 

p2 Plutarch's lives. 

by this bait became tame and traflable in all refyeds, , 
and without queilioning the expediency of any of their 
meafures,filently gave their fufFrages to whatever was pro- 
pofed. The adls of Pompey, which LucuUus had con- 
teiled, were confirmed ; and the two Gauls on this and the 
other fide the Alps and Illyria, were allotted to Caefar for 
£ve years, with four complete legions. At the fame time 
Pifo, Caefar's father-in-law, and Gabinius, one of the 
moll abandoned flatterers of Pompey, were pitched upon 
for confuls for the enfuing year. 

Bibulus finding matters thus carried, Ihut himfelf up 
in his houfe, and for the eight following months re- 
mained inattentive to the funftions of his office * ; con- 
tenting himfelf with publifhiiig manifeftos full of bitter 
invectives aeainft Pompey and Caefar. Cato, on this oc 
cafion, as irinfpired with a fpirit of prophecy, announced 
in full fenate the calamities which would beflil the com- 
monwealth and Pompey himfelf. Lucullus, for his part, 
gave up all thoughts of ft&te affairs, and betook himfelf 
torepofe, as if ageiiad difqualified him for the concerns 
of government. Upon which Pompey obfervcd, ** That 
••it was more unfeafonable for an old man to give himfelf 
•• up to luxury, than to bear a public employment." Yeti 
notwithftanding this obfervation, he foon fufFered himfelf 
to be effeminated by the love of a young woman ; he gave 
up his time to her ; he fpent the day with her in his villas and 
gardens, to the entire negled of public affairs ; infomuch 
that Clodius the tribune began to defpife him, and to en- 
gage in the boldeft <lefigns again ll him. For after he had 
banifhed Cicero, and fent Cato to Cyprus, under pretence 
of giving him the command in that ifland ; when Caefar 
was gone upon his expedition into Gaul, and the tribune 
found the people entirely devoted to him, becaufc he flat- 
tered their inclinations in all the meafures he took, he at- 
tempted to annul fome of Pompey 's ordinances ; he took 
his prifoner Tigrancs from him, kept him in his own 
cuflody, and impeachrd fome of his friends, in order to 
try in them the ilrength of Pompey's intereft. At laft, 
when Pompey appeared againft one of thefe profecution^,' * 
Clodius having a crew of profligate and infolent wretches 


• Hence the wits of Rome, inflcad of faying, fuch a thing happened 
In the confulihtp of Csefir an<l Bibulus, hl6y it happened in the con« 
AiJibip of Julias and Caefar. 


about him> afcended an eminence, and put the following 
queMons, *' Who is the licentious lord of Rome ? Who is 
** the man that feeks for a man * ? Who fcratches hi3 
** head with one finger f ?" And his creatures, like a 
chorus in(tru(5led in their part, upon his fhaking his gown^ 
anfwered aloud to every quellion, Pcmpey X* 

Thefe things gave Pompey uncafincfs, becaufe it was a 
new thing to him to be fpoken ill of, and he was entirely 
unexperienced in that fort of war. That which afflide4 
him moft, was his perceiving that the fenate were pleafed 
to fee him the objeft of reproach, and punifhed for his 
defertion of Cicero. But when parties ran fo high that they 
came to blows in ihe forums and feveral were wounded on 
both fidesj and one of the fervants of Clodius was ob- 
ferved to creep in among the crowd,. towards Pompey , with 
a drawn fword in his hand, he was furnilhed with an ex- 
cufe for not attending the public a/Temblies. Befidesy- he 
was really afraid to Uand the impudence of Clodiua, an4 
all this torrent of abufe that might be expeded from him^ 
and therefore made his appearance no more during his tri- 
bunefhip, but confulted in private with his friends how tp 
difarm tlie anger of the fenate, and the valauble part of the 
citizens. Culleo advifed him to repudiate Julia, and to ex- 
change the friendlhip of Gaefar for that of the feiiate ; but 
he would not hearken to the propofal. Others propofed 
that he fhould recal Cicero, who was not only an avowed 
enemy to Clodius, but the favourite of the fenate ; and he 
agreed to that overture. Accordingly, with a llrong body 
pi his retainers, he conduced Cicero's brother into tiie 
forum, who was to apply to the people in his behalf, and 
after a fcufile, in which feveral were wounded, and fome 
flain, he overpowered Clodius, and obtained a decree for 
the refloration of Cicero. Immediately upon hi^ return, 

this . 

* Tk oLvmf f»n£» aii^p^. Ziit^v flur^f* was a proverbial expreflion 
brought from Athens to Roir.e. It was taken originaily fronn i£fop's 
feeking an boned man with a Unthorn at. noon-day ; and, by degrees, it 
came to fignify the lofs of njanhco-*, oy the manly character, which loft 
Pompey was allowed to have fuAained in the embraces of Julia. 

f Unojcalpere Digitowaa Ukewife a proverbial exprcffion for a Roman 
petit maitre, 

{ Flu tafc;h does not her^I^eepexa£IIy to the order of time. This hap- 
pened in the year of Rome 697, as appears from Dio, ^BooV. x^^\x.\ 
that is, two years after what he is going to m«u\u>n. cctvgtUii&n^X>CAik 
pihttife*s/}ave beiog Ukcn with a fword. 


the orator reconciled the fenate to Pompey, and by ette^ 
tually recommending the law which was tO entruft him 
with the care of fupplying Rome with corn *, he madq 
Pompey once more riiaftcr of the Roman empire, both by 
fea and land. For by this law the pons, the markets, 
the difpofal of provifions, in a word, the whole bufinefs of 
the merchant and the hufbandman, were brodght under 
his jurifdi6tion. 

Clodius, on the other hand, alleged, " That the law 
** was not made on account of the real fcarcity of pro- 
" vifions, but that an artificial fcarcity was caufed for th« 
" fake of procuring the law, and that Pompey, by a new 
** commifiion, might bring his power to life again, which 
*' was funk, as it were, in a deliquium,** Others fay, it 
was the contrivance of the conful Spinther, to procure 
Pompey a fuperior employment, that he might "himfelf be 
► fcnt to re-cflabli(h Ptolemy in his kingdomf . 

However, the tribune Canidius brought in a bill, the 
purport of which was, that Pompey fhould be fent without 
an army, and only with two li^ors, to reconcile the Alex- 
andrians to their king. Pompey did not appear difpleafed 
at the bill; but the fenate threw it out, under the honour- 
able pretence of not hazarding his perfon. Neverthlefs, 
papers were found fcattered in thcjhrum and before the 
lenate-houfe, importing that Ptolemy himfelf defired that 
Pompey might he employed to aft for him inilead of 
Spinther. Timagcnes pretends, that Ptolemy left Egypt 
without any neceirit,y, at the perfuafion of Theoptianes, 
who was defirous to give Pompey new ojccafions to enrich 
himfelf and the honour of new commands. But the bafe- 
nefs of Thcophanes does not fo much mpport thii ftory, 
as the difpofition of Pompey difcredits it; for there was 
nothing fo mean and illiberal in his ambition. 

The whole care of providing and importing corn being 
committed to Pompey, he fent his deputies and agents into 
various parts, and went in perfon lato Sicily, Sardinia, 
and Africa, where he coUefted great quantities. When 


• The law alfo gave Pcmpey procnftrtar authority for five ycarSf 
both in and out of JtaLy. Oto^iih. xxxix. 

f Piolenny Auletes, the fon of Ptolemy Lathyrus, hated by Ivis fub- 
jeds, and fenced to <fly, applied to the conful Spinther, who was to 
/fare the province of Ciiicia/to re-eftablifti him in bis kingdom. Dio» 

''T om? Ej. 95 

"he was upon the point of re-embarking, a violent wind 
fprung up, and the mariners made a difficulty of putting 
to fea ; but he was the firll to go on board, and he ordered 
them to weigh anchor, with thefe decifive words, "It is 
** neceffary to go ; it is not m^ceffary to live.** His fuc- 
cefs was anfwerable to his fpirit andjiatrepidity. He filled 
the markets with corn, and covered the fea with his (hips ; 
infomuch that the overplus afforded a fupply to foreigners, 
and from Rome, as. from a fountain, plenty flowedvOver 
the world. 

In the mean time the wars in Gaul lifted Caefar to the 
: firft fphere of greatnefs. The fcene of a^ion was at a 
great dillance from Rome, and he feemed t'o Jbe wholly 
.engaged with the Belgae, the Suevi, and the Britons ; but 
his genius all the while was privately at work among the 
people of Rome, an^ he was undermining Pompey in his 
moft efl'ential interells. His war with the barbarians was 
not his principal objedl. He exercifed his army, indeed, 
in thofe expeditions, as he would have done his owii body, 
in hunting and other diverfions of the field ; by which he 
prepared them for higher confiids, and rendered them not 
only formidable but invincible. 

The gold and filver,and other rich fpoils which he took 
from the enemy in great abundance, he fent to Rome; 
and by diftributing them freely among'the aediles, praetors, 
confuls, and their wives, he gained a great party. Con-' 
feqnently when he paffed the Alps and wintered at Lucca, 
among the crowd of men and women, who haftened to pay 
their refpefts to him, there were two hundred fenators, 
^ Pompey and CrafTus of the number ; and there were no 
; fewer than a hundred and twenty proconfiils and prstors, 
v/hofe fafces wtre to be feen at the ^ates of .Cselar. He 
made it his bufinefs in general to ^ive them hopes of great 
things, and his money was at their devotion ; but he en- 
tered into a treaty with Craflus and Pompey, by which it 
was agreed that they fliould apply for the cf nfulfhip, and 
that Ca^far Ihould a£iil them^ by fending a great number of * 
his foldiers to vote at the eledtion. As foon as they were 
. chofen, they were to fliare the provinces, and take the 
. command of armies, according to their pleafure, only con- 
. firming Caefar in the poireiEon of what h^ Jiad, for Eve 
.years more. 

3 K» 


As foon as this treaty got air, the principal perfons la 
Rome were hijg^hly ofFencUd at it. Marcellmus, then con- 
ful, planted himfelf amidfl the people, and afked Pompey 
and Craffus, '* Whether they intended t.o fland for the 
*' confiilftiip.*' Pompey fpoke frit, and faid •, •' Per- 
" haps he might, perhaps he might not." Craffus an- 
. fwered, with more moderation, " He fliould do what 
" might appear moll expedient for the. commonwealth." 
As Marcellinus .continued the difcourfe againil Pompey, 
and feemed to bear hard upon him, Pompey faid, *' Where 
" is'the honour -of that man, who has neither gratitude 
*' nor refped for him who made him an orator, who ref- 
^' cued him from want, and raifed him to affluence.?" 

Others declined foliciting the coafulihip, but Lucius 
Domitius was perfuaded and encouraged l^ Cato jnot to 
give it up, " For the difpute," he told him,. *' was nQt 
•* for the confulfhip, but in defence of liberty againfl ty^ 
'* rants." Pompey and his adherents faw the vigour with 
which Cato afled, and that all the fenate was on his fide. 
Confequently they were afraid that, fo fupported, he might 
bring over the uncorruptcd part of the people. They re- 
folved, therefore, not to fufFer Domitius to enter the forun^, 
and fent a party of men well armed, who killed Melitus, 
the torch-bearer, and put the reft to flight. Cato retired 
the lail, and not till- after he had received a wound in his 
right elbow in defending Domitius. 

Thus they obtained the. confulfhip by violence, and the 
refl of their meafures were not. conducted with more mo- 
deration. For, in thefirfl place, when the people were 
going to choofe Cato prajtor, at the inilant their fufFrages 
were to be taken, Pompey difmiiled the aflembiy, pre- 
tending he had feen an inaufpicious flight 0f birds f . Af* 
terwards the tribes, corrupted with money, declared An- 
tias and Vatinius prantors. Then> in purfuance of their 


• Dio makes him return ^n anfwer irore fuitalilc to his chanrftcr— 
*< It is not on account of the virtuous and the good that I defire any 
*« fhare in the magK^racy^ hue that 1 may be able to retrain the ili- 
*' difpoied and the fcditious.*' 

f Tliis was making religion merely an engine of Aate, and it often 
proved a very convenient one for the purpofes of ambition. Clodius* 
though otherwife one of the vieft tribunes that ever exilted, was very 
right in attempting to put a ftop to tbit means of difmifllog an alTcm- 
^« He preferred a bill, that no magiftrate (hould make any obfcrva^ 
tjoas in the heaveDH while the people wetc affcmU^d. 

fOMPJEY. 97 

agreement with C.-efar, they pat Trebonius, one of the 
tribunes, on propofing a decree, by which the govern- 
ment of the Gauls was continued for five years more to 
Cajfar; Syria, and the command againft the Parihians, 
were given to CrafTus ; and Pompey was to have all Africa, 
and both the Spains, with four legions, two of which he 
lent to Cxfar, at his requciU for the war in Gaul. 

CrafTus, upon the expiration of his confulfhip, repaired 
to his province. Pompey, remaining at Rome, opened his 
theatre ; and, to make the dedication more magnificent, 
exhibited a variety of gymnaftic games, entertainments of 
mufic, and battles with wild beaits, in which were killed 
five hundred lions ; but the battle of elephants afforded 
the mofl afloniihing fpedlade*. Thefe thmgs gained him 
the love and admiration of the public ; but he incurred 
their difpleafure again, by leaving his provinces and ar* 
mies entirely to his friends and lieutenants, and roving 
about Italy with his wife from one villa to another. Whe- 
ther it was his paffion for her, or hers 1^ him, that kept 
him fo much with her, is uncertain. For the latter has 
been fuppofed to be the cafe, and nothing was more talked 
of than the fondnefs of that young woman for her hulband, 
though at that age his perfon could hardly be any great 
objed of defire. But the ciiarm of his fidelity was the 
caufe, together with his converfation, which, notwithfland- 
ing his natural gravity, was particularly agreeable to the 
women, if we may allow the courtefan Flora to be a fuf- 
ficient evidence. 'I'his llrong attachment of Julia appeared 
on occafion of an eledlion of nediles. The people came 
to blows, and fome were killed fo near Pompey, that he 
was covered with blood, and forced to change his clothes. 
There was a great crowd and tumult about his door, when 
his fervants went home with the bloody robe; and Julia, 
who was with child, happening to fee it, fainted away, 
and was with difficulty recovered. However, fuch was 
her terror and the agitation of her fpirits^ that ihe mif- 
carried. After this, thofe who complained mofl of Pom- 


* Dio fays, the elephants fought with armed men. There were no 
lefs than eighteen of themj and he adds, that fome of them fccmed 
to appeal, with piteous cries, to the people, who, in compafiion, faved 
their lives. If we may believe him, an oath had been taken bel'orc 
they left Africa, that no injury Ihonld be done thf tn. 
Volume IF, F 

98 Plutarch's lives. 

pey's connc6tion with Ccefar, could not find fault wrth his 
love of Julia. Sh6 was pregnant afterwards, and brought 
him a daughter, but unfortunately died in child-bed ; nor 
did the child long furvive her. Pompey was preparing to 
bury her near a feat of his at Alba, but the people feized 
the corpfe, and interred it in the Campus Martius, This 
they did more out of regard to the young woman, than 
either to Pompey or Carwr; yet in the honours they did 
her remains, their attachment to Casfar, though at a 
diftance, had a greater fha re, than any refped for Pompey, 
who was on the fpot. 

Immediately after Julia's death, the people of Rome 
were in great agitation, and there was -nothing in their 
fpeeches and aftions which did not tend to a rupture. The 
alliance, which rather covered than rellrained the amo- 
tion of the two great competitors for power, was now 
no more. To add to the misfortune, news was brought 
foon after, that Craffus was flain by the Parthians ; and 
in him another great obftacle to a civil war was removed. 
Out of fear of him, they had both kept fome meafupcs 
with each other. But when Fortune had carried off the 
champion who could take up the conqueror, we may fay 
with the comic poet. 

-High fpirit of emprize 

Elates each chief; they oil their brawny limbs, 
And dip their hands in duft. 

So little able is fortune to fill the capacities of the human 
mind; when fuch a weight • of power, and extent of 
command, could not fatisfy the ambition of two men. 
They had heard and read that the gods had divided the 
univerfe into three fhares, and each was content with that 
which fell to his lotf? and yet thefe men could not think 
the Roman empire fufficient for two of them. 


• ff eight is not the literal iignification of jSa6»c» but as near as we 
could bring it J for, depth of power would not found well in Engliih. 
Tcff-iiloy PccBoi y^yi^jLona^ is an exprellion fimilar to that of St. Paul, 
Rom. ix. 33. *fi BA0OS vy^^a xa» <ro^t«c ««» yvvy^r,^ ©s*?. 

f Plutarch alludes here to a paHa^e in the fifteenth book of the 
Jlia^, where Neptune f.iys to Iris, 

^^ AflignM by lot our triple rule we know ; 

** InfernAl Pluto fways (be dudes bclo«F ; 

*t O'er the wilde clouds, and o*er the Aarry pUin, 

** Etbcteal Jove extends his high dnmain ; 

" My court bcneath.ibe hoary «raves 1 keep, 

'^ And huih ihc Toarinp of \t» ^vtA dee? J* i>aP£ • 

P M P E Y. 99 

Yet Pompey, in an addrefs to the people at that time, 
told them, " He had received every commifiion they had 
" honoured him with, fooner than he expeded himfelf ; 
" and laid it down fooner than was expefted by the 
■*' world." And, indeed, the difmifSon of his troops al- 
ways bore witnefs to the truth of that aflertion. But now 
being perfuaded that Ca:far would not difband his army^ 
he endeavoured to fortify himfelf againfl him by great em- 
ployments at home ; and this without attempting any other 
innovation. For he would not appear to diilrull him ; on 
the contrary, he rather afFedlcd to defpife him. However, 
when he faw the great oinccs of flatc not difpofed of 
agreeably to his defire, but that the people were inlluenced, 
and his adverfaries preferred for money, he thought it 
would bell ferve his caufe to fufFcr anarcliy to prevail. In 
confequence of the reigning diforders, a diflator was much 
talked of. Lucilius, one of the tribunes, was the £rll 
who ventured to propofe it in form to the people, and he 
-exhorted them to choofe Pompey didlator. Cato oppofed 
it fo cffedluaily, that the tribune was in danger of being 
depofed. Many of Pompey's friends then flood up in de- 
fence of the purity of his intentions, and declared, he 
neither afked nor vvifhed for the didlatorlhip. Cato, upon 
this, paid the higheft compliments to Pompey, and in- 
treated him to aifiit in the fupport of order and of the con- 
flitution. Pompey could not but accede to fuch a propo- 
fal, and Domitius and Meflala were elefted confuls*. 

The fame anarchy and confufion afterwards took place 
againj and numbers began to talk more boldly of fetting 
up a diftator. Cato, now fearing he fliould be overborne, 
■was of opinion that it was better to give Pompey fomc 
office whofe authority was limited by law, than to entruli 
him with abfolute po^er. Bibulus, though Pompey's de- 
clared enemy, moved in full fenate, that he fhould be ap- 
pointed fole conful. " For by that means," faid he, " the 
*« conomonwealth will either recover from her diforder, 
F 2 " or 

• In theycarrcf Romcyco. Such corruption now prevailed amon; 
ihe Ronnans, that car.didatcs for the curule officcri brought their money 
openly to the place of eltdicn, where they dilUibuted it, without bljUi- 
ing, among the heads of fadions; and thofe uho received it, emjilo) td 
force and violence in favour of thofe perfons who paid thcmj lb t'mt 
fcarcc any office was difpofed of but what had been difgut^d n\\\\.\ \\x 
iword, and cod the lives of many citizens. 


" or, if Ihe mufl ferve, will ferve a man of the greateft 
" merit." The whole houfe was furprifed at the motion; 
and when Cato rofc up, it was expeded he would oppofc 
it. A profound filencc cnAied, and he faid, •' He iliould 
*' never have been the iirfl to oppofe fuch an expe- 
** dient, but as it was propofed by another, he thought 
*' it advifeable to embrace it; for he thought any kind of 
«« government better than anarchy, and knew no man fitter 
*' to rule than Pompey, in a time of fo much trouble.'* 
The fenate came into his opinion, and a decree was iil'ued, 
that Pompey fhould .be appointed fole conful, and that if 
he fhould have need of a colleague, he might choofe one 
himfelf, provided it were not before the expiration of two 

Pompey being declared fole conful by the Interrex 
Sulpitius, made liis compliments to Cato, acknowledged 
himfelf much indebted to his fupport, and defired his af- 
fiflance and advice in the cabinet, as to the meafures to be 
purfued in his adminiflration. Cato made anfwer, '* Tbat 
*' Pompey was not under the leafl obligation to him ; for 
'* what he had faid, was not out of regard to him, but to 
*' his country. If you apply to me," continued he, "J 
*' (hall give you my advice in private; if ;iot, I fhall in- 
*• form you of my lentiipents in public.'* Such was Cato, 
and the fame on all occafions. 

Pompey then went into the city, an,d married Cornelia, 
the daughter of Metellus Scipio *. She was not a virgin, 
but a widow, having been married> when verv yQung« to 
Publius the fon of .CrafTus, who was lately Killed in the 
Parthian expedition. This woman had many charms be- 
fide her beauty. She was. well verfed in polite literature ; 
fhe played upon the lyre, and underllood geometry; and 
{he liad made cojaiiderable improvements by the precepts 
of philofophy. What is more, fhe. had nothing of that 
petulance and afFedlation, which fuch ftudics are apt to 
produce in women pf her age. And her father's ^mily 
and reputation were unexceptionable. 

Many, however, were difpleafed ivith this match, on 
account of the difproportipn of years; they thought Cor- 
nelia would have been more fuitable to his fon than to him. 
Thofe that were capable of deeper rcfledlipn, thought the 


* Thefoa of Scipio NaiJQ9j but adopted into lU« facsulY of the MetcUi. 

POMPEY. 101 

concerns of the commonwealth negle£led, which in a di- 
ftrefbful cafe had chofen him for its phyfician, and confided 
in him alone. It grieved them to J'ee him crowned with 
garlands, and offering ihcrifice amidll the feftivities of 
marriage, when he ought tohave confidercd his confulfhip 
as i public calamity, fince it would never have been given 
him in a manner (o contrary to the laws, had his country 
been in a prosperous fituation. 

His firft ftep was to bring thofe to account who gained 
offices an<l employments by bribery and corruption, and 
he made laws by which the proceedings in their trials were 
to be regulated. In other rtJipecls he l.cli.ivcd wlch great 
dignity and honour; and reftored fecuricy, order, and 
tranquillity, to the courts of judicature, by prefiding there 
in perfon with a band of foldiers. But when Scipio, hii 
fklhir-in-hw, came to be impeached, he fcnt for the three 
hundred and fixty judges to his houfc, and defired their 
afliilance. The accufer» feeing Scipio condufled out of 
the/orum to his houfe, by the judges themfclvcs, dropped 
the profecution- This agaia e^cpofed Pempey to cenfurc; 
Bat he was cenfured ftill more, when after having made 
« lavr againll encomiums on perfons accufed, he broke it 
himfelf, by appearing for Plancus, and attempting to 
cmbelliih his cliaruftcr. Cato, who happened to be one 
of the judges, Hopped his cars ; declaring, *« It was not 
*' right for him to hear fuch embellifnments, contrary to 
•« law." Cato, therefore, was objedlcd to and fet afxde 
before fentcnce was paficd. Plancus, however, was con« 
demned by the other judges, to the great confufion of 

A few days after, Hypfxus, a man of confular dignity, 
being under a criminal profecution, watched Pompey 's 
£oing from the bath to fupper» and embraced his knees in 
the moil fuppliant manner. But Pompey paiTed with dif- 
dain, and all the anfwer he gave him, was, *' That his 
** importunities ferved only to fpoil his fupper." This 
partial and unequal behaviour was juftly the objeft of re- 
proach. But all the reft of his conducl merited praife, and 
ne had the happinefs to re-eflabliih good order in the com- 
monwealth. He took his father-in-law for his colleague 
F 3 the 

* Ctcero, who managed the impeachment, was much deUgjKted^viVw 
the fuccefs of his eloquence i as appears irom \u% «^\^\« x.^ 'V^v\\x\^ 
Ub. vii« ep, 2m 

102 Plutarch's lives. 

the remaining five months. His governments were cori^ 
tinued lo him for four years more, and he was allowed a 
thou find talents a-year for the fubfillence and pay of hU 

Cajfar's friends laid hold on this occafion to reprefent, 
that fome confidcration (hould be had of him, too> and his 
many great and laborious fer vices for his country. They 
faid, he certainly deferved either another confulfhip, or 
to have the term of his commiflion prolonged ; that he 
might keep the command in the provinces he had conquer- 
ed, ai»d eojoy, undiflurbed, the hojiour^ he had won, and thax 
no uicceflbr migiit rob him of the fruit of his labours, or 
the glory of his actions. A difpute ariiing upon the affair, 
Pompey, as if inclined to fence againfi: the odium to 
which Caefar might be expofed by this demand, faid, hjc 
Lad letters from Cafar, in which he declared himfelf wil- 
ling to accept a fucceffor, and to give up the command in 
Gaul; only he thought it reafonable that he (hould be per- 
mitted, though abient, to Hand for the confulfliip*. 
Cato oppofed this with all his force, and infilled, " That 
*' Casfar fhould lay down his arms, and return as a private 
*' man, if he had any favour to afk of his country." And 
us Tompcy did not labour the point, but eafily acquiefccd, 
it w:is fufpedcd he had no real friend fliip for Carfar. This 
; ppeared more clearly, when he fent for the two legions 
which he had lent him, under pretence of wanting thciii 
lor the Parthian war. Cu far, though he well knew for 
what parpofe the legions were demanded, fent them home 
lidcn with rich preicnts. 

After this, Pompey had a dangerous illnefs at Naples, 
of which, however, he recovered. Praxagoras then ad- 
^ ifed the Neapolitans to offer facriiices to the gods, in gra- 
titude for his recovery. 'J'hc neighbouring cities followed 
tiieir c-'caiuple; and the humour fprcading itfelf over Italy, 
lane was not a town, or village, which did not folemnize 
I he occasion with felH vals. No place could afford room 
for the crowds that came in from all quarters to meet him; 
the high roads, the villages, the ports were filled with 
facriiices and entertainments. Many received him with 
garlands on their heads and torches in their hands, and, 

• There was a lav» againft any abfent pcrfon's being admitted a can- 
tfldaccj hut Pompey had added a claofc vwhich impowercd the peoyle 
to except any man by name from pc\fona\ all^ti^wvw* 

POMPEY, 103 

as they condu(Eled him on his way, llrewed it with flowers. 
His returning vidth fuch pomp, afforded a glorious fpec- 
tacle; but it is faiJ to have been one of the principal caufes 
of the civil war. For the joy lie conceived on this occafion, 
added to the liigh opinion he had of his achievements, 
intoxicated him To far, that, bidding adieu to the caution 
and prudence which had put his good fortune and the 
glory of his adions upon a fure footing, he gave into the 
moft extravagant prefumption, and even contempt of 
Cxfarj infomucJi, that he declared, " He had no need of 
" arms, or any extraordinary preparations againft him, 
•• fince he could pull him down with much more eafe than 
•* he had fet him up." 

Befides, when Appius returned from Gaul with the 
legions which had been lent to Cirfar, he endeavoured to 
liiTparage th:? adlions of that general, and toreprefent him 
in a mean light. •* Pompey," he faid, " knew not his own 
*' ftrengtli and the influence of his name* if he fought any 
•• other defence againrt.Ciefar, upon whom his own forces 
«* would turn, as Icon as they, faw the former; fuch was 
•* their hatred of the one, and their affedion for the 
" other." 

Pompey was fo much elated at this account, and his 
confidence made him fo extremely negligent, that he 
laughed at thofe who feemed to fear the war. And when 
they faid, that if Ca:far ihould advance in a hoftile manner 
to Rome, they did not fee what forces they had to oppofe 
him, he bade them, with an open and fmiling counte- 
nance, give thcmfelves no pain: " For, if in Italy," faid 
he, '^ 1 do but damp upon the ground, an army will 
*' appear." 

Meantime Casfar was exerting himfelf greatly. He was 
now at no great diflance from Italy, and not only fent his 
foldiers^ to vote in the elections, but, by private pecuniary 
applications, corrupted many of the magiflrates. Paulus 
the Conful, was of the number, and he had fifteen hun- 
dred talents* for changing fides. So were alfo Curio, one 
of the Tribunes of the people, for whom he paid off an 
immenfe debt, and Mark Antony, who, out of friend- 
fhip for Curio, had flood engaged with him for the 

F4 li 

* 310,685/. (ierVng, With this money he buWt X.Vvt (VskXtV^ BafVvca^ 
tbac a feci- wards bore his name. 

104 Plutarch's lives. 

It is (aid, that when one of Csefar's officers^ who flood 
before the fcnate-houfe, waiting the ifluc of the debates, 
was informed, that they would not give Caefar a longer 
term in his command, he laid his hand upon his fword, 
and faid, " But this fhall give it." 

Indeed, all the adlions and preparations of his general 
tended that way: Though Curio's demands in behalf of 
Cxfz.T fcemed more plaufible. He propofed, that either 
Pompey Ihould likewife be obliged to difmifs his forces, 
or Caefar fuffered to keep his. *• If they are both reduced 
*' to a private ftation," faid he, " they will agree upon rea- 
** fonaple terms; or, if each retains his refpeftive power, 
-*• they will be iaticfied. Bat he who weakens the one, 
•' without doing the fame by the other, muft double that 
*' force which he fears will fabvert the government*." 

Hereupon, Marcellns the conful called Ca^far a public 
robber, and iniifled, that he Jhould be declared an enemy 
to the ftate, if he did not lay down his arms. However, 
Curio, together with Antony and Pifo, prevailed that a 
farther inquiry fhould be made into the fenfe of the fenate. 
He firfl propofed, that fuch as were of opinion, •' That 
" Caefar fhould difband his army, and Pompey keep his," 
fhould draw to one fide of the houfe, and there appeared 
a majority for that motion. Then he propofed, that the 
number of thofe fhould be taken, whofe fenfe it was, 
" That both fliould lay down their arms, and neither re- 
" main in command;" upon which queAion, Pompey 
had only twenty-two, and Curio all thcreflf. Curio, 
proud of his viftory, ran in tranfports of joy to the 
aficmbly of the people, who received him with the loudeil 
plaudits, and crowned him with flowers. Pompey was 
n )t prefent at the debate in the houfe; for the commander 
of Tin army is not allowed to enter the city. But Marcel- 
lus rofc up and faid, " I will no longer fit to hear the 
*' matter canvaffed; but, as I fee ten legions have already 
** pafled the Alps, I will fend a man to oppofe them in 
«♦ behalf of my country." 


* Cornelius Sclpio, one of Pompcy's filendi, mnonftrated, that, in 
the prcfcnt cafe, a great differtncc was to be made between the pro- 
conful of Spain and the proconful of Gaul, fince the term of the for- 
mer was not expired, whereas that of the latter was. 

f DiOf on the contrary, affirms chat, upon this queftion, the fenata 
were slmod unanimous for Pompey •, only two voting for Caefar, via. 
Afarcuj decU'ms :knd Curio. 

POMPEY. 105 

Upon this, the city went into mournings as in a time 
of public calamity. Marcellus walked through xhe forum, 
followed by the fenate, and when he was in fight of Pom- 
pey without the gate, he faid, *' Pompey, I charge you to 
** affift your country ; for wliich purpofe you fhall make 
** ufe of the troops you have, and levy what new ones you 
*' pleafe." -Lentulus, one of the conluls eled for the nej^t 
year, faid the fame. But when Pompey came to make the 
new levies, fome abfolutely refufe# toenliil; others gave 
in their names in fmall numbers and with no fpirit ; and 
the greateft part cried out, " A peace! A. peace!" For 
Antony, notwithilanding the injunctions of the fenate to the 
contrary, had read a letter of Caefar's to the people, well 
calculated to gain them. He propofed, that both. Pompey 
and he (hould reiign their governments and difmifs their 
forces, and then come and give account of their condudt 
to the people. 

Lentulus, who by this time had entered upon his ofHce, 
would not ailemble the fenate ; for Cicero who was now 
xeturnsd from his government in Cilicia, endeavoured to< 
bring about a reconciliation. He propofed, that Cxfar 
&ould give up Gaul, and difband the greateft part of his 
army, and keeping only two legions and the province of 
Illyricuii, wait for another confullliip. As Pompey re- 
ceived this propofalvery ilUCaefar's friends were perfuaded 
to agree, that he fhould keep only one of thofe two legions. 
But Lentulus was againil it, and Cato cried out, ** That 
** Pompey was committing a fecond error, in fuffering him- 
** felf to be fo impofed upon.;" the reconciliation, there- 
fore, did not take eifedL 

At the fame time news was brought* that Cafar had 
feized Arminium^ a confiderable city in Italy, and that he. 
was marching diredly towards Rome with all his forces^ 
The laft cixcumftance, indeed, was not true. He advanced, 
with only three hundred horfe and five thoufand foot; the 
reft of his forces were on the other fide the Alps, and he 
would not wait for them, chooiing rather to put his ad- 
verfiaries in confufion by a fudden and unexpected attack, 
than to fight them when better prepared.. When he came 
to the river Rubicon, whicih was the boundary of his pro- 
vince, he ftood filent a long time, weighing with himfelf 
the greatnefs of his enterprize. At laft, like one who 
plunges down from the top of a precipice into «t ^njV^V ^t 

io6 Plutarch's lives. 

immcnfe depth, he filenced his reafon, and (hut his eyc>g 
againft the danger ; and crying out, in the Creek lan- 
guage, '* The die is caft," he marched over with his 

Upon the firft report of this at Rome, the city was in 
greater diforder and afloiviihment than had ever been 
known. The fenate and the magiflrates ran immediately 
to Pompey. Tullus alked him*, what forces he had 
ready for the war; and as he hefitated in his anfwer, and 
only faid at laft, in a tone of no great aflurance, " That he 
" had the two legions lately fent him back by Csefar, and 
" that out of the new levies he believed he Ihould ftiortly 
** hz able to make up a body of thirty thoufand men ;" 
Tullus exclaimed, ** O Pompey, you have deceived us !'* 
and gave it as his opinion, that ambaBadors fhould imme- 
diately be defpatclied to Caefar. Then one Favonius, a 
man other wife of no ill charader, but who, by an infolent; 
brutality, aiFedled to imitate the noble freedom of Catp, 
bade Pompey *' Stamp ujpon the ground, and call forth, 
"the armies he had promifed." 

Pompey bore this ill-timed reproach with great mild- 
nefs; and when Cato put him in mind of the warnings 
he had given him, as to Caefar, from the firft,^ he faid, 
'^ Cato, indeed, had fpoken more like a prophet, and ^e 
*' had a£led more like a friend." Cato then advifed that 
Pompey fhould not only be appointed general, but invefted 
with a difcretio.nary power: adding, that " thofc who 
<• were the authors of great evils, knew beft how to cure 
*' them." So faying, he fetout for his province of Sicily, 
and the othei: great officers departed for theirs. 

Almoil all Italy was now in motion, and nothing could 
be more perplexed than the whole face of things. Thofe 
wjio lived out of Rome, fled to it from all quarters, and 
thofe who lived in it, abandoned it as fail. Thefe faw, 
that in fuch a tempefluous and diforderly ilate of affairs, 
the wcll-difpofed part of the city wanted llrength, and 
that the ill-difpofed were fo refraftory that they could not 
be managed by the magiflrates. The terrors of the people 
could not be removed, and no one would fufFer Pompey 
to lay a plan of action for himfelf. According to the paf- 
fion wherewith each was aduated, whether fear, forrow, 
or doubt, they endeavoured to infpire him with the fame ; 

(.w. p. jyg^) 

• Lucius Yolcatiu* TuWus.. 

POMPEY. 107 

infomuch that he adopted different meafurcs the fame day- 
He could gain no certain intelligence of the enemy's 
motions, becaufe every man brought him the report he 
happened to take up, .and was angry if it did not meet 
with credit. 

Pompey, at lail, caufed it to be declared by an edid in 
form, that the commonwealth was in danger, and no 
peace to be expe^Sled*. After which, he lignified that 
lie fliould look upon thofe who remained in the city as the 
partisans of Cifar ; and then quitted it in thcdulk of the 
evening. The confuls alfo fled, without offering the fa- 
crificcs which their cuHoms required before a war. How- 
ever, in this great extremity, Pompey could not but be 
confidered as happy in the affcftipns of his countrymen. 
ThougLmany blamed the w;ir, there was not a man who 
hated the. geaera!. Nay, the number of thofe who fol- 
lowed him, out of attachment to his perfon, was greater 
than that of the adventprers in the caufe of liberty. 

A few days after, CxCjlv arrived at .Rome. When he 
was in poiVeinon of the city, he behaved with great mo- 
deration in many refpecls, and compofcd, in a good 
xneafure, the minds of its remaining inhabitants. Only 
when Metellus, one of the tribunes of the people, forbad 
him to touch the money in the public treafury, he threat- 
ened him with death, adding an cxprefEon more terrible 
than the threat itfelf, " That it was eafier for him to dp 
*' it than to fay it." Metellus being thus frightened off, 
Caefar took what fums he wanted, and then went in parfuit 
of Fompey ; haflening to drive him out of Italy before his 
forces could arrive from Spain. 

Pompey, who was mafler of Brundnfium, and had a 
fufBcient number of tranfpjorts, defired the confuls. to em- 
bark without Icfs of time, and fent them before liim 
with thirty cohorts to Dyrrhachium. At the fame time he 
fent his father-in-law Scipio and his fon Cnaeus into Syria, 
to provide (hips of war. He had well-fecured the gates 
of the city, and planted the lightell of his (lingers and 
archers upon the walls; and having-now ordered the Brun- 


• The Latin word, tumultus^ wliicli Plutarch has rendered ra^ap^rj, 
IS a very comprchenfive one. The Romans did net care to call rf:e 
commotions which happentd among i^em, or near them^ b«(o\^ <S\k^Ql 
iKifliucies were commer.ctd, by. the na-At o{ vw \ V».\tj ^\VV\w^>iv\\<A^ 
iJjcm by the r.ame of tumultui. 

io8 Plutarch's lives. 

dofians to keep within doors, he caufed a number of 
trenches to be cat, and (harp flakes to be driven into them, 
and then covered with earth, in all the ftreets, except two 
which led down to the Tea. In three days all his other 
troops were embarked without interruption ; and then he 
fuddenly gave the fignal to thofe who guarded the walls ; 
in confequence of which, they ran fwiftly down to the 
harbour, and eot on board. Thus having his whole com- 
plement, he iet fail, and crofled the fea to Dyrrhachium. 

When Caefar came and faw the walls left deftitute of 
defence *, he concluded that Pompey had taken to flight, 
and^ in his eagernefs to purfue, would certainly have mien 
upon the fharp flakes in the trenches^ had not the Brun^ 
dufians informed him of them- He then avoided the 
flreets f , and took a circuit round the town, by which he 
difcovered that all the vefTels were fet out, except two that 
had not many foldiers aboard. 

This manoeuvre of Pompey was commonly reckoned 
among the greatefl ads of generalfhip. Caefar, however, 
could not help wondering, that his adverfary, who was in 
ppfl'eflion of a fortified town, and expe£led his forces from 
Spain, and at the fame time was maiier of the fea, fhould 

five up Italy in fuch a nuumer. Cicero t, too, blamed 
im, for imitating the condud of ThenUflocles, rather 
than that of Pericles, when the poflure of his affairs more 
refembled the circnmflances of the latter. On the other 
hand, the fleps whiph Csefar took, fhewed he was afraid of 
having the war drawn out to any length : For having 
taken Numerius||, a friend of Pompey 's, he had fent him 
to Brundufmm, with offers of coming to an accommoda- 
tion upon reafonable terms. But Numerius, inflead of 
returning with an anfwer, failed away with Pompey. 

Caefar thus made himfelf mailer of all Italy in fixty 
days without the leafl bloodfhed, and he would have been 


* C^far befieged the place nine days, during: which he not onJy 
jnvefted it on the land-fide, but undertook to fliut up the port bj a 
faccado of his own invention. However, before the work could be 
completed, Pompey made hit efcape. 

j- ^v>^ctrloutyoi niy iroAtVf km kvkT^u in^iurj perhaps means, 
« That he avoided the principal (Ireets, and came by many windings 
•♦ and turnings to the haven." 

X £p. to Atticu8, vii. ii« 

/ c^rar ciUs him Cn» Ma^iut, He was maflcr of Pompey's Board 
of Wcrhs, 

POMPEY. 109 

glad to have gone immmediately ia purfuit of Pompey. 
But as he was in want of ihipping, he gave up that de« 
iign for the prefent, and marched to Spain« yfix}^ an in- 
tent to gain the forces there. 

In the mean time Pompey afTembled a great army ; and 
at fea he was altogether invincible. For he had five hun- 
dred (hips of war« and the number of his lighter veiiek was 
ftill greater. As for his land-forces^ he had (even thou- 
fand horfe, the flower of Rome and luly *, all men of 
family, fortune, and courage. His infuity, though nu- 
merous, was a mixture of raw, undifciplined foldiers : 
He therefore exercifed them during his ftay at Bercea, 
where he was by no means idle, but went through ail the 
exercifes of a foldier as if he had been in the flower of his 
»ge. It infpired his troops with new courage, when they 
faw Pompey the Great, at the a^^e of fifty-eight, going 
through the whole military difcipline, in heavy armour, 
on foot ; and then mounting his horfe, drawing his fword 
with eafe >vhen at full fpeed, and as dexteroufly fheathing 
it again. As to the javelin, he threw it not only with 
great exadnefs, but with fuch force, that few of the young 
men could dart it to a greater diftance. 

Many kings and princes repaired to his camp, and the 
number of Roman officers who had commanded armies 
was fo great, that it was fufEcient to make up a complete 
fenate. Labienus f , who had been honoured with Cskkr's 
friend (hip, and ferved under him in Gaul, now joined 
Pompey. Even Brutus, the fon of that Brutus who was 


* Ccrar, oil the contraryi iays, that his body of horfe was alinoft 
entirely compofed of Uranjsers. *' There were fix hundred GaUtians* 
«« fiye hundred Cappadocians, aa many Thraciaoti two hundred Mace - 
** donians, five hundred Gauls, or Germans, eight hundred raifed out 
** of his own eftates» or out of his own retinue;** and fo of the reft, 
vrhom he particularly mentions, and tells us to what countries they 

f It feemed very Arange, iays Die, that Labienus ihould abandon 
Cfefar* who had loaded him with honours, and given him the com- 
mand of all the forces on the other fide of the Alps, while he was at 
Rome. But he gives this reaibn for it : ** Labienus, elated with bia 
**• immenfe wealth, and proud of bis preferment^;, forgot himfelf 10 
«* fuch A degree, as to afiume a charadler very unbecoming a perfon in 
'** his circumfbnces. He was even for putting himfelf upon an equa- 
** iity with Capfar, who thereupon grew cool towards him> and itca&.^ 
'« him with fome rcliBrvei which Labienus t«fetvx«d) «n^ ni^iwX ^h%;i v^ 
•♦ Fowpcy," 

no Plutarch's lives. 

killed by him not very fairly in the Cifalpine Gaul * ; a 
man of ipirit, who had nisver fpoken to Pompey before, 
becaufe he coniidered him as the murderer of his father, 
now ranged himfelf under his banners^ as the defender of 
the liberties of hifi country. Cicero too, though he had 
written and advifed otherwife, was afhamed not to aj^- 
pear in the number of thofe who hazarded their lives far 
Rome. Tidius Sextius, though extremely old, aiui 
maimed of one leg, repaired, among the refl, to his 
llandard in Macedonia ; and though others only laughed 
at the poor appearance he made, fooner cafl 
his eyes upon him, thaniie rofe up, and ran to meet him; 
conildering it as a great proof of the. julUce of his caufe, 
that, in fpite of age and weaknefs, perfoiv3 fhould come 
and feek danger wiUi-him, rather, than flay at home in 

But after Pompey had afiembled his fenate, and at the 
motion of Cato, a decree was made, *' that no Roman 
*' fhould be killed, except in haitle^ nor any city that was 
•* fubjedi to the Romans be plundered," Pompey's party 
gained ground daily. Thole, who lived at too great a 
diftance, or were too weak to take a (hare in the war, 
interefled themfelves in the caufe as much as they were 
able, and, with words. at leaft, contended for it; looking 
upon thofe as enemies both to the god$ and men, who did 
not wifti that Pompey might conquer. 

Not but that Caifar made a merciful ufe of his victories. 
He had lately, made himfelf mailer, of Pgmpey*s forces in 
Spain, and though it was not without a battle, he dif- 
raiffed the officers, and incorporated the troops with his 
own. After this, he paded the Alps again, and marched 
through Italy to Brundulium, where he arrived at the time 
of the winter folftice. There he crofled the fca, and 
landed at Oricum ; from whence he defpatched Vibulliusf, 


• The former Englifti Iranflator renders this Gahtit. He ought to 
ha\i remembered that iliis Brutus was killed by Geminius, in a vil- 
lage mar the Po, by Pompcy's order, after he had accepted his fub- 
iniflfion, if not proniifed him bis life. The amliors of the Univeif.l 
Hilloty have copied the error. 

f In tlie printed text it is Jubtus\ but one of the manufcripts givfs 
us KifuI/iuSi which is the name he has in Cafar's Comm. lib. iii. Vi- 
bujlius Rufus travelled night and day, without allowing himfelf any 
re/f, tJU he reachei Pompey's camp, who liad not ytt received advice 



one of Pornpey's friends, whom he had brought prifoncr 
thither with propofals of a conference between him and 
Pompejr, " in which they fhould agree to difband th<|ir 
*' armies within three days, renew their friendlhip, con- 
'' £rm it with folemn oaths, and t;hen both return to 
" Italy." 

Pompeytook this overture foranother fnare, and there- 
fore drew down in hafte to the fea^ and fecured all the 
forts and places of ftrength for land forces as well as all 
the ports and other commodious ilations for (hipping ; fo 
that there was not a wind that blew, which did not Bring 
him either provifions, or troops, or money. On the other 
hand, Cacfar was reduced to fuch ftraits both by fea aod 
land, that he was under the neceflity of feeking a battle. — 
Accordingly he attacked Pompey's entrenchments, apd 
bade him defiance daily. In mofl of thefe attacks and 
fkirmifhes he had the advantage ; but one day was in 
danger of loling his whole army. Pompey fought with 
fo much valour, that he put Caeiar's whole detachment to 
flight, after having killed two thoufand of them upon the 
fpot ; but was either unable or afraid to purfue his blow, 
and enter their camp with them. Csfar faid to his 
friends on the occafion, ** This day the viftory had been 
*' the enemy's had their general known how to conquer*." 
Pompey *s troops, elated with, this fuccefs, were in great 
hafte to come to a decifive battle. Nay, Pompey himfclf 
feemed to give into their opinions by writing to the kings, 
the generals, and cities, m his interefl, in the ftyle of a 
conqueror. Yet all this while he dreaded the iffue of a 
general a6lion, believing it much better, by length of 
time, by femine and fatigue, to tire out men who had 


of Csefar^s arrival, but was no fooner informed of the taking of Ori- 
cum and Apollonia, than he immediately decamped, aod by Long 
marches reached Oricum before Csfar. 

* Yet it may be obferved, in defence of Pompey, that as his troops 
were raw and une\perienced> it was not amifs to try them in many 
iktrmlibes and light attacks, btrfore he hazarded a general engagement 
with an army of vet^ans. Many InAanccs of that kind might be 
produced from the conduct of the abled generals. And we are per- 
ivaded, that if Pompey had attempted to force C«efar*s camp, he would 
have been repulfed with lofs and difgrace. Pompey's greateil ejror 
feems to have been, his fuffering bimielf to be bi ought to an &&vQick.«x 
Jail by the importunity of bis oihcers and (o\d\«u %^^\^^ V\^ \i^\\sx\ 

112 Plutarch's lives. 

been ever invincible in arms, and long accuflomed to con- 
jjuer when they fought together. BeAtfes, he knew the 
infirmities of age had made them unfit for the other ope- 
rations of war, for long marches and countermarches, for 
digging trenches and building forts, and that, therefore, 
thcv wifhed for nothing fo much as a battle, Ponipey, 
with all thefe arguments^ found it no eafy matter to keep 
his army q^uiet. 

After this laft engagement, Caefar was in. fuch want of 
provisions, that he was forced to decamp, and he took 
his way through Athamania to Theflkly. This added fo 
much to the high opinion Pompey's foldiers had of them- 
felves, that it was impofiible to keep it within bounds. 
They cried out with one voice, ** Csfar is fled." Some 
called upon the general to purfue : Some to pafs over ta 
Italy. Others fent their friends and fervants to Rome, to 
engage houfes near the /orum, for the convenience of foli- 
citmg the great offices of ftate. And not a few went of 
their own accord to Cornelia, who had been privately 
lodged in Leibos, to congratulate her upon the conclufioa 
of 3ic war. 

On this great emergency, a^ council of war was called ;. 
in which Afranius gave it as his opinion, " That they 
•* ought immediately to regain Italy, for that was, the 
•' great prize aimed at in the war. Sicily, Sardinia, 
•• Corfica, Spain, and both the Gauls would foon fubmit 
•' to thofe who were mailers there. What Ihould afFeft. 
** Pompcy ilill more was, that Ids native country jufl by, 
'' ilretched out her hands to him as a fuppliant ; and it 
" could not be confident with his honour to let her remain 
*' under fuch indignities, and in fo difgraceful a vaiTalage 
" to the flaves and flatterers of tyrants." But Pompey 
thought it would neither be for his reputation, to fly a 
fccond time from Cxfar, and again to be purfued, when 
Fortune put it in his power to purfue; nor agreeable to the 
laws of piety, to leave his father-in-law Scipio, and many 
other perfons of confnlar dignity in Greece and TheflTaly, 
a prey to Caefar, with all their treafures and forces. As 
for Rome, he fliould take the beft care of her, by fixing 
tlie fcene of war at the greateft diftance from her -, that, 
without feeling its calamities, or perhaps hearing the report 
of them, fhe might quietly wait for the conqueror. 


poMP£y. 113 

This opinion prevailing, he fet out in purfuit of Caefar, 
with a refolution not to hazard a battle, but to keep near 
enough to hold him, as it were, befieged, and to wear 
him out with famine. This he thought the beft method 
he could take; and a report was, moreover, brought him, 
of its being whifpered among the equeftrian ordcr» 
** That as toon as they had taken oft' Ca;far, they could 
*' do nothing better than take off him too." Some fay, 
this was the reafon why he did not employ Cato in any 
fervicc of importance, but, upon his march againft Caefar, 
fent him to the fea-coaft to take care of the baggage, left, 
after he had deftroyed Cxfar, Cato (hould foon oblige him 
to lay down his commiilion. 

While he thus foftly followed the enemy's ftcps, a com- 
plaint was raifed againft him, and ur^ed with much cla*> 
mour, that he was not exercifing his generalihip upon 
Caefar, but upon the fenate and the whole commonwealths 
in order that he might for ever keep the command in hi9 
hands, and have thofe for his guards and fervants, who 
had a right to govern the world* Domitius i£nobarbus, 
to increafe the oJium, always called him Agamemnon, or 
king of kings. Favonius piqued him no lefs with a jeft, 
than others by their unfealonablef feverity ; he went about 
crying, "My friends, we ihall eat Mao figs in Tufculum 
** this year." And Lucius Afranius, who loft the forces 
in Spain, was accufed of having betrayed them into the 
enemy's hand, now when he faw Pompcy avoid a battle, 
faid, " He was furprifed that his accufers ftiould make 
•* any difficulty of fighting that merchant, (as they called 
** him) who trafficked for provinces," 

Thefe, and many other like fallies of ridicule, had fuch 
an effisd upon Pompey, who was ambitious of being fpo. 
ken well of by the world, and had too much deference 
for the opinions of his friends, that he gave up his own 
better judgment, te follow them in the career of their 
falfe hopes and profpeds. A thing which would have 
been unpardonable in the pilot or maftcr of a fhip, much 
more in the commander in chief of fo many nations, and 
fuch numerous armies. He had often commended the 
phyfician who gives no indulgence to the whimfical long- 
ings of his patients, and yet he humoured the iickly 
cravings of his army, and wa$ afraid to give them pain. 

114 Plutarch's lives. 

thoagh neceflary for the prefervation of their life and 
being. For who can fay that army was in a found and 
healthy flate, when fome of the ofiicers went about the 
camp canvalTing for the offices of conful and praetor j and 
others, namely, Spinther, Domitius, and Scipio, vvere 
engaged in quarrels and cabals about Cafar's^ highprieft- 
hood, as if their adverfary had been only a Tigranes, a 
king of Armenia, or a prince of the Nabathaeans ; and' 
not that Caifar and that army, who had ftormed a thoufand 
cities, fubdued above three hundred nations, gained num- 
berlafs bat*4e» ofthc Germans and-Gauk, taken a million 
of prifoners, and killed as many feirly in the field. Not- 
withAanding all this, they continued loud and tumultuoasr 
in their demands.of a battle,, and when they came to the 
plains of Pharfalia,. forced Pompey to call a council of war- 
Labicnus, who haithe cpmmand of the cavalry, rofe up 
£1^9 and took an oath, " That he would not return from 
" the battle, till, he had put the enemy to flight." All 
the other officers the fame*. 

The night following, Pompey had this dream *. He 
thought, '* he entered his own theatre, and was received 
*•■ with loud plaudits; after which he adorned the tem- 
" pie of Venus tLe FiSorius with many fpoils." This 
vifion, on one fide, encouraged him, and on another 
alarmed him. He was afraid that Cxfar, who was a de- 
fcendant of Venu^, would be aggrandized at his expence^ 
Befides, a panic t ifear ran through the camp, the noife of 
which awaked him. And about the morning watch, over 
Oefar's camp, where every thing was perfeftly quiet, there 
fuddcnly appeared a great light, from which a flream of 
fire iffucd in the form of a torch, and fell upon that of 
Pompey. Ca;far. himfclf fays, he faw it as he was going 
his rounds. 


* At nox fcUdi Magno part tihima v'ta 
Soilirltos var.a dcoeph imagine iomnof. 
Nam Poinpeia'ii viiiis fibi <cdc theatri 
Inr.umeram effigiem Rom&nx cernere Pld>is, 
Attolliqae fuum Ictis ad li tera nomen 
Vocibus, & plaufu cuneoa certart (ixuuitec* LUCAN. lib. vti, 

f Panic ftars were fo called, from the terror which the god Par ;.s 
faid to have Aruck the enemies of Greece with, ac the battle ot M a- 

POMPEY, 115 

Caefar ^as preparing, at break of day, to inarch to 
Scotufa* ; his foldiers were ftiiking their tents, and the 
fervants and hearts of burden were already in motion, 
when his fcouts brought intelligence, that they had feen 
arms handed about in the enemy's camp, and perceived a 
noife and buftle, which indicated an approaching battle. 
After thefe, others came and aflured him, that the firil 
ranks were drawn up. 

Upon this Caefar f^id, " The long-wifhed day is come, 
•* on which we Ihall fight with men, and not with want 
** and famine." Then he immediately ordered the red 
mantle to be pat before his pavilion, which among the 
Romans, is the fignal of a battle. The foldiers no fooner 
beheld it, than tlicy left their tents a& they were, and ran 
to arms with loud Ihouts, and every exprelTion of joy.— 
And when the ofiicers began to put them in order of battle, 
each man fell into his proper rank as qaietly, and with as 
much (kill and eafe, as a chtirus iu a tragedy. 

Pompey f placed himfelf in liis right wing over againft 
Antony, and his father-in-law, Scipio, iu the centre, op- 


• rifo a-xcreq In the printed text 18 evidently a corruption. An 
anonymous manufcript gives us n-^of Xxoruo-aey. Scotula was a city 
of Thcifaly. Cscfar was perfuadcd that Pompey viould not come to 
A^ion, ai.d therefore chofe to march infearch cf provifions, as well as 
to harafs the enemy with freqocnt movements, and to watch his op. 
poriunJry, in fome cf thofe movements, to fall upon ihem. 

f It is fomcwhat furpriling, that the account whicli Ccfar Mmfell 
has left us of this memorable battle, fViould meet with comradidtion. 
Yet fo it is ; Plutarch differs from him, and Appian from both. 
According to CttUr (Bell. Civil, lib. iil.) Pcmpey was on the left with 
the I wo legions v-hich Csefar had returned him at the beginnins of 
the war. Scipio, Pompey^s father-in-law, was in the centre, with the 
legions he had brought from Syria, and the reinforcements fent by 
f^veriil kings and flatcs of Afia. The Cilician legion and fome cohorts 
which had fervcd in Spain, were in the right under the con mand of 
Afranius. As Pcmpey*s right wing was covered by the £nipeu>, he 
Arengtiiened the left with the ftvcn thoufand horfe, as well as with 
the flingtrs and archers. The whole army, confifting of forty-five 
ihcufand men, was drawn up in three lines, with very littic fpaces 
between them. In conformity to this difpofition, Caefar's army wjs 
drawn up in the following order : the tenth legion, which had on all 
occafions fignalized itfelf above the refl, was pliced in the right wing, 
and the ninth in the left ; but as the latter had been confiderably 
weakened in the a6tion at Dyrrhachium, the eighth legion was polled 
fo near it, as to be able to fupport and reinforce \\. vx^orv c^^^&oitv.-— > 
The nil of Cxfa^s fpr ces filled up the fnaces btx^wt^u v>aav«Q Hi\tv'5^* 

ii6 Plutarch's lives. 

pofite Domitius Calvinus. His left wing was commanded 
by Lucius Domitiusj and fupportcd by the cavalry ; for 
they were almoft all ranged on that fide, in order to break 
in upon Carfar, and cut off the tenth legion, whit:h was 
accounted the braveft in his army, and in which he ufed 
to fight in perfon. Ciefar feeing the enemy's left wing fo 
well guarded with horfc, and fearing the excellence of 
their armour, font for a detachment of fix cohorts from the 
body of refervc, and placed them behind the tenth legion, 
with orders not to ftir before the attack, left they Ihould 
be difcovered by the enemy; but when the enemy's cavalry 
had charged, to make up throHgh the forcmoft ranks, and 
then not todifcharge thsir javelins ata diflancc, as brave 
men generally do m their cagernefs to come to fword in 
hand, but to referve them till they came to clofe fighting, 
and pufh them upwards into the eyes and faces of the 
enemy. " For thofc fair young dancers," faid he, •' will 
•• never ftand the ftcel aimed at their eyes, but will fly 
" to fave their handfomc faces.'* 

While Cajfar was thus employed, Pompey took a view 
on horfeback of the order of both armies ; and finding 
that the enemy kept their ranks with the utmoft exadnefs, 
and quietly waited for the fignal of battle, while his own 
men, for want of experience, were fluctuating and unltcady, 
he was afraid they would be broken upon the firft onfet. 
He therefore commanded the vanguard to ftand firm in 
their ranks *, and in that clofe order to receive the enemy's 
charge. Csefar condemned this meafure, as not only tend- 
ing to leflen the vigour of the blows, which is always 
greateft in the aflailants, but alfo to damp the fire and fpirit 
of the men ; whereas thofe v/ho advance with impetuofity 
and animate each other with fhouts, are filled with an en- 
thuiiaftic valour, and fupcrior ardour. 

Caefar's army conflfted of twenty-two thoufand men, and 
Pompey's was fomething more than twice that number. 
When the fignal was given on both fides, and the trumpets 
founded a cnarge, each common man attended only to 


Maik Antony commanded the left wing, Sylla the right, and Cnelus 
Domitius Calvus the main body. At for Caerar, he poiUd himfelf on 
the right over againft Fompey, that he might have him always in fighta 

* Vide C/iB. ubi fupra. 
^ This, however, muft be faid in excufe for Pompey, that generals of 
grcMt fame and experience hive fometimes done as he did* 

POMPEY. 117 

his own concern. But fome of the principal Romans and 
Greeks who only flood and looked on, when the dreadful 
moment of adion approached, could not help conildering 
to what the avarice and ambition of two men had brought 
the Roman empire. The fame arms on both fides, the 
troops marfhalled in the fame manner^ the fame ilandards ; 
in fhort, the Hrength and flower of one and the fame city 
turned upon itfclf ! What could be a itronger proof of the 
blindnefs and infatuation of human nature, when carried 
away by its paflions ? Had they been willing to enjoy the 
fruits of their labours in peace and tranquillity, the greatefl 
and beft part of the world was their own. Or, if they 
muft have indulged .their thirft of vidories and triumphs, 
.the Farthians and Germans were yet to be fubdued; 
Scythia and India yet remained; together with a very 
plauiible colour for their lufl of new acqaiiitions, the pre- 
tence of civilizing barbarians. And wJiat Scythian horfe, 
what Parthian arrows, what Indian treafures, could have 
.refilled feventy thoufand Romans, led on by Pompey and 
Caefar, with whofe names thofe nations had long been 
acquainted ? Into fuch a variety of wild and favage coun- 
tries had thefe two generals carried their vidtorious arms. 
Whereas now they liood threatening each other with de- 
Urudion ; not fparing even their own glory, though to it 
they facrificed their country, but prepared, one of them, 
-to lofe the reputation of being invincible, which hitherto 
they had botn maintained. So that the alliance which 
they had conlradled by Pompey 's marriage to Julia, was 
from the firfl only an artful expedient ; and her charms 
we4;e to form a felf-interefled compad, inflead of being 
thcpledge of a fincere friendfhip. 

The ^ain of Pharfalia was now covered with men, and 

. horfesj and arms ; and the fignal of battle being given on 

both fides, the firft on Cxfar's fide who advanced to 

the charge, was Caius Cradinns *, who commanded a 

. corps of a hundred and twenty men, and was determined 

to make j;ood his promife to his general. He was the 

firfl man Csfar faw when, he went out of the trenches in 

. the morning ; and upon Caefar's alking him what he 

thought of the battle, he flretched out his hand, and 

anfwered in a cheerful tone, *^ You will gain a glorious 

" vidory 

* So Czfar caUi him. His name In V\utaic\\ v% CrajJ\aiui\^ m K^* 
,p}an Craji/iyu 

ii8 Plutarch's lives. 

" vidory, and I (hall have your praife this day, either 
«' alive or dead." In purfuance of this promife, he ad- 
vanced the foremofl, and many following to fupport him, 
he charged into the midft of the enemy. They foon took 
to their fwords, and numbers were (lain ; but as Craftinus 
was making his way forward, and cutting down all before 
him, one of Pompey's men flood to receive him, and 
pulhed his fword in at his mouth with fuch force, that it 
went through the nape of his neck. Craftinus thus killed, 
the fight was maintained with equal advantage on both 

Pompey did not immediately bring on his right wing, 
but often direded his eyes to the left, and loft time in 
waiting to fee what execution his cavalry would jlo there. 
Mean while they bad extended their fquadrons to furround 
Csefar, and prepared to drive the few horfe he had placed 
in front, bacK upon the foot. At that inftant Caefar gave 
the fignal : Upon which his cavalry retreated a little • ; 
and the fix cohorts, which confiited of three thoufand 
men, and had been placed behind the tenth legion, ad- 
vanced to furround Pompey 's cavalry ; and coming clofe 
up to them, raifed the points of their javelins, as they 
had been taught, and aimed them at the face f. Their 
adverfaries, who were not experienced in any kind of 
fighting, and had not the leaft previous idea of this, could 
not parry or endure the blows upon their faces, but turned 
their backs, or covered their eyes with their hands, and 
foon fled with great dilhonour. Caefar's men took no care 
to purfue them, but turned their force upon the enemy's 
infantry, particularly upon that wing, which, now flrip- 
ped of its horfe, lay open to the attack on all fides. The 
fix cohorts, therefore, took them in flank, while the 
tenth legion charged them in front ; and they, who had 
hoped to furround the enemy, and now, inftead of that, 


* At ^6 iTriTBTOtyusvvti <r7Pit^ai vr^oq tvip tLVkhaciv iTFi^^AiAHa-aif 

Amiot and Dacier tranOate thl« paHage as we have done ; though, 
iK'iih a comma after KV)ih.bvnf} it may pofTibly bear the fenfe which 
the Latin and the former Englifli tranflator have given it j namdy, 
that they were placed there to prevent the tenth legion from being 
Surrounded, but that does not appear to be a natural conftrudtion. 

•J* Miles, feri facim* 

POMPEY, 119 

(aw thcmfelves furroundeJ, made but a (hort reiiftancc, 
and then took to a precipitate flight. 

By the great dull that was railed, Pompey conje^lurcd 
the fite of his cavalry; and it is hard to fay what paH'ed 
in his mind at that moment. He appeared like a man 
moon-flruck and diilra£led ; and without coniidering that 
he was Pompey the Great, or fpeaking to any one, he 
quitted the ranks, and retired llep by ftep towards his 
camp. A fcene which cannot be better painted than in 
thefe verfes of Homer • : 

-But partial Jove efpoufing Hedor*s part. 

Shoe hcav'nbred horror through the Grecian^s heart} 

Confus*d, unnervM in Hcftor*s prefence grown, 

Amazed he ftood, with terrors not his own. 

0*er hl& broad back his moony ihield he threw, 

And glaring round, by tardy (leps withdrew. Pove* 

In this condition he entered his tent, where he fat 
down, and uttered not a wordy till at laft, upon finding 
that fome of the enemy entered the camp with the fugi- 
tives, he faid, " What ! into my camp too !" After this 
fhort exclamation, he rofe up, and dreifing himfelf in a 
manner fuitable to his fortune, privately withdrew f- AH 
the other legions fled ; and a great flaughter was made in 
the camp, of the fervants and others who had the care of 
.the tents. But Afinius Pollio, who then fought on Caefar's 


* In the eleventh book of the Iliad, where he is fpeaking of the 
flight of Ajax before Hedor. 

f Caefar tells us that the cohorts appointed to defend the camp made 
a vigorous refirtance j but being at length overpowered, fled to a neigh- 
bouring mountain, where he refolved to inveft tkem. But before he 
had finifhed his lines, wane of water obliged them to abandon that 
poft, and retire towards Larifla. Cseiar purfued the fugitives at the 
head of four legions, (not of the fourth legion, as the authors of the 
Univerfai Hiftory erroneoufly fay,) and after fix miles march came up 
with them. But they not daring to engage troops fluked withvid^ory, 
fled for refuge to a hij^h hill, the foot of which was watered by a little 
river. Though Caefar's men were quite fpent, and ready to faint with 
the exceflive heat and the fatigue of the whole day, ye^ by his obliging 
manner, he prevailed upon them to cut off the converiency of the wa- 
ter from the enemy by a trench. Hereupon, the unfortunate fugitives 
came to a capitulation, threw down their arms, and implored the cle- 
mency of the conqueror. This they all did, except fome fenators, 
who, as it was now night, cfcaped in the dark. Vide C*s. BelU 
Hv. ill. 80. 

120 Plutarch's lives. 

fide, aflures us, that of the regular troops there were not 
above fix thoufand men killed *. 

Upon the taking of the camp, there was a fpeftacle 
which (hewed, in Jlrong colours, the vanity and folly of 
Pompey's troops. All the tents were crowned with myrtle ; 
the beds were ftrewed with flowers ; the tables covered 
with cups, and bowls of wine fet out. In ihort, every 
thing had the appearance of preparations for feafls and 
facriiices, rather than for men going out to battle. To 
fuch a degree had their vain hopes corrupted them, and 
with fuch a fenfelefs confidence they took the field ! 

When Pompey had got at a little diilance from the 
camp, he quitted his horfe. He had very few people 
about him ; and, as he faw he was not purfued, he went 
foftly on, wrapt up in fuch thoughts as we may fuppofe a 
inan to have, who had been ufed for thirty-four years to 
conquer and carry all before him, and now in his old age 
firil came to know what it was to be defeated and to Ry, 
We may eafily conjedlure what his thoughts mull be, when 
in one fhort hour he had loft the glory and the power 
which had been growing up amidlt fo many wars and 
conHids; and he wlio was lately guarded with fuch armies 
of horfo and foot, and fuch great and powerful fleets, 
was reduced to fo mean and contemptible an equipage, 
that his enemies, who were in fearch of him, could not 
know him. 

He pafled by LarifTa, and came to Tempe, where burn- 
ing with thirft, he threw himfelf upon his face, and drank 
out of the river ; after which, he paiTed through the val- 
ley, and went down to the fea-coalh There he fpent the 
remainder of the night in a poor filherman's cabin. Next 
morning, about break of day, he went on board a fmall 
river-boat, taking with him fuch of his company as were 
freemen. The flavcs he difmifled, bidding them go to 
Ca:far, and fear nothing. 

As he was coafling along, he faw a ihip of burthen juil 
ready to fail ; the mafter of which was Peticius, a Roman 
citizen, who, though not acquainted with Pompey, knew 
liim by fight. It happened that this man, the niglit be- 
fore, dreamed he fai^ Pompey come and talk to him, not 

* Cxrar fays, that In all there were fifteen tbouiand kilkd, anJ 
iwenty-iour tftouland tsiken prifoncrs. 


in the figure he had formerly known him, but in meaA 
and melancholy circumftances. He was giving the paf- 
fengers an account of his dream^ as perfons, who have a 
great deal of time upon their handsj love to difcourfe 
about fuch matters ; when* on a fudden, one of the nia«- 
riners told him^ he faw a little boat rowing ap to him 
from the land, and the crew making figni>, by ihaking 
their garments and ilretching out their hands. Upon this> 
Peticius ftood up, and could diftinguifh Pompe^ among 
them, in the fame form as he had feen him in hit dream. 
Then beating his head for forrow, he ordered the feamen 
to let down the (hip's boat, and held out his hand to 
Pompey to invite him aboard ; for by his drcfs he per- 
ceived his change of fortune. Therefore, without wait- 
ing for any i&rther application, he took him up, and fuch 
of his companions as he thought proper, and Uien hoifted 
fail. The perfons Pompey took with him, were the two 
Lentuli and Favonius ; and a little after, they faw king 
Deiotams beckoning to them with great earneibiefs from 
the fhore, and took him up likewife. The mailer of the 
(hip provided them the bell fupper he could, a&d when it 
was almoft ready, Pompey, for. want of a fervant, wag 
going to wafh himfelf, but Favonius feeing it« Hepped up, 
and both waihed and anointed him. All the time he was 
on board, he continued to wait upon him in all the offices 
of a fervant, even to the wafliing of his feet and pro- 
viding his fupper ; infomuch, that one who faw the un- 
afFedted fimplicity and iincere attachment with which Fa- 
vonius performed thefe offices, cried out, 

— The generous mind adds dignity 
To cvtry a€t, and nothing mlfbecoines it. 

Pompey in the courfe of his voyage, failed by Amphi- 
polis, and from thence fleered for Mitylene, to take up 
Cornelia and his fon. As foon a^ he reached the ifland, 
be fent a meffenger to the town with news far different 
from what Cornelia expeded. For, by the flattering ac- 
counts which many officious perfons had given her, ihe 
underftood, that the difpute was decided at Dyrrhachium, 
and that nothing but the purfuit of Csefar remained to be 
attended to. The meflbnger finding her poflcfled with 
fuch hopes, had not power to make the ufual falutations ; 
but expreffing the grjeatnefs of Pompey 's misfoiVAxi^^\i^ Vvi 

122 Plutarch's lives. 

tears rather than words, only told her, *' She muft make 
** hafte, if fhe had a mind to fee Pompey with one fhip 
** only, and that not his own." 

At this news Cornelia threw herfelf upon the ground, 
where fhe lay a long time infenfible and fpeechlefs. At Jail, 
coming to herfelf, Ihe perceived there was no time to be 
loft in tears and lamentations, and therefore hallened 
through the town to the fea. Pompey ran to meet her, and 
received her to his arms as (he was juft going to fall. 
While ihe hung upon his neck, ilie thus add relied him : 
•' I fee, my dear hufband,. your prefent unhappy x:ondition 
** is the eftedl of my ill fortune, and- not. yours. Ala? ! 
" how are you reduced to one poor veiTel, who, before 
*' your marriage with Cornelia, traverfed this fea with five 
** hundred galleys ? Why did you. come to fee me, and 
•' not ratlier leave me to my evil defliny, who have loaded 
" you too with f\ich a weight of calamities ? How happy 
*' had it been foi> me, to have ..died before I heard that 
•' Publius, my firft huiband, was killed by the Parthians ? 
•* How wife,,, had I followed him to the grave, as I once 
«' intended ? .What have J lived for fmce, but to bring 
«' misfortunes upon Pompey the Great * ?*' 

Such, we are aflured, was the: fpeech of Cornelia ; and 
Pompey anfwered, ** Till, this moment,. Cornelia, you 
•' have experienced nothing.bui; the fmiles of fortune ; and 
«« it was me who deceived you, bjecaufe fhe flayed with 
' " me longer than fhe commpnly does with her favourites. 
' *• But, fated as we are, we. muH bear this reverfe, and 
" make another trial of ^ For it is no more improb- 
*' able, that we may emerge from this poor condition, and 
*' rife to great things again, than it was, that we fhould 
" fall from great thmgs into this poor condition." 

Cornelia then fent to the city for her mofl valuable 
moveables and her fervants. The people of Mitylene came 
to pay their refpedls to Pompey, and to invite him to their 


* Cornelia is reprefented by Lucan, too, as imputing the misfortunes 
. of Pompey to her alliance with him ; and it feems, from one part ^ f 
. her fpeech on this occafion, that ihe (hould have been given to Csi^r. 

O ntinam Thsdamos inrlfi Caelarit ifiem ! 

If there were any thing in this, it might have been a material caufe o^ 

thex}uarrel between Caefar and Pcmpey, as the latter, by means of this 

. MWtanct, muil have ilrengthened himfeif with the Cr-ad^aq interefl : For 

<Com<dja wastb^ nU€t of PubUus Cr^fTuH the f^n pC Mvrcpt Cra0^s. 

POMPEY. 123 

city. But he refufed to go, and bade them Airrender them- 
felves to the conqueror without fear ; ** For Caefar," he 
told them, " had great clemency." After this, he turned 
to Cratippus the philofopher, who was come from the town 
to fee him, and began to complain a little of Providence, 
and exprefs fome doubts concerning it. Cratippus made 
fome conceflions, and, turning the difcourfe, encouraged 
him to hope better things ; that he might not give him 
pain, by an unfeafonable oppofition tohis arguments; elfe 
he might have anfwered his objections againil Providence, 
by fhewing, that the ftate, and indeed the conftitution, was 
in fuch dilorder, that it was neceflary it (hould be changed 
into a monarchy. Or this one queftion would have filenced 
him, '^ How do we know, Pompey, that, if you had con- 
•* quered, you would have made a better ufe of your good * 
" fortune than Caefar?" But we muft leave the determi- 
nations of heaven to its fuperior wifdom. 

As foon as his wife and his friends were embarked^ he 
fet fail, and continued his courfe, without touching at any 
port, except for water and provifions, till he came to At- 
talia, a city of Pamphylia. There he was joined by fome 
Cilician galleys ; and befide picking up a number of 
foldiers, he found in a little time fixty fenators about him* 
When he was informed that his fleet was ftill entire, and 
that Cato was gone to Africa with a confiderable body of 
men which he had colleded after their flight, he lamented 
to his friends his great error, in fufFering himfelf to be 
forced into an engagement at land, and making no ufe of 
thofe forces, in which he was confeflTedly ftronger ; nor 
even taking care to fight near his fleet, that, in cafe of his 
meeting with a check at land, he might have been fupplied 
from fea with another army, capable of making head 
againft the enemy. Indeed, we find no greater millake ia 
Pompey's whole conduft, nor a more remarkable inftance 
of Ciefar's generalfhip, than in removing the fcene of 
action to fuch a dillance from the naval forces. 

However, as it was ncceflary to undertake fomething 
with the fmall means he had left, he fent to fome cities, 
and failed to others himfelf, to raife money, and to get a 
fupply of men for his ihips. But knowing the extraor- 
dinary celerity of the enemy's motions, he was afraid he 
might be before-hand with him, and feize all that he was 
preparing. He, therefore, began to think of retiring to 
G 2 \^\Si^ 

124 Plutarch's lives. 

fome ^fy lum, and propofed the matter in council. They 
could not think of any province in the Roman empire that 
would afford a fafe retreat ; and when they cafl their eyes 
on the foreign kingdoms, Pompey mentioned Parthia, as 
the moft likely to receive and protect them in their prefent 
xveak condition, ai^d afterwards to fend them back with a 
force fufficient to retrieve their affairs. Others were of 
opinion, it was proper to apply to Africa, and to Juba in 
particular. But Theophanes of Lefbos obferved, it was 
madnefs to leave Egypt, which was diflant but three days 
fail. Befides, Ptolemy *, who was growing towards man- 
hood, had particular obligations to Pompey on his father's 
account : And fhould he go then, and put himfelf in the 
hands of the Parthians, the moft perfidious people in the 
world ? He reprefented what a wrong meafure it would be^ 
if, rather than truft to tl)e clemency of a noble Rpman, 
who wr.s his father-in-law, and be contented with the fe- 
cond place of eminence, he would venture his perfon 
with Arfacesf , by whom even Craffus would not be taken 
alive. He added, that it would be extremely abfurd to 
carry a young woman of the family of Scipio among bar- 
barians, who thought power confifted in the difplay of in- 
folence and outrage; and where, if (he efcaped unviolated, 
it would be believed (he did not, after (he had been with 
thofe who* were capable of treating her with indignity. It 
is faid, this laft confideration only, prevented his march- 
ing to the Euphrates ; but it is fome doubt with us, whe- 
ther it was not rather his fate, than his opinion, which 
direfted his fteps another way. 

When it was determined that they fhould feek for refuge 
in Egypt, he fet fail from Cyprus with . Cornelia, in a 
Seleucian galley. The jeft accompanied him, fome in 
ihips of war, and fome in merchantmen ; And they made a 
fafe voyage. Being informed that Ptolemy was with his 
army at Pelufium, where- he was engaged in war with his 
fifter, he proceeded thither, and fent a meflenger before him 
10 notify his arrival, and to intreat the king's protedlion. 


* This was Ptolemy Dionyfiu?, the fon of Ptolemy Auletcs, who 
died in the year of Rome 704, which was the year before the battle of 
Pharfalia. He was now in his fourteenth year. 

•f- ^rom this appears, that ^rfaces was the common name 
of the kings of Parthia. For it was. not the proper name -of the 4di^ 
then upon the throne f nor of him who was at war with CraiTus, 

POMPEY. 125 , 

Ptolemy was very young, and Photinus» his prime 
minifter, called a council of his ableft officers ; thougli 
their advice had no more weight than he was plcafed to 
allow it. He ordered each> however, to give his opinion. 
But wha can, without indignation, confider, that the fate 
of Pompey the Great was to be determined by Photinus, 
an eunuch, by Theodotus, a man of Chios, who was 
hired to teach the prince rhetoric, and by Achillas, an 
Egyptian-B For among the king's chamberlains and tutors, 
thefe had. the greatell influence over him, and were the 
perfon^ he moft confulted. Pompey lay at anchor at fome 
diftanoe from th»5 place, waiting the determination of thi» 
refpeftabJe board ; while he thought it beneath him to be 
iiidcbted* to Caifar for his fafety- The council were di- 
vided in their opinions ; fome advifmg the prince to give 
him an honourable reception, and others to fend him ah, 
order to depart. But Theodotus, to difplay his eloquence, 
infixed that both were wrongs* ** If you receive him," 
faid he, '* you will have Casfar for your enemy, andPom« 
•' pcy for your mafter> If you order him off, Pompey- 
" may one day revenge the affront, andCaefar refentyour' 
** not having put him in his hands : The heft method^^ 
** therefore, is to fend foF him, and put him tp death. By^. 
•* this means you will do Caefar a favour, and have 
•* nothing to fear from- Pompey.** He added, with a- . 
finile, *' Dead men do not bite." 

This advice being approved of, the execution of it was 
committed to Achillas. In confequencc of which^ he too£ 
with^him Septimiusj who had formerly been one of Pom- 
pey's officers, and Salvius, who had alfo aded under Himi 
as a centurion, with three or four affiftants, ai!kd made up-, 
to Pompey's fhip, where his pri-ncipal 'friends and officers 
had affembled, to fee how the affair went on. When they 
perceived there was nothing magnificent in their reception, 
nor fuitable to the hopes which Theophanes had con-c 
ceived, but that a few men only, in a filhing-boat, came to 
wait upon them, fuch want of refpe6t appeared a fufpicious 
«ircumilance ; and they advi£ed Pompey, while he was^ out 
ef the reach of miffive weapons, to get out to the main fea. 
Mean time, the boat approaching, Septimius ipoke firft^ 
sddrefling Pompey, in Latin, by the title oflmferator. Thea 
Achillas fainted him in Greek, and defued YCvov Xo cotcv^ 
into the hoar, bccaafe the water was very ftiaSX^'K tow^i^ 
G 1 ^^ 

126 Plutarch's lives. 

the ihorc, and a galley mufl ilrikc upon the fands. At 
the fame time they faw fevcral of the king's (hips getting 
ready, and the fhore covered with troops, fo that if they 
would have changed their minds, it was then too late ; be- 
fides, their diAruft would have ftirnifhed the affaiTms with 
a pretence for their injuilice. He, therefore, embraced 
Cornelia, who lamented his fad exit before it happened ; 
and ordered two centurions, one of his enfranchifed Haves, 
named Philip, and a fervant called Scenes, to get into the 
boat before him. When Achillas had hold of his hand, 
and he was going to ftep in himfelf, he turned to his wife 
and fon, and repeated that verfe of Sophocles, 

Seek' ft thou a tyrant's door ? then farewel (rcedom I 
Tho' rail as air before 

Thefe were the laft words he fpoke to them. 

As there was a confiderable diflance between the galley 
and the ihore, and he obferved that not a man in the boat 
ihewed him the leaft civility, or even fpoke to him, he 
looked at Septimius, and faid, " Methinks, I remember 
" you to have been my fellow-foldicr ;" but he anfwered 
only with a nod, without teftifying any regard or friend- 
Ihip. A profound filtnce again taking place, Pompey 
took out a paper, in which he had written a fpeech in 
Greek, that he deligned to make to Ptolemy, and amufed 
himfelf with reading it. 

When they approached the fhore, Cornelia, with her 
friends in the galley, watched the event with great an- 
xiety. She was a little encouraged, when ihe faw a num- 
ber of the king's great officers coming down to the ftrand, 
in all appearance to receive her hulband.and do him ho- 
nour. jBut the, moment Pompey was taking hold of Phi- 
lip's hand, to raife him with more eafe, Septimius came 
behind, and run him through the body ; after which Sal- 
vius and Achillas alfo drew their fwords. Pompey took 
his robe in both hands, and covered his face ; and without 
faying or doing the leaft thing unworthy of him, fubmitted 
to his fate ; only uttering a groan, while they defpatched 
him with many blows. He was then juft fifty-nine years 
old, for he was killed the day after his birth-day *. 


* Some divineSf ih {iy>ng that Pompey never profpcred after he pre- 
/bmcdto cater the finflutr/ in the tecnpk at ^eivLUUfxv, \T\\\m^v.c, ihat 

poMPEY. izy 

Cornelia, and her friends in the galleys, upon feeing 
him murdered, gave a i)\riek that was heard to the (hore« 
and weighed anchor immediately. Their flight was affilled 
bj a br>flc gale; as they got oat more to fea ; fo that the 
Egyptians gave up their defign of purfuing them. 

I'he murderers having cut oiF Pompey's head, threw the 
trody out of the- boat naked, and left it expofed to all who 
were defirous of fuch-a4igh(. Philip ftayed till their cu- 
riofity was fatisfied, and then wafhed the body with fea- 
^vater, and wrapped it in one of his own garments, becaofe 
he had nothing elfe at hand*^ The next thine; was to look 
out for^ wood for- the funeral-pile ; and cailmg his eyes 
over the iho^, )ie fpied the old remains of a flfliing-boat; 
which, though not large, would make a fufHcient pile for 
a poor naked body that was- not quite entire. 

While he was colleding the pieces of plank and-putting 
them together, an old Roman, who had made fome of his 
£rft campaigns under Pompey, came up, and faid to Philip, • 
** Whaareypu that are preparing the funeral of Pompcy 
" the Great ?*• Philip anfwered, " I am his freedman." 
•* But you ihall not," faid the oW Roman, *' have thia 
*' honour entirely to yourfelf. As a work of piety offers 
*' itfelf, let nie have a ihare in it; that I may not abiohttbly 
•♦^rppcntmy having pafled fo many years inafoi^gn 
** country ; but, to comjpenfate many misfortunes, may 
'' have the confolation gf^doing fome of the laft honours • ; 
** to the greateft general Rome ever produced." In this 
onanner was the funeral of Pompey condu<5ied. 

Next day Lucius Lentulus, who knew nothing of what 
had paiTcd, becaufe he was upon his voyage from Cyprtis, 
arrived upon the Egyptian fhore, and, as he was coalting 
along, faw the funeral pile, and Philip, whom ht did not 
yet know, Handing by it. Upon which he faid to himfelf, 
" Who has finifhed his days, and is going to leave hb 
** remains upon this fhore?" adding, after a fhort panfe^ 
with a figh, '* Ah ! Pompey the Great ! perhaps thou 
/' mayfi be the man." Lentulus foon after went on fhore, 
and was taken and flain. 

G 4 Such 

bis misfortunes were owing to that profanation $ but we forbear^ with 
Plutarch, to comment upon the providential determinations of the 
Supre me Being. Indeed he fell a facrlfice to a% VAe ikic\. c^l ^Qk^<& vb>\A . 
had before infuited, for, the Jews excepted^ Xltvtt* 'wi*t«i\'^v^tv «»?^ 
J more defpicable race of men than the co^ha^V^j ctM^l.^\i^>»»** 
• Of touching and wrapping up tbc body* 

JK^8 ?fcVTA*CH*S 1IVE5, 

SqcK wai the end of Pomjpcy the Great, As for Caeftr> 
be arrived not long after m Egypt, which he found in 
great diforder. When they came to preferit the head, he 
tamed from it, and the perfoft thai brpught it, as a fight 
of horror* He received the feal, bat it was with tears^ 
The device was a lion holding a fword. The two aflaffins, 
Achillas an4 Photinus, he put to death ; and the king, be- 
ing defeated in battle, pcriflied in the river. Theodotus, 
the rhetorician, efcaped the vengeance of Cxfar, \^y leaving 
Egypt ; but he wandered about, a miferable fugitive, and 
was hated wherever he went. At laft, Marcus Brutus, 
who killed Cxfar, found the wretcn, in his province of 
Afia, and put him to death, after having made him fufFer 
the mod cxquifite tortures. The afties of Pompey were 
carried to Cornelia^ who buried them in his lands near 



C^UCH is the account we had to ^ive of the lives of 
thefe two great men ; and, in drawing up the parallel, 
vc ihall previoufly take a Ihort furvey of the diiFerence in 
their charafters. 

In the firft place, Pompey rofe to power, and ellablilhed 
his reputation, by juft and laudable means; partly by 


• Pompey has, la all appearance, and in aH'confidcrations of his cha- 
racier, had lei's juHice done him by hinorians, than any other man cf 
his time. His popular humanity, his military and political (kill, his 
prudence, ^ which he fometimes unfortunately gave up) his natural bra- 
very and gencrofity, his conjugal virtues, which (though fometimes im- 
peached) were, both naturally and morally great ; hi&taufe, which was 
certainly, in its original interefts, the caofe of Rome ; all thefe cir- 
cumAances intitled him to a more diftinguifhtd and more rcfpe^ablc 
character than any of his hiftorians have thought proper to afford him. 
One circumAance, indeed, renders the accounts that the writers^ ^ho 
rofe after the eAabliihed monarchy, have given of his oppofuion, pcr- 
ledlly rtconcilcablc to the prejudice which appears againft him } or ra- 
ther to tl.e reludtance which they have (hewn to that pra'.fe which tliey 
feemcd to have felt that he deferved : When the commonweahh was no 
more, and the fupporters of its interefts had fallen with it, then hiAory 
jtfe}f, not to mention poetry, departed from its proper privilege of im- 
.^arilaJity, and even Piutarch made a Oicrltice xo itn^ttVai^o'Vict. 


the ftrength of his own genius, and partly by his fervicc* 
to Sylla, in freeing Italy from various attempts of def- 
potifm. Whereas Agefilaus came to tlie throne, by me- 
thods equally immoral and irreligious ; for it was by ac- 
cufing Leotychidas x)f baftardy, whom-hb brother had ac- 
knowledged as his legitimate fon, and by eluding the 
oracle rektive to a lame king ♦. 

In the next place, Pompey paid all due rcfpcft to Sylla 
during his life, and took care to fee his remains honourably 
interred, notwithftanding the oppofitien it met with from 
Lepidus ; and afterwards he gave his daughtiErr to FauHus, 
the fon of Sylla. On. the other hand, Agefilaus (hook off 
Lyfander upon a Aight pretence, and treattd him with 

treat indignity. Yet the fer vices Pompey received from 
ylla were not greater than thoiie he hjid rendered him ; 
whereas Agefilaus was appointed king of Sparta by. Ly- 
fander's means, and afterwards captain-rgeneral of Greece^ 
In the third place, Pompey *s offences, againft* the law* 
and the conilitution, were principallv. owing to Ms al- 
liances, to his fupportin^ either Casur or Scipio (whofe 
daughter he had married) in their unj uft demands. Agefi- 
laus not only gratified the pafllon of his fon, by (paring the 
life of Sphodrias, whofe death ought to have atonea for 
the injuries he had done the Athenians : But he likewifb 
Screened Phoebidas, who was guilty of an egregious in- 
fra6Hon of the league with the Thebans, and it was vifibly 
for the fake of his crime that he took him into his pro- 
teftion. Infhort, whatever troubles Pompey: brought upon 
the Romans, either through ignorance, or a timorous com- 
plaifance for his- friends, Agefilaus brought as great diC- 
treffes upon the Spartans, through a ipirit of obflinacy 
and refentment ; for fuch was the fpirit that kindled th« 
Boeotian: war. . 

If, when we are menionihg their faults, we may take 
notice of their fortune, the Romans could have no previous 
idea of that of Pompey ; but the Lacedaemonians were 
fufhciently forwarned of the danger of a lame reign, and 
yet Agefilaus would not fuffer them to avail themfelVcs of 
that warning f. Nay, fuppofmg Leotychidas a nierc 

ftranger, . 

• See the Life of Agefilaus 

+ It 15 true, the latter part of AgeiHaos's reign was wi(bcVaTAnt<^ 
but the misfortunes were owing to hl% mi^u i^iMS{k>lA'tV\^\AXA>««>^ 


ftranger^ &nd as much a bafbrd as he was; yet the famity 
of Butytion could cafily have fupplied Sparta with a king 
ifrho was neither fpurious, nor maimed, had not Lyfander 
been induftrious enough to render the oracle obfcure for 
the fake of Agefilaus. 

As to their political talents, there never was a finer mea- 
furc than that of Agefilaus, when, in the dillrefs of the 
Spartans how to proceed againll the fugitives after the 
battle of Leu6lra, he decreed th^t the laws fhould be filent 
for that day. We have nothing of Pompey's that can 
poffibly be compared to it. On the contrary, he thought 
himfelf exempted from obferving the laws he had made, 
and that his tranfgreffing them ihewed his friends his fuperior 
power; Whereas AgeiUaus, when under a neceffity of con- 
travening the laws, to fave a number of citizens, found 
out an expedient which faved both the laws and the cri- 
minals. I mud alfo reckon among his political virtues, 
his inimitable behaviour upon the receipt of tlie fey tale, 
which ordered him to leave Afia in the height of his fuc- 
cefs. For he did not, like Pompey, ferve the coAimon- 
wealth only in afFkirs which contributed to his own great- 
iiefs; the good of his country was his grcut objeft, and, 
with a view to that, he renounced fuch power and fo mucu 

5 lory as no man had either before or after him, except 
Jexander the Great. 

If we view them in another light, and confider their 
military performances ; the trophies which Pompey ereded 
were fo numerous, the armies he led fo powerful, and the 
Mtched battles he won fo extraordinary, that I fuppofe 
Xenophon himfelf would not compare the viftories of Ag^- 
iilaus with them ; though that hiftorian, on account of his 
other excellencies, has been indulged the peculiar privi- 
lege of faying what he pleafed of his hero. 

There was a difference too, I think, in their behaviour 
to their enemies, in point of equity and moderation. Agefi- 
laus was bent upon enflaving Thebes, and deftroyed Mef- 
fcne J the former the city from which his family fprung, the 


to his fighting contrary to the laws of Lycurgus) the famt enemy (o 
frequently, that he taught them to beat him at laft. 

Ncverthdcf*, the oracle, as we have obCerved in a former note, pro- 
habJy meant the Jamenefs of the kingdom, in having but one king in* 
ilKK/ of two, and not (he Umenefs of the kln^. 


latter Sparta's filler colony •; and in the attempt he wfa 
near ruining Sparta itfclf. On the other hand»^ Pompejr, 
after he had conquered the pirates, beftowed cities on fuch 
as were willing to change their way of life ; and when he* 
might have led Tigranes, king of Armenia, captive at the 
wheels of his chariot, he rather chofe to make lum an ally ; 
on which occafion he made ufe of that memorable expref- 
fion, " I prefer the glory that will laft for ever, to that o£ 
« a day.'' 

But if the pre-eminence in military virtue is de- 
cided by fuch adions and counfels as are moft charaderif- 
tical of the great and wife commander, we (hall find thac 
the Lacedaemonian leaves the Roman far behind. In the. 
firil place, he never abandoned his city, though it was' 
befieged by feven^y thoufand men, while he had but a 
handful of men to oppofe them with, and thofe lately de- 
feated in the battle of Leudra. But Pompey f , upon 
Cxiar's advancing with five thoufand three hmidred men 
only, and taking one little town in Italy, left Rome in a 
panic ; either meanly yielding to fo trifling a force, or 
failing in his intelligence of their real numbers. In his 
flight he carried ofi:* his own wife and children, bat he left 
thofe of the other citizens in a defencelefii flate ; when he 
ought either tQ have flayed and conqueredfbr his countrv> 
or to have accepted fuch conditions as the conqueror might 
impofe, who was both his fellow«-citizen and his relation. 
A little while before, he thought it infupportable to pro*. 
long the term of his commiifion, and to grant him another 
confulihip ; and now he fuflered him ^o take pofieifion of 
the city, and to tell Metellus, " That heconiidered him, 
^* and all the other inhabitants, as his prifoners," 

If it is the principal bufmefs of a general to know how. 
to bring the enemy to a battle when he is flrongec, and 
how to avoid being compelled to one when he is weaker, 


* For Hercules was bom at Thebes, and MefTene was a crlonj of the 
Heraclidx, as well as Sparta. The Latin and French tranflations have 
miflaken the fenfe of this pafTage. 

f Here is another egregious inftance of Plutarch*s prejodice againft 
the character of Pompey. It is certain that he left not Rome till he was 
well convinced of the impodTibility of maintaining it againfl the arms 
of Csefar. For he was not only coming againft it with a force iswuCiVw 
more powerful than is here mentioned •, but \\t Vviid TttAtx^^ «^txv *. 
ficge vnneccffar/j by a previous diftrlbution ol Vvv% v*U ^tck»cv^ ^ 


Agefilaus uQderftood that nile perfedly well> and, by oh- 
ferving it, continued always invincible. But Pompey 
^aiild neyer uke Csfor at a dUadvantage ; on the contrary, 
he fuffered Caefar to take the advantage of him, by being 
l>rottght to hazard all in an a£tion at land. The confe- 
quence of which was, that Caefar became mailer of his 
treafures, his provifions> and the fea itfelf, when he might 
liave preferved them all, had he known how to avoid a 

As for the apology that is made for Pompey in this cafe, 
k refleiSls the greateft diflionour upon a general of his 
experience. If a young officer had been fo much difpirited 
4nd diHurbed by the tumults and clamours among his 
troops, as to depart from his better judgment, it would 
have been pardonable.^ But for Pompey the Great, whofe 
camp the Romans called their country, and whofe tent 
their fenate, while they gave the name of rebels and 
traitocs to thofe who flayed and a^ed as praetors and con- 
fuls in Rome; for Pompey, who had never been known to 
ferve as a private fold ier, but had made all his campaigns 
"with the greateft reputation as general 5 for fuch a one to 
be forced, by the IcofFs of Favonius and Domitius, and 
the fear of being called Agamemnon, to rilk the fate of 
the whole empire, and of liberty, upon the caft of a fmgle 
die — who can bear it? — If he dreaded only prefent in- 
famy, he ought to have made a ftand at firft, and to have 
foueht for the city of Rome ; and not, after calling his 
fiigh: a manoeuvre of Themiftocles, to look upon the de- 
laying a battle in Thcfialy as a difhonour. For the gods 
had not appointed the fields of Pharfalia as the lifts in 
which he was to contend for the empire of Rome, nor was 
he fuminoned by a herald to make his appearance there, 
orothcr^^ife forfeit the palm to another. There were in- 
numierable plains and cities ; nay, his command of the fea 
left the whole earth to his choice, had he been determined 
to imitate Maximus, Marius, or LucuUus, or Agefilaus 

Ageftlaus certainly had no lefs tumplts to encounter in 
Sparta, when the Thebans challenged him to come out and 
fight for his dominions : nor were the calumnies and {lan- 
ders he met with m Egypt from the madnefs of the king 
lefs grating, wnen he^^dviicd that prince, to lie ftill for a 
time. Y€t by purfuing the fage meafures he had firft fixed 


ALEXA^DEE. , ^ 1315 

^pon, he not only faved the Egyptians in foite of theai^ 
^elvesj but kept Sparta from finking in the earthqaak« 
that threatened her ; nay, he ere^led there the beft trophy 
imaginable againfl the Thebans ; for, by keeping the 
Spartans from their rain, whiqh they were fo obilinately. 
bent upon, he put it in their power to conquer afterwaroi 
Hence it was that Agefilaus was praifed by the perlbtii 
whom he had faved by violence ; and Pompey, ^ho com* 
mitted an error in complaifance to others, was condemned 
by thofe who drew hirti into it. Some fay, indeed, that 
he was deceived by his father-in-law Scipio, who, wanting^ 
to convert to his own ufe, the treafures he had brought 
from Aiia, had concealed them for. that purpofe, and 
haltened the adion under pretence that the fupplies would 
foon fail. But, fuppofmg that true, a general fhould no9 
haVe'fuiFered htmfelf to be fo eafily deceived, nor in coiw 
fequence of being fo deceived, have hazarded the loft of 
all. Such are the principal ilrokes that mark their mill* 
tary charaders. , 

As to their voyages to Egypt, the one fled thither out 
of neceffity ; the other, without any ncQeffity or fofiicient 
caufe, lilled himfelf in the fervice of a barbarous prince, 
to raife a fund for carrying on the war with the Greeks. 
So that if we accufe the Egyptians £br their behaviour tq 
Pompey, the Egyptians blame Agefilaus as much for hif 
behaviour to them. The one was betrayed by thofe ka 
whom he put his truft ; the other was guilty of a breach 
of truft, in deferting thofe whom he went to fupport, and 
going over to their enemies. 


XN this volume we fhall give the Lives of Alexandet 
the Great, and of Caefar, who overthrew Pompey ; and, 
as the quantity of materials is fo great, we fhall only pre- 
mife, that we hope for indulgence though we do not give 
the aftions in full detail and with a fcrupulous exadneis^ 
but rather in a fhort fummary ; fince we are not writing 
Hifiories, but Lives. Nor is it alw^s in the mm 
diftinguiihed achievements that men's N\Tt\xe^ ox V\^ftV 
may be bcA difccrned ; but very ofx^ti aii 2L^ot\: ^^ 


fmall note, a ihort faying, or a jeft^ ihall diflmguifh a 
perfon's real cKarader, more than the greateft fieges or 
ditf moft important battles. Therefore, as painters in their 
portraits labour .the likenefs in the face, and particularly 
about the eyes, in which the peculiar torn of mind mo^ 
appears, and run over the reft with a more carelefs liand ; 
fo we muft be permitted to ilrike off the features of the 
foul, in order to give a real likenefs of thcfe great men, 
and leave to others the circumftantial detail of their la- 
boors and achievements. 

It is allowed as certain, that Alexander was a defcend- 
ant of Hercules by Caranos *, aiid of i£acus by Neopto- 
lemns. His father Philip is faid to have been initiated, 
when very young, along with Olympios, in the myfteries 
at Samothrace ; and havmg conceived an affedion for her, 
he obtained her in marriage of her brother Arymbas, to 
whom he applied, becaufe fhe was left an orphan. The 
mght before the confummatipn of the marriage, ihe 
dreamed, that a thunder-bolt fell upon her belly, which 
kindled a great fire, and that the flame extended itfelf far 
and wide before it difappeared. And fome time after the 
marriage, Philip dreamed that he fealed up the queen's 
womb with a feal, the impreflion of which he thought was a 
Hon. Moft of the interpreters believed the dream announced 
fome reafon to doubt the honour of Olympias, and that 
Philip ought to look more clofely to her conduft. But 
Ariftander of Telmefus faid, it only denoted that the 
queen was pregnant ; for a feal is never put upon any 
thing that is empty ; and that the child would prove a 
boy, of a bold and lion-like courage. A ferpent was alfo 
feen lying by Olympias as fhe flcpt; which is faid to have 
cooled Philip's afFeftions for her more than any thing, 
infomuch that he feldom repaired to her bed afterwards ; 
whether ii was that he feared fome enchantment from her, 
or abdained from her embraces becaufe he thought them 
token up by fome fuperior being. 


* Caraniis the iixteenth in defcent from Hercules, made himfelf 
tnafter of Macedonia in the year before Chrift 794 ; and Alexander 
the Great was the twcnty-fecond in defcent from Caranos j fo that 
from Hercules to i^lexander there were thirty-eijjht generations. The 
defcMt by liis mother^s iide is not fo cfear, there being many degrees 
wanting in it. It is fuffici^t to know, that Olympias w<is the daiigh* 
r«r ofNeoptoJemaSf aad ti&et to Arymbas. 


Some, indeed, relate the affair in another manner* 
They tell us, that the women of this country were of old 
extremely fond of the ceremonies of Orpheus, and the 
orgies of Bacchus ; and that they were called Clodones 
and Mimallones, becaufe in many things they imitated the 
Edonian and Thracian women about Mount Hsemus ; from 
whom the Greek word threfcuein feems to be derived, which 
fignifies the exerclfe of extravagant and fuperftitious obfer- 
vances. Olympias being remarkably ambitious of thefe 
infpirations, and deiirous of giving the enthuiiaftic folem* 
nities a more ftrange and horrid appearance, introduced 
a number of large tame ferpents, which often creeping 
out of the ivy and the myilic fans, and entwining about the 
Thyr/u/es and garlands of the women, ftruck the fpe<^tor$ 
with terror. 

Philip, however, upon this appearance*, fent Chiron 
of Megalopolis to confult the oracle at Delphi ; and we 
arc told, Apollo commanded him to facrifice to Jupiter 
Ammon, and to pay his homage principally to that god« 
Is is alfo faid, he lofl one of bis eyes, which was that he 
applied to the chink of the door, when he faw the god in 
his wife's embraces in the form of a ferpcnt. According 
to Eratofihenes, Olympias, when (he conduced Alexander 
on his way in his firft expedition, privately difcovered to 
him the fecret of his birth, and exhorted him to behare 
with a dignity fuitable to his divine extraction. Others 
affirm, that fhe abfolutely rejected it as an impious fidion, 
and ufed to fay, " Will Alexander never leave embroiling 
*' me with Juno ?'* 

Alexander f was born on the fixth of Hecatomboeon | 
[July], which the Macedonians call Lous, the fame day 
that the temple of Diana at Ephefus was burnt ; upon 


* We do not think the word fariJiA relates to the dream, but to tht 
appearing of the ferpent. 

f In the firfl year of the hundred and (ixth Olympiad, befor« 
Chrift 354. 

X JEVi&n (Var. Hift. 1. ii. c. 25.) fays exprefsiy, that Alexander waa 
horn and died in the fixth day of the month Thargtiion. But fuppofinf^ 
Platarch right in placing his birth in the month Hecatomb<90Dy yet 
not that month, but Boedromion then anfwered to the Macedonian* 
sionth Lous } as appears dearly from a letter of Philip*8, Aiil pre- 
fenred in the Orations of Demofthenos, (in Orat. de Coro^a^ ^ti ^^v^t 
times, indeed, the month Lotis anfwered to Hcc2AotnY)Q^^tk> H)\Ai(^\ 
%vJcboot doube, was the caa/c of Plutarch's miftakc* 


Plutarch's lives. 

which Hegefias^ the Magncfian, has uttered a concei^ 
frigid enough to have extinguiffied the flames. '^ It is no 
" wonder/" faid he, '* that the temple of Diana was 
*' burnt, when fhe was at a diftance, employed in bringing 
•• Alexander into the world." All the Magi who were 
then at Ephefus, looked upon the fire as a fign which be- 
tokened a much greater misfortune :. they ran about the 
. town, bsating their faces, and crying, '* That the day had 
** brought forth the great fcourge and deftroyer of Afia.'* 
Philip had. juft taken the city of Fotid«a *, and three 
meiTengers arrived the fame-day with extraordinary tidings. 
The firft informed him that Parmenio had gained a great 
battle againfl the Illyrians ; the fecond, that his race- 
horfc had won the prize at the Olympic games ; and the 
third, that Olympias was brought to bed of Alexander. 
His joy on that occafion. was- great, as might naturally be 
expedled ; and the foothfayers increafed it, by afluring^ 
him, that his Ton, who was bora in the midft of three 
vj^ories, muft of cpurfe prove invincible.. 

The flatues of Alexander that moil refembled them> 
^ere thofe of Lyiippus, who alone had his permiflion to 
reprefent him in marble.. The turn of his head, which 
leaned'a little to one iide,.and thequicknefs of his eye, in 
which many of his friends and fucccffors mod afFeded to 
imitate him, were beft hit off by that artift. Apelles 

Sainted him in the charafter of Jupiter armed with thun-- 
er, but did not fuccced as to his complexion. He over- 
charged the colouring, and made his (kin too brown ; 
whereas he was fair, with a tinge of red in his face and* 
upon his breaft. We read in the memoirs of Ariftoxehus, 
that a mofl agreeable fcent proceeded from his fkin, and 
that his breath and whole Dody were fo fragrant, that 
they perfumed his under-garments. The caufe of this 
might poflibly be his hot temperament. For, as Theo- 
phraftus.conjeftures, it is the conco6tion of moifture by 
heat which produces fweet odours ; and hence it is that 
thofe countries which, are drieft, and moft parched with 
heat, produce fpices of the beft kind, and in the greateli 


• This is another mi/lake Potidsea was taken two years before, 

tiz. in the third year of the one hundred and third Olympiad • for 

which we have again the authority 'of Pemofthencs, who was Philip's 

coteiDporary, (inOrat..cont* Leptinem) as well as of DiodorusSiculus^ 

Ji xvi. 


quantity ; the fun exhaling from the furface of bodies that 
moiHure which is the inflrument jof corruption. It feems 
to have been the fame heat of conftitution which made 
Alexander fo much inclined to drink, and fo fubjed to 

His continence fhewed itfelf at an earlv period. For, 
though he was vigorous, or rather violent m nis other pur- 
fuits, he was not ealily moved by the pleafures of the 
body ; and if he tailed them, it was with great modera- 
tion. But there was fomething fuperlatively great and 
fublime in his ambition, far above his years, ft was not 
all forts of honour that he courted, npr did he feek it in 
every track, like his father Philip, who was as proud of 
his eloquence as any fophiil could be, and who had the 
vanity to record his vi^ories in the Olympic chariot-race 
in the impreflion of his coins. Alexander, on the other 
hand, when he was afked by fome of the people about 
him, *' Whether he would not run in the Olympic race?*.* 
(for he was fwift of foot) anfwered, " Yes, if I had 
*' kings for my antagonills." It appears that he had a 
perfeft averfion to the whole exercife of wreftling*. For* 
though he exhibited many other forts of games and pul>- 
lic diveriions, in which he propofed prizes for tragic poets, 
for muficians who pradifed upon the flute and lyre, and 
for rhapfodifts too ; though he entertained the people with 
the hunting of all manner of wild beafls, and with fencing 
or fighting with the ftafF, yet he gave no encouragement 
to boxing or to the Pancratium-^. 

Ambafladors from Periia happened to arrive in the 
abfence of his father Philip, and Alexander receivipg 
them in his Head, gained upon them greatly by his polite* 
nefs and folid fenfe. He a&ed them no childifh or trifling 
queflion, but inquired the diflances of places, and the 
roads through the upper provinces of Aiia ; he deflred to 
be informed of the chara^er of their king, in what manner 
. he behaved to his enemies, and in what the flrength and 
power of Perfia confifted. The ambafladors were ftnick 
with admiration, and looked upon the celebrated ftirewd- 


* Phllopoefflen, like him had an averiion for wreAIlng, becaufe all 
the exercifes which fit a man to excel in it, make him unfit for war. 

f If it be a(ked how this (hews that Alexander dvd Tiox.\oM^'Wtt^« 
Kng, the anfwer 15^ the Pancratium wa» a niaVAt^ qI \50«m^ ^o^- 


138 Plutarch's lives. 

ne(s of Philip as nothing in comparifon of the lofty and 
CBterprifing genius of his fon. Accordingly, whenever 
news was brought that Philip had taken fome ftrong town, 
or won fome great battle, the young man, inftead of ap- 
pearing delighted with it, ufed to fay to his companions, 
•' My father will go on conquering, till there be nothing 
*' extraordinary left for you and me to do." As neither 
picafure .nor riches, but valour and glory were his great 
objedls, he thought, that in proportion as the dominions 
he was to receive from his father, grew greater there would 
be lefs room for him to diftinguifh himfelf. Every new 
acquifition of territory he confidered as a dimunition of his 
fcene of a^ion ; for he did not delire to inherit a kingdom 
• that would bring him opulence, luxury, and pleafure, but 
one that would aflbrd him wars, conHidts, and all the ex- 
ercife of great ambition. 

He had a number of tutors and preceptors. Leonidas, 
ja relation of the queen's, and a man of^ great feverity of 
manners, was at the head of them. He did not like the 
•name of preceptor, though the employment was import- 
ant and honourable; and, indeed, his dignity and alliance 
to the royal family gave him the title of the prince's go- 
vernor. He who had both the name and bufinefs of pre- 
ceptor, was Lyiimachus, the Arcananian^ a man who had 
neither merit nor politenefs, nor any thing to recommend 
him, but his calling himfelf Phoenix ; Alexander, Achilles ; 
and Philip, Peleus. This procured him fome attention, 
and the fecond place about the prince's perfon. 

When Philonicus, the Theffalian, offered the horfe 
named Bucephalus in falc to Philip, at the price of thir- 
teen talents*, the king, with the prince and many others, 
went into the field to fee fome trial made of him. The horfe 
appeared extremely vicious and unmanageable, and was 
fo far from fuffering himfelf to be mounted, that he would 
not bear to be fpoken to, but turned fiercely upon all the 
grooms. Philip was difpleafed at their bringing him fo 


• That 18 251SL 158. ftcrlirg. This will apprar a moderate price, 
compared with what we find in Varro, (de ReRui^ic. 1. iii. c. 2.) viz. 
that Q. Axiuftt B fenator, gave four hundred thouCand fefterces for an afs ; 
and ^i more moderau, when compared with the account of Tavernier, 
that fome horfes in Arabia were valued at a hundred thoufand crowns. 
f'JJnjr, in his Natural Hi (lory, fay»| the price of Bucephalus was fix- 
Ucn ta/eac&^»Sedefau taUnt'n ferunt ex Pfcilonici PborjaCii jrt%t tm^tum. 


U'lld and ungovernable a horfe, add bade them take him 
away. Biit Alexander, who had obferved him well, faidj 
*' What a horfe are they loiing, for want of ikill and (pi- 
*' rit to manage him !'* Philip at firft took no notice of 
this ; but, upon the prince's often repeating the (amc cx- 
preffion, and Ihewing great uneafinefs, he (aid, '* Yoong 
" man> you find fault with your elders, as if yon knew 
*' more than they, or could manage the horfe better.*'-"^ 
** And 1 certainly could,*' anfwered the prince. " If yea 
" fhould not be able to ride him, what forfeiture will you 
" fubmit to for your rafhnefs?" *' I will pay the pjicc of 
•' the horfe." 

Upon this all the company laughed, but the king and 
prince agreeing as to the forfeiture, Alexander ran to the 
horfe, and laying hold on the bridle, turned him to the 
iun ; for he had obferved, it feems that the fhadow which 
fell before the horfe, and continually moved as he moTed* 
greatly difturbed him. While his fiercenefs and fiirylailed, 
he kept fpeaking to him foftly and broking him; after 
whicli he gently let fail his mantle, leaped lightly upon 
his back, and got his feat very fafe. Then, without poll* 
ing the reins too hard, or ufmg either whip or fpur, he 
fet him a-going. As foon as he perceived nis uneafinefs 
abated, and that he wanted only to run, he put him in a 
full gallop, and puihed him on both with the voice and 
the ^ur. 

Philip and all his court were in great diflrefs Tot him at 
firft, and a profound filence took place. But when the 
prince had turned him and brought him flraight back, 
they all received him with loud acclamations, except his 
father, who wept for joy, and, kifling him, faid, •* Seek 
" another kingdom, my fon, that may be worthy of thy. 
" abilities ; for Macedonia is too fmall for thee/* Per- 
ceiving that he did not eafily fubmit to authority, becaufe 
he would not be forced to any thing, but that he might be 
led to his duty by the gentler hand of reafon, he took 
the ihethod of perfuafion rather than of command. He 
faw that his education was a matter of too great import- 
ance to be trufled to the ordinary mailers in mufic, and the 
common circle of fciences ; and that his genius (to ufe 
the expreflion p^ Sophocles) required 

The rudder's ru/dance, and the curVs lelltTaviiu 


He therefore Tent for Ariftotk, the *nioft celebrated antf 
learned of all the philoib pliers ; and the rewaj^d he gave 
Jiim for forming his futi was not only honourable, bat re* 
markable for its propriety. He had formerly difmantled 
the city of Stiigir4, where thtit philofopher was bon>, and 
0OW he rebuilt it, and re-eitabliJhed the inhabitants, who 
h^d either fled or been reduced to tlavery*. He alfo 
prepared a lawn^, called MLeza^ for tSieir fludies and lite% 
rary converfations ; where they flill fhew us Arlftotlc^a 
Itone feats and Ihady walks ^ 

Alexander gained from him not only mora! and political 
knowledge, but was alfo inilru^led in thofe more fee ret and 
|>rofound branches of ftience, which they cM acroamaflc 
and ep^ptk^ and which they did not cojnmnnicate to every 
coniinon fchdarf , For when Alexander was in Afia, 
and received inforiflation that Ariilotle had pobliJlied (om^ 
books in which thofc points were difcnfied, he wrote him. 
a letter in behalf of pbilofophyj in which he blamed th^ 
courfe lie had taken* The following h a copy of it ; 

" Alexander to Arillotle, profperity* You did wrongs 
*^ In publilhing the « rr^j^^/i J'ir parts of fciencej. In what 
" (hall we dilFer from others, if the fublimer knowledge' 
*' which we gained from you> be made common to all the 
" world ? for my part, I had rather excel the balk of 
** mankind in the fuperior parts of learnings than in the 
" extent of power and dominion, Farewel/' 

Aiiilotle, in compliment to this ambition- of his, and 
by way of excufe for himfelf, made anfwer, that thoffe 
points were publifhed and. not publiihed*. In fa6t, his 
book of metaphyfics is written in fuch a manner, that no 
one can learn that branch of fcience from it, much lefs» 
teach it others : It ferves only to refrefh the memories of 
thofe who have been taught by a mailer. 

It appears alfo to me, that it was by Ariftotle rather 
than any other, perfon, that Alexander was aflifted in the 
Hudy of phyfic, for he not only loved the theory, but 

. the 

♦ Pliny the elder and Valerius Maximus tell us, that Stagira was re- 
built by Alexander, and this when Ariftotle was very old. 

f The fcholars in general were inflruAed only in the exoteric doc- 
trines* Vid. AuL. G».L. lib. xx. cap. 5-. 

% Doctrines taught by private communication, and dclif ercd vwa. 


€ie pra6lice too, as is clear from his epifWcs, where we 
£nd that he prefcribed to his friends medicines and a pro- 
per regme/t. 

He loved polite learning too, and his natural thirft of 
knowledge made him a man of extenfive reading. The 
Iliad, he thought, as well as called, a portable treafiire of 
military knowledge ; and he had a copy correded by 
Arillotle, which is called the cajket cofy*» OnedcritUs in- 
forms us, that he ufed to lay it under his pillow with his 
fword. As he could not find many other books in the up- 
per provinces of Aiia, he wrote to Harpalus for a fupply ■; 
who fent him the works of Philillus, moft of the tragedies 
of Euripides, Sophocles, and ^fchylus, and the Dithyram''* 
bics of Teleilus t and Philox^nus. 

Ariftotle was the man he admired In his younger years, 
and, as he faid himfelf, he had no lefs affection for him than 
for his own father : '* From the one he derived the bleiEng 
" of life, from the other the blefling of a good, life." But 
afterwards, he looked upon him with an eye of fufpicion. 
He never, indeed,. did the philoibpher any harm ; but the 
teftimonies of his regard being neither fo extraordinary 
nor fo endearing as before, he difcovered fomething of a 
coldnefs. However, his love of philoibpKy, which he was 
either born with, or at ieail conceived at an early period^ 
never quitted his foul; as appears = from the honours He 
paid Anaxarchus, the fifty talents he <^t Xenocrates^, 
and his attentions to Dandamis and Calanus. 

When Philip went upon his expedition againfi Bjrzan- 
^tium, Alexander was only fixteen years of ajge, yet he 
jinras.left regent of M^ct^donia, and keeper of the feal* 


"^ He kept it in a richcalket ibund among ^ f)x>ih of Darivs. A 

coTrt€t copy of this edition, revifed by Ariftotle, CalHflhenesy and An« 

,axarchus> was publi(hed after the death of Alexander, ^< Darius," faid 

Alexander, «* ufed to k«ep his . ointments in this caHcet 5 but I, who 

** have no time to anoint myfelf, will convert it to a nobler ufe.** 

f Telcflus was a poet of fome reputation, and a monument was 
ereded to his memory by Ariftatus the Sycionian tyrant. Protogenes 
was fent for to paint this monument, and not arriving within the li- 
mited time, was in danger of the tyrant's difpleafure j but the celerity 
and excelieA'ce of his execution faved him. Philoxenus was hisfcholar* 
Fhiliftus was an hiftorian often cited by Plutarch. 

X The philofQpher took but a fmall part of this money, and fent th« 
reft back $ telling the giVer he'had more occailon for it tv'vcftfeVl^ ^^ 
««au(e he had mor« people to maintaio. 


The Medari • rebelling during his regency, he attacked 
and overthrew them, took their city, expelled the bar- 
barians, planted there a colony of people collected from 
various parts, and gave it the name of Alexandropolis, 
He fought in the battle of Chaeronea again ft the Greeks, 
and is faid to have been the iirft man that broke t\it /acred 
band of Thebans. In our times an old oak was Ihewn 
near the Cephifus, called Jlexander^s oak, becaufe his tent 
had been pitched under it ; and a piece of ground at nq 

freat diftance, in which the Macedonians had buried their 

This early difplay of great talents made Philip very 
fond of his Ton, fo that it was with pleafure he heard the 
Macedonians call Alexander king, and him only gentral. 
But the troubles which his new marriage and his amours 
caufed in his family, and the bickerings among the wo- 
men dividing the whole kingdom into parties, involved 
him in many quarrels with his fon ; all which were height- 
ened by Olympias, who, being a woman of a jealous and 
vindidlive temper,' infpifed Alexander with unfavourable 
fentiments of his father. The mifunderflanding broke 
out into a flame on the following occaiion : Philip fell in 
love with a young lady named Cleopatra, at an unfeafon- 
able time of life; and married her. When they were ce- 
lebrating the naptials, her uncle Attains, intoxicated with 
liquor, defired the Nlacedonians to intreat the gods that 
this marriagie of Philip and Cleopatra might produce a 
lawful heir to the crown. Alexander, provoked at this, 
faid, " What then, doft thou take me for a baftard ?" and 
at the fame time he threw his cup at his head. Hereupon 
Philip rofe up and drew his fword ; but, fortunately for 
them both, his paflion and the wine he had drank, made 
him flumble, and he fell. Alexander, taking an infolent 
^ advantage of this circumfhmce, faid, " Men of Macedon, 
'* fee there the man who was preparing to pafs from 
'' Europe into Afia ! he is not able to pafs from one table 
" to another without falling." After this infult, he 
carried off Olympias, and placed her in Epirus. Illyri- 
cum was the country he pitched upon for his own re- 


* We know of no fuch people as the Medari \ but a people called 
Maedi there wa» in Thrace, who, as Livy tells US| (1. xxvi.) ufed tft 
make inroads into Macedonia. 


In the mean time, Demaratas, who had engagementf 
ofiiofpitality with the royal family of Macedon» aod whOf 
on that account 1 could fpeak his mind freely, came to pay 
Philip a vifit. After the firil civilities, Plulip aflced him 
*' What fort of agreement fubfifted among the Greeks f 
Demaratus anfwered, '* There is, doubtlefs, much pro- 
** priety in your inquiring after the harmony of Greece. 

• " who have filled your own houfe with fo much difcord 

• •' and diforder." This reproof brought Philip to him- 
felf, and through the mediation «f £>amaratu&, he pre- 

.vailed with Alexander to return. 

But another^ event foon dillurbed their repofe. Pexo- 
tidorus, the Perfian governor in Caria, beine defirous to 
. draw Philip into a league offenfive and defenfive, by 
>ineans of an alliance between their ^mnilies, ofFered his 
..eldeft idaughter in marriage to Aridxus, the fon of Phi- 
Jip, and fent Ariftocritus into Macedonia to treat about 
it. . Alexander's friends and his mother now infnfed iio«» 
. tions into him again, though perfectly groandlefs, that> 
: by fo noble a match, and the fupport confequent upon it» 
Philip defigned the crown for Aridaeus. 

Alexander, in the uneaiinefs thefe fufpicioos gave him. 
fent one Theiialus, a player,, into Caria, to defire th^ 
-grandee to pafs by Aridaeus, who was of fpurious birth* 
and deficient in point of underftanding, and to take the 
lawful heir to the crown into his ailiahce. Pexodores was 
infinitely more pleafed with this propofal. But Philip no 
.iboner had intelligence of it, than he went to Alexander's 
apartment, taking aloi^g with him Philotas', the fon of 
Parmento, one of< his moft intimate friends and compa* 
anions, and, in hiA prefence, reproached him with his de- 
generacy, and tneannefe of fpirit, in thinking of being 
. man of Caria, one of the (laves of a bar- 
. bari^in king, ^t the fame time he wrote to the Corinthi- 
ans*, ^infifting that they (hould fend Theilalus to him in 
« chains, t: Harpalus and Niarchus, Phrygius and Ptolemy j^ 
> fome of the other companions of the prince, he banifhed. 
jJBut Alexander afterwards recalled them, and treated, them 
^* ^,with great diftindion. 

Some time after the Carian negociation, Paufanias 
i>eing abufed by order of Attains and Cleopatra and not 


• Thtflalu V upon his return from Afia, A\uft Vivr« xt\\xtA.t»C^ 
jiaiA,' for the ConaUuMns^ had nothbg to do *m Cwau 

144 yLUTAR.C»*8 LIVES. 

having juftice done him for the outrage> killed Philip who 
refufed that juftice. Olympias was thought to have been 
priocipally concerned in inciting the young man to that ad 
of revenge ; but Alexander did not efcape uncenfured. It 
is faid that when Paufanias applied to him^ after having 
been fo difhonoured^ and lamented his misfortune> Alexan- 
der, by, way ofanfwcr, repeated that line in the tragedy of 

The bridal father, bridegroom, and the bride* 

It muft be acknowledged, however, that he caufed diligent 
fcarch to be made after the perfons concerned in the affaf- 
iihation,and took care to have them punifhed; and he ex- 
pre&d his indignation at Olympias's cruel treatment of 
Cleopatra in his abfence. 

. He was only twenty years old when he fucceeded to the 
crown, and he found the kingdom torn in pieces by dan- 
gerous parties, and implacal^e animoMes. The barba- 
rous nations, even thofe that bordered upon Macedonia^ 
could not brook fubjeftion, and they longed for their 
natural kings. Philip had fubdued Greece by his vidto- 
rions arms, but not luving had time to accuAom her to 
the yoke, he had thrown matters into confufion, rather 
than produced any firm fettlement, and he left the whole 
in a tumultuous (late. The young king's Macedonian 
counfellors, alarmed at the troubles which threatened him, 
advifed him to .give up Greece entirely, or at leaft to make 
no attempts upon it with the fword ; and to recal the 
wavering barbarians in a mild manner to their duty, by 
applying healing meafures to the beginning of the revolt. 
Alexander on the contrary, was of opinion, that the only 
way to fecurity, and a thorough eflablilhment of his 


* This is the aSSth verfe of the Medea of Euripides. To give the 
tontezt,Creon fays, 

Toy ^oyrct, nxt yatfAorrap km yai*Aiyi.t)rn9 
Afccanf T»— - 

The perfons meant in the tragedy were Jafon, Creufa, and Creon ; and 
in Alexander's application of it, Philp is the bridegroom, Cleopatra 
t/te bride, Mnd Atutius the father. 
CleoptnrBf the niece of Attalas, 1$ by Aman ca^d ^Mt^dlce^ U tU 


nfiairs, was to proceed with fpirit and magnammltT. For 
he was perfnaded, that if he appeared to abate of jub dig* 
nity in the leail article, he would be univerfally iniblted* 
He therefore quieted the commotions, and pat a ftop to 
the rifing wars among the barbarians, by mardung with 
the utmofl expedition as far as the Danube, where hm 
fbueht a great battle with Syrmus, king of the Triballi^ 
and defeated him. 

Some time after this, having intelligence that the The* 
bans had revolted, aud that the Athenians had adopted 
the fame fentiments, he refolved to (hew them he was no 
longer a boy, and advanced immediately through the pa& 
of Thermopylae. <' Demofihenes/' iaid he, " called mo 
** a boy, while I was in IllyHcum, and among the TrU 
" balli,and a tripling when in Thefialy; bati wiUihefr 
<* him before the walls of Athens that I am a man.'' 

When he made his appearance before Thebes, he was 
willing to give the inhabitants time to chanee their fenti- 
ments. He only demanded Phoenix and Prothytes, the firft 
promoters of the revolt, and proclaimed an amnefty to all 
the reft. But the Thebans, m their torn, demanded that 
he Ihould deliver Up to them Philous and Antipater, and 
invited, by (bund of trumpet, all men to join them, who 
chofe to affift in recovering the liberty of Greece. Alez^ 
ander then gave the reins to the Macedonians, and the 
war began with gjreat fury. The Thebans, who had the 
combat to maintain againft forces vaftly fuperior in num^ 
ber, behaved with a courage and ardour far above their 
ftrength. But when the ^^cedonian garrifon fell • dowm 
from the Cadmea, and charged them in the rear, they 
were furrounded on all ii3es, and moft of them cut ia 
pieces. The city was taken, plundered, and levelled with 
the ground. 

Alexander expef^ed that the reft of Greece, aftoni(hed 
and intimidated by fo dreadful a punifhment of the Theban«^ 
would fubmit in lilence. Yet he found a more plaufiUo 
pretence fqr his feverity ; giving out that his late proceeds 
ings were intended to gratify his allies, being adopted ia 
purftiance of complaints made againft Thebes by the peo* 
pie of Phocis and Plataea. He exempted the priefts, alt 
that the Macedonians were bound to by the ties of hoipi^ 
tality, the pofterity, of Pindar, and fuch as had oppofed um 
revolt : The rett he fold for ilaves, to the tMonb^ c£ \!kai\!i| 



Ttkoufand.. There were abore fix tJioa&nd killed in tlbt 

* The calamities which that wretched, city fuffered, were 
1 various and horrible. A party of Thr^cians demolifti^ 

V the houfe of Timocleai a woman of quality and honour.—* 
The foldiers earned off the booty f aiid ^he captain, aft^f 

; liaving violated the lady, aflced her whether ihe had not 
Ibme gold and £iver concealed* She faid (he had ; ai^d 

: taking him alone into the» garden, ihewed him a weli, into 
which, (he told him, (he Jiad thrown eycry thing of value, 
when the city was taken. The ofiicer Hooped down xo 

V €3tftmine the well ; upon which ihe pnfhed him in, ai^d 
i then defpatched him- with Hones. The Thracian$ coming 
: «p, feized and bound her .hands, and carried her before 
. Alexander, who immediately perceived by her look and 

gait,' and the fearlefs. manner m which ihe followed that 

, niTage-crew, Uiat (he was a woman of quality and fuperior 

: fentiments. The king demanded who (he was ? She ap. 
^eredj **' I am the lifter of Theagenes, who, in capacity 

' ?* of general, fought Philip for the liberty of Greece, and 
•' fell in the battle of Chaeronea." Alexander, admiring her 
Mfwer, and the bold adlion (he had performed, commanded 

, her to be fet at liberty, and her children with her. 
• . As for the Athenians, he forgave them, .though they e^- 

. preffed great concern at the misfortime of Thebes. For^ 
though they were upon the point of cj^febrating the feail 
of the great myfteries*, they omi^ed it on account of the 
mourning that took pkice, t^d received fuch of the The- 
bans as efcaped the general wreck,,. with all imaginable 
kindnefs into their city. > But wheth^ his fary, like that 
•if, a lion, was fatiated \j:ith blood,, or whether he had a 

, mind to efface a moft cruel and barbarous adion by ap, 

a^ of clemencyji he not bn^y overlpoked (he complaints he 

' had agaiaft them, 'but defired them to look well to their 

' affairs, becaufe if any thing happened to him, Athei^s 

' would giye law to Greece. 

; It isiaid, ^e calamities.he brought upo,n, the Thebans, 
gave him 'ipeaiineli l<>n|; after« ana, on that account, he 
treated many others with lefs. rigour. It is certain he 
imputed the murder of Clitns, which he committed in his 
fwine, and the Macedonians' daftardly refiifal to proceed 

in the Indian exj^dition^ through which his wars and his 

£^lorjrJ9rere left jmperfed^ to the anger of Bacchus, the 

A-L£iCAND&R. i^f 

'%\etiger 6f Thebes. And there was not a Tkeban who 
"Survived the fatal overthrow, that was denied any favour he 
Yequelled of him. Thus nttKh concerning the Theban 

A general aflembly of the Greeks being held At the 
lilhmus of Corinth, they came to a refolatioh to fend 
^their quotas with Alexander againfl the Periians, and he 
^as unanimouily elefted captain-general. Mahy-ilatef- 
Tnen and philofophiers came to congratulate himon the oc- 
^^afion ; and he hoped that Diogenes of Sihope, who then 
^ved at Corinth, would be of the number. Finding, how- 
ever, that he made but little account of Alexander, and 
that he preferred the enjoyment of his leifure in a part of 
•the fuburbs called Cranium, he went to fee hiih. Dio- 
•^enes happened to be lying in the ^un } and at the ap- 
;proaCh-of fo many people, he raifedhimfelf up a little, and 
nxed his eyes upon Alexander. The king addrcfTcd him 
in an obliging manner, and aiked him, '^ '£f there was any 
•*' thing he could ferve him in?" *' Only ftand a little oat 
^'^ of my fun-(hine," faid Diogenes. Alexander, we are 
told, was ftruck with fuch furprife at finding himfclf fo 
little regarded, and faw fomething fo great m that care«- 
•lefTnefs, that, while his courtiers were ridiculing the phi', 
•lofopher as a monfter, he faid, *' I£ I werfe not Alexander, 
*** I fhould wifh to be Diogenes." 

He chofe to confult the oracle about the event of the 
-war, and for that purpofe Went to Delphi. He happened 
to arrive there on one of the days -called inaufpicious, upon 
which the law permitted no man to put his queilion. At 
*firft he fent to the prophetefs, to 4n treat her to do her 
office i but finding fhe refufed to comply-, and alleged the 
law in her cxcufe,'he went himfblf, and drew her by force 
•into the temple. Then, as if conquered by his violence, 
•Ihe faid, *' My -fon, thou art invincible." Alexander, 
^hearing this, faid, " He wanted "no other anfwer, for he 
-** had the very oracle he defired.*' 

When he was on the point of fettiiig out upon his ex- 
pedition, he had many figns from ti^ divine powers. 
Among the jfeft, the ilatue of Orplieus in Libethra*!, 
H a whicih 

^ iTiij Ubcthra wa« In the coiintry of the Odtv^ae \tv T^tVit. "^xjx 
bcftdc this ci»y or moama'm in Thrace, there was tbtCavt of tfc« Njm^V* 
ofliibethra on Mount Hdicon^ probably Co dcnorainaiV^d \i^ Q\\^\v^>ia* 

<14^ Plutarch's lives, . 

which was of cyprefs wood« was in a pr^fufe fweat for fe^ 
reral days. The generality apprehended this to be an ill 
^rcfaM ; but Ariftander bade them difmifs their fears.— *• 
•* It ngnified," he faid, " that Alexander would perform 
** adions fo worthy to be celebrated, that they would coil 
*' the poets and muficians much labour and fweat." 

As to the number of his troops, thofe that put it at the 
leaft, fay, he carried over thirty thouiand foot, and £ve 
thotifana horfe ; and they who put it at the moft, tell us> 
his army confined of thirty- four thousand foot, and four 
thoufand horfe. The^oney provided for their fubfiftence 
^nd pay, according to AriltoDulus, was only feventy ta- 
lents ; Duris fays, he had no more than would maintain 
them one month ; but Onei&critus affirms, that he borrowed 
two hundred talents for that purpofe. 

However, though his provifion was fo fmall, he chofe, 
lat his embarkation, to inquire into the circumilances of 
his friends ; ahd to one he gaV'e a farm, to another a vil- 
lage ; to this the revenue ot a borough, and to that of a 
pod. When in this manner he had difpofed of almoft all 
thecftates of the crown, Perdiccas a(ked him, '' What he 
** had referved for himfelf ? '* The king anfwcred * ' Kope.' * 
** Well,'* replied Perdiccas, " we who fhare in your labours, 
*' will alfo take part in your hopes.*' In confequence of 
which, he refufed the eflate allotted him, and feme others 
of the king's friends did the fame. As for thofe who ac- 
cepted his offers, or applied to him for favours, he ferved 
them with equal pleafure ; and by thefe means moft of his 
Macedonian revenues were diilributed and gone. Such 
was the fpirit and difpofition with which he pafled the 

As loon as he landed, he went up to Ilium, where he 
iacrificed to Minerva, and offered libations to the heroes. 
He alfo anointed the pillar upon Achilles's tomb with oil, 
and ran round it with his friends, naked, according to tho 
cuflom that obtains ; after which he put a crown upon it, 
declaring, " He thought that hero extremely happy, in 
" having found a faithful friend while he lived, and after 
** his death aH excellent herald to fet forth his praife." As 
lie went about the city to look upon the curiofities, he was 
afked, whether he chofe to fee Paris's lyre ? •* 1 fet but 
*' little value," faid he, *' upon the lyre of Paris ; but it 
^ <• would 


'^ would give me pleafure to fee that 6f Ackillet^ to wl^ 
«' he fung the glorious anions of the bmVe.^ 

In the mean time, Darias's generals hadaiTembledagreat 
a:rmy, and taken poft upon the banks of the Gnmicusj; fo* 
that Alexander was under the necefflty of filing the»e« xa 
open the gates of Afia. Many of his ofikers- were ap-< 
preheniive of the depth of the river^. and the rough and 
uneven banks on the other fide ; and foftM^tkoiight a pro- 
]|^r regard (hould be paid to a traditioii^^ u&ae witk* 
J'efpe^l to the time. For the kings of Macedon ufed never 
to march out to war in the month D'tujiu$, Alexander 
cured them of this piece of fuperftition* by ordering that 
month to be called tbtfecmd Arttmfius^ hfA when Par* 
menio obje£led to his attempting a paflagi? fo late in the 
day, he faid, « The Hellefpont would ^MhV if after 
''< luivittg paifed it> helhould be afraid of thift Qraq^ju." 
kt the'£ne time he threw himfelf inta the fti^oaai with ^ 
thii^eeii troops of horfe ; hie advanoefd in the feee 
df the enemy^s arrows, ift fpiile of the fteep ba^ks^ whkk 
were Htied^ with cavalnr^ well-armed, «id of the rtdidky 
df the.river^' which onen- bore him down or caylred IBm 
with' itiB Waves, hts motioni f<^med rat^r ^ effcQi.4f ' 
rhsdtiefs than found fen(e«^ x He held o»> hxmtsnei^ jliiii, \gf 
l^reat.and furprifins^ effbrts^^ he gained thq ^pbefite jtflnfci^ . 
which the ittud inad^e extitmely' flif^oy and 4«Ajgeimfw«-*» 
When he was there, he was forced to ftand an entgageneM 
with the enemy^ hand to hand, . and mth great i^p&AfiA* ^ 
on his pare, because they attacked his men a« &ft airi ij^ 
came over, before he lad ^mc tor firm thiKOji. \For'|W ; 
PerAan troops charging with loud ihoatt, aiid'Wit)! horfe 
againil horfe, made good nib of their fp^arsj and, whei^. 
thofe' were broken, OT their fwords. 
' Numbers prefied hard on Alexander^^ becaiife he wa« 
eafy to be dilUnguiihed both by his buci^ler,. an4 by ^is 
crefl, oh each fide of which was a large and^ Iwaatifui 
^lurae of white featliers. • His cnirafswas pierced by a. 
javeUn at the joint. But he efclp^d unhurt. After this, 
Rhcsiaoes and SpithridaCes, two officers of great c^inii^ion, 
.Hj" . /\i' * ' attacked'. 

This alludes to that »affii«:e m the ntnth hook of the llSa^ 

*« Amas'd at eate at godlike man tbeyfbtfncL '^ • . 

•« PleasM tritk the fiilraiD barp*8 ^rmeiiioai found \ 
«* With tbeie be foothet bis «ns,ry ToaU an& ^sax 


attiackedrhUn at once. He avoided Splthridates with great: 
addrefs, and received Rhoefaces with fuch a ilroke of his. 
fpear upon -his breaft-plate, that it broke in pieces. Then. 
he drew id? fwi>rd to defpatch him, but hia adverfary ililL 
maintained the combat. Meantime^ Spithridates came. 
up on one fide of him, and raifmg himfelf up on his horfe^ , 
gayje him a^ blow. with his battle-ax, which cut oiF his . 
creft, with one fide of the plume. Nay>the force of it was j 
fnch, thaj the helmet cpuld hardly refifl it ; it even, pene-- 
trated iQ, his hair. Spithridates was going to repeat his 
ilroke, when the celebrated Clitus * prevented Jiim, by^ 
running him through the.body with his fpear. At the fauie. 
time Alexgnd^r brought Rhcefaces to the ground with, his^ 

While tie cavalry were fighting. with fc rauch^fifry, the- 
Macedonian phalanx pafled the river, and then the infantry, 
I>kewi£^ engaged. The enemy made no great, or long^ 
reiiflanppr but foon turned their backs and fled» all but 
tkt Grecian mercenaries, who making a {bud upon aik 
eminencpj deiired Alexander to give his word of honour 
that th^y fhould be fpared. But that^rince^ influenced. 
rather> by his paffion than his reafon, inflead of giving, 
them qiuarter, advanced to attack them, and was fo warmly 
received* that he had his horfe killed under him. It was. 
- not, however, the famous Bucephalus. In this difputc,. 
he had more of his men killed and wOunded, than in all 
the reft .of the battle ; for here they had to do with expe- 
perienc^d foldiers, who fought with a courage heightened. 
by defpair. 

The barbarians, we arc told, loft in this battle twenty; 
thoufand.foot, and two thoufand five hundred horfet;i 
whereas Alexander had no more than thirty-four men killed]:,^ 


♦ In the original It is KAi*tq« fx-^t*;, Ciitus the Great* But ia 
Diodorus, (50a Sc 503) w€ find KJKurot fxt7Mit C/itus- the Black i 
and Athenaeus (51^0, C.) mcptions KXiito? 8^ ^et/xof, « CThus tb» 
Fair. Piutarchj^thercfore, probably wrote itte* /^fXa<f' 

-f- Some manufcripTs mention only ten thoufand foot killed, whicfr 
Ss the nuiiiher we have in.Diodortia (505») Arrian (p. 45>) makes tho 
nunpber ol horfe kllicd only a thoufand. 

X Arrian (47..^ fay?* there were about twenty-five of the k'ln^'sfritntft 

killed; and of perf ns of lefs note, fixty horfe and thirty foot. Q^ 

■ Curtiu» informs us, it was only the twenty- ftve/riWi, who had Hatues* 

They were ere£ted at Dia^ a city of Macedonia, from whence Q^ Mft»- 

i«lJu& removed them 1oim( after, and carried themtoRome«. ! 

ALEXANDER/- l'<i^ 

ftflic of which were the infantry. To do honour to th«d^' 
ailemory> he erected a ftatae to each *bf them in bfafs^ the 
t^Orkmanihlp of Lyfippus. And -'that the Greek* might 
h»ve their Ihare in the glory of th^ day, he fent them pre- 
fents out of the fpoil : ' To the' 'Athenians in particular he~ 
fent three hundred bucklers.- Upon the reft of the fpoils 
hb put this pompous infcription^ won by albxandsh 


THE Lacedemonians) of the barbarians in asxa* 
The.greateft part of the plate, the purple furniture, and 
other things of that kind -which he took from the Perfians^ - 
he fent to his mother.- 

This battle made a great and immediate change in the 
^ce of Alexander's affairs; infomuch that Sardis, the 
nrincipal ornament of the Perfian empire on the maritime 
nde» made its fubmiffion. All the other cities followed its * 
example,- except Halieamaffufi and Miletus ; thefe he 
took oy.ftorm, and fubdued all^ the adjacem^conntrT; ASi 
ter this he remained /ome time in fufeeafe^s to'the coarie 
he Ihonid uke. One while h^ was for eoing, •with great 
expedition, to rifk all upon the £ite of one^ battle wltk 
Darius ; another while he was for firft reducing all the 
naritime provinces; Aan when, he hadexerciied 'mni . 
ft'enffthened himfbif by thde intermediate z/B&ooa and ae» 
. fuifiuons, ha might tlien march asainft that prince. 

There is a fpring in Lycia near t^e city of the Xanthians^ 
trhich, thev tell us, at that time turned its courfe of iti 
own accord/ and OYerfloi^ing its banks^ threw uj^ a plate 
of brafs, upon which were engraved certain ancient char 
rapiers, figaifying '' That the Perfian empire would one 
*' day come to a period, and be dcftroyed by the Greeks." 
Encouraged by this prophecy, he haftened to reduce all 
the coaft, as nr as Phcenice * and Cilicia. His march 
through Pamphylia has afforded matter to many hiflorikns 
for pompous defcription, as if it was by the interpofitioh 
of Heaven, that the Tea retired before Alexander, whidu 
at other times, run there with fo ftrong a current, that the 
breaker-rocks at the foot of the mountain veiy feldom 
were left bare. Menander, in his pleaiant way, refers to 
this pretended miracle in one of his comediesi 

H4 Hov 

• This PhceDtce, as Pa^mjas hat obfenre^i was a diftrlil of I'yeia ^ 

Jj;^ ■ Plutarch's lives. 

How like gren ai,ixami><i > do I fcek 
A friend ? Spontaneous he prtfents iiimfeif. 
Have 1 to march where feas Indignant roll? 
The fea retires, and there I march. 

"But Alexander himfclf, in his Epiftlcs, makes no miracle 
of it • ; he' only fays, •* He marched from Phafelis, by the 
*' wsLj c&Wcd Climax.** 

He had ftaycd fomc time at Phafelis ; and having found 
in the market-place a ftatue of Thcodeftes, who was of 
«hat place, but then dead, he went out one evening when 
he had drank freely at fupper, in mafquerade, and covered 
the ftatue with garlands. Thus, in an hour of feftivity, 
he paid an agreeable compliment to the memory of a man 
with whom he had formerly had a connedion, by means of 
Ariftotle and philofophy. 

After this he fubdued fach of the Pifidians sls had re- 
volted, and conquered Phrygia. Upon taking Gordium, 
-which is faid to have been the feat of the ancient Midas> 
iie found the famed chariot, faftened with cords^ made f 
the bark of the cornel-tree, and was informed of a tradi- 
tion, firmly believed among the barbarians, ** That the 
*• Fates had decreed the emrpire of the world to the man 
** who fliould Uiitie the knot.** Moft hiftorians fay, it 
was twifted fo many private ways, and the ends fo artfully 
concealed within, that Alexander, finding he could not 
untie it, cut it afunder with his fword, and fo made many 
ends inftead of two. But Ariftobulus affirms, that he eafily 
undid it, by taking out the pin which faitened the yoke to 
the beamj and then drawing out the yoke itfeif. 


• There is likewife a paffagc in Strabo, which fully proves that 
there was no miracle in it — «*Near the city of Phafelis,*' fays he, " be- 
" tween Lycia and Pannphylia, there is a paffage by the fea-fidc, thro* 
•* which Alexander marched his army. Tliis pafTagc is very narrow, 
•♦ and lies between the Ihore and the mountain Clioiax, which over- 
*• looks the Pan^phylian fea. It is dry at low water, fo that travellers 
.** pafs through it with fafety 5 but when the fea is hi^ it is over. 
** flowed. It was then the winter fcafon, and Alexander, who de- 
«* pended much upon his good fortune, was refolved to fet out without 
«« flaying till the floods were abated j fo that his men were forced to 
♦< march up to the middle in water." Staab. lib. xiv. 

Jofephus refers to this paflage of Alexander, to gain the more credit 
•rnong the Greekland Romans to the paflage of the ifraelitcs througK 
the Red Sea, 

^ -AL£kAK2>E^ ^ . X53 

. HU next acquUitioas were Pftphltgonla ftnd 'Cippa- 
ocia ; and there news was brought hun of the death d^ 
•Memnon *> who was the moft refpe^able officer Darins 
had in the maritime parts of hk kinedom, and likely to 
hare given the invader moft tronmr. This confinaed 
him in his refolntion of marching into the upper provancn 
of Afia. 

By this time Darios had taken his departme firom Snfiu 
fall of confidence in his numbers, for ilia army confifled 
of no le^ than fix hundred thoafimd comharanu; and 
greatly encouraged befides by a dreamy which the J£a|t 
h^. interpreted rather in the manner they 'thdittlil wow ^ 
pleaib him, than with a regard to probability, fid dmon* ' 
sd, '• That he faw the K&cedouaja phalanx aU-o»Mk * 
^' and that Alexander, in the dre& wlttch he^ Darisf^ 
^' lad fiirmerly worn,, whenoneof theldfli|'a coonersfw 
«' adcd as his &rvant ; after which AlexaaSor went iolo < 
f' the temple of Belus, and there fuddenly dtfiRtponod/^ ' 
By this heaven fee«s to have fignified* that profuerkf aad - 
honour would attend the Macedonians ; and tlhat Atek* 
mader would become ^mafter :of Afia, like Daraua befitfo ^ 
him^ who, of a fimple courier, becamo a king; but that 
he, wooid ncvertheleis. ioon die, ^nd .Icmre his glory be^ 
hkid him. . 

K 5 1 Sams 

* • Vpon tfie death of Memncmi who had betun wHh creat facetTa • 
toire^ace the Greek Iflaftdt^ aad was 00 the point of iiiTa&i^ Bvbctat , 
DiriiM was «t « lofo whom to ^ploy, . . was in tU» fu4>cfg#» . 
Cbaridemusy an Athcnlaoy who had €enred' with great reputation nnder 
Philip of MacedoHt but Was noW very sealous & the Perfian intereftf ■ 
attempted to fet the Idng and his tninifters right.' >* Whi]j( yon, Sir,** ' 
filid he to Daiiosy ^ are fafe> the empire can never be In great danger. 
^ l«et me, therefore, esthort you never to txpafo yovr peHbh, but ta * 
<(;nake choice of fome able general to marchagainft your eaeitiy« pif^ . 
** hundred tboufand men will bemore than (iifficienty provid^ a t^vi *■ 
" of them be mercenaries, to compel him to abandon this 6nierprike| 
** and If xou will honour me with tbiBtommand, 1 will be accocifiub]p^ . 
« #0F th« fuoctfs of what I advife/* DadM was ittady to secede to M 
properil$ bet the Per<lMgraadees»: through teify,'acc«ftdChari(hwaa . 
of ^ titfa^snabls deign, aft4 efie^M his niin. Dariuar^eatd|nafe!Mr 
dt^tf but it wa« then too late, ^hat able counlbUor and|(eikm w^' . 
dondemned and <ixecute(f. Diod^Sxc. l.xvli. Ctrar.LUi. 

t In .the text Acryftv^f. . But it appeirs. from Hd)rchiu$. and ^nU - 
das, that It 0)oold be read Arw^f* . It is the ^erhan word ifttadf^ 
ftacor, {(romjfajti Aare) with a Greek terodaaxkoiav vvl tivV 
from Cicercy thatjar^ GgtuAn a courier*.. . 


Daritis was ftill more encouraged by Alexander's lon^ 
ftay in Cilicia, which he looked upon as the effe^ of his. 
fear. But the real caufe of his ftay was ficknefs, which 
fome attribute to his great fatigues, and others to his 
bathing in- the river Cvdnus, whofe water is extremely 
cold. If is phyficians durft not give him any. medicines, 
becaufe they thought themfelves not fo certain of the cure, 
as of the danger they muft incur in the application ; for 
th^y feared, the Macedonians, if they did not fucceed, 
would fufpeft them of fome bad pradlice. Philip, the 
Acarnanian, faw how defperate the king's cafe was, as 
well as the reft ; but, befide the confidence he had in his ^ 
friend (hip, he thought it the higheft ingratitude, when 
Ills nafter was in io much danger, not to riik fomething 
with him, in exhaufting all his art for his relief. . He 
therefore attempted the cure, and found no difficulty itt 
perfuadiug the king to wait with patience till his medicine 
was prepared^ or to take it when ready ; fo.defirous was . 
he of a speedy recovery, in order to profecate the war. 

In the mean time, Pannenio fent him a letter from the ^ 
campy adviiing him ** To beware of Philip, whom^"' he 
faid, *' Darius had prevailed upon, by prefents of infi- 
'* nite- value, and the promife of his daughter ia marriage, 
" to take him off by poifon." As foon as Alexander hsid 
read the letter, he put it under his pillow, without (hew- 
ing it to any of his friends. The time appointed being 
come, Philip, with the king's friends, entered the cham- 
ber, having the cup which contained the medicine in hi» 
liand. The king received it freely, without the leaft 
marks of iuipicion, and. at the fame time put the letter in 
his hands. It was a llriking fituation, and more interefting 
than any fcene in a tragedy ; the one reading while thei 
other was drinking. They looked upon each other, but 
with a very different air. The king, with an open and . 
unembar raffed countenance, expreflTed his regard for Phi- 
lip, and the confidence he had in hb honour; Philip's look 
file wed his indignation at the calumny. One while ho 
lifted up his eyes and hands to heaven^ protefting Ids fide* 
lity; another while he threw himfelf-down by the bed- 
jide, intreating his mafter to be of good courage and trnft 
to his care. 

The medicine, indeed, was fo ftrong, and ovcrjpower- 
cd his fpirits in fuch a manner, that at Srft he was ipecch- 



lets, and difcovered fcarcc any fign of fenfc or life. ^ But 
afterwards he was foon relieved by this faithful phyfician*, 
and recovered fo well that he was able to ihew himfelf to 
the Macedonians^ whofe diftrefs did not abate till he came 
perfonally before them. 

There was in the army of Darius a Macedonian fugi- 
tive, named Amyntas, who knew perfedly well the du- 
poficion of Alexander. This man, perceiving that Darius 
prepared to march through the llraits in queft of Alex- 
anderj begged of him to remain where he was, and take 
the advantage of receiving an enemy, fo much inferior 
to him in number, upon laree and fpacious plains. Darius 
anfwered, . " He was afraid in that cafe the enemy would 
*' fly without coming to an adion, and Alexander cfcape 
•* him.'i "If that is all your fear,*? replied the Macc- 
donian,> " let it give you no farther xmeafinefs ; for be 
*' will come to feekypu, and is already on his march." 
However, his reprefentations had no elFeft: Darius fet 
out for Cilicia ; and Alexander was making for Syria in 
quell of him. • But happening to mifs each other in the 
Big^ht, they both turned back; Alexander rejoicing in his 
good fortune, and haflening to. meet Darius in the ftraits; 
while Darius endeavoured to difengage himfelf, and re« 
cover his former camp. For by this time he was fenfiblc 
of his. error in throwing himfelf into ground hemmed in 
by 'the fea on one fide, and the mountains on the other, 
and interfedled by the river Pinarus ; fo that it was im - 
practicable for cavalry, and his infantry could only adl in 
imall and broken parties, while, at the fame time, this 
iituation was extremely convenient for the enemy's inft- 
.rior numbers. 

Thus fortune befriended Alexander as to the fcene of 
ftClion^ but the ikiiful difpoiition of his forces contributed 
ilill more to his gaining the yidory. > As his annv 
was very fmall in comparifon of that of DaHus, ^e toolc 
care to draw it up fo as to prevent its being farround- 
ed, by ftr etching out his xight wing farther than the 
enemy's left, in that wing he ailed in peHbn, and, 
lighting in the foremoft- ranks, put the barbarians ^ 
flight. He was wounded; however, in the thigh, and^ 
according to Chares, by Darius, who engaged him hand 
CO hand. But Alexander, in the account £e gave Anti* 

• In thrtt dayi x\»ft. 

156 Plutarch's lives. 

pater of the battle, does not mention who it was that 
.wounded him. He only fays, he received a wound in his 
thigh by a fword, and that no dangerous confequencet 
* followed it. 
- The viftory was a very fignal one ; for he killed above 
a hundred and ten thoufand of the enemy *. Nothing was 
wanting to complete it but the taking of Darius ; and that 
prince cfcaped narrowly, having got the ftart of his pur- 
luer only by four or five furlongs. Alexander took his 
chariot and his bow, and returned with them to his Ma- 
cedonians. He found them loading themfelves with the 
plunder of the enemy's camp, which was rich and various ; 
though Darius, to make his troops fitter for adion, had 
]efc moft of the baggage in I>ahialcus. The Macedo- 
nians had referved for their mafter the tent of Darius, in 
which he found officers of the houfehold manificently 
cloathed, rich furniture, and great quantities of gold and 

As (bon as he had put pW his armour, he went to the 
bath, faying to thofe about him, ** Let us go and refrefli 
*• ourfelves; after the fetiguesof Ihc field, in the bath of 
«* Darius," *' Nay, rather," faid one of his friends, 
*' in the bath of Alexander; for the goods of the con- 
** quered are, and ihould be called, the conqueror's.'* 
When he had taken a view of the bafons, vials, boxes,-and 
other vafes curioufly wrought in gold, fmelled the fragrant 
odours of eficnccs, and feen the fplendid furniture of fpa- 
cious apartments, he turned to his friends, and faid, 
*« This, then, it feems, it was to be a king f !" 

As he was fitting down to table, an account was brought 
. hun, that among the prifoners were the mother and wife 
of Darius, and two unmarried daughters ; and that upon 
feeing his chariot and bow, they broke out into great 
lamei^tations, concluding that he was dead. Alexander, 
after jbme paufe, during which he was rather commiferat- 
ing their misfortunes, than rejoicing in his own fuccefs, 
ient Leonatus to affure them, ** That Darius was not dead ; 
'* that they had nothing to fear from Alexander, for his 
« difputc with Darius was only for empire; and that they 

" fhould 

* Diodorus fays a hundred and thirty thoufand, 
•f As if he had faid, «^ Coold a king place his happinefs in fuch 
<« tojqyments as thefe ?** For Alexander wiS not^ tiU long after thify 
ycorrf/jjced by (he Fo4lA ItlXmy* 


*** Ihoald find themfelves provided fMr in the fame manner, 
*» as when Darias was in his greatefl profperity," If this 
2ne£rag;e to the captive princeues was gratieus and hnmane, 
his adions were flili more fo. He allowed them to do 
the funeral honours to what Perfians they pleafed^ and for 
that pm^oie furnifhed them ont of the :^ilt. with robei^ 
and all the other decorations that were cttftoinaiy. . They 

' had at many domeftks, and were ferved in ail stfftStB, in 
as honourable a manner as before i . indeedi their appoint* 

-ments.were greater. But there was another part of hit 
behaviour to them ftill more noble and princely. Thongh 
the^ were now captives, he conitdered that they weie 
ladies, not oiily of high rank, but of great modcfty and 
virtue, and took care that they Ihoald not heacanisidt* 

' cent word, ndr have theleaft canfe to fuipediany dangor 
to thelb honour. Nay, ae if they had oeen ia a holy 
temple, or afylum of virgins, rather than in an en^yfa^ 
camp, they lived unfeen and unapproached> in the niaft 
facred privacy. 

It is faid, the wife of Darius was one of the moft bean* 
tiful wonien, as Darius was one of the ulleft and hand* 
fcnneft tnen iii the worldi jlnd that their daughters mudh 
refembled them^ Bjit Alexander, no dcmbt, thobght it 
ihore glorious and worthy of a king, to conquer hbnfelf, 
than to fnbdue his enemies, and therefore, never ap- 
proached one of them. Indeed, his continence was fucn, 
that he knew not any woman before his marriage, except 
Bariine, who became a widow by the death of her Ikof* 
band Memnon, and was tidcen jprilbner near Dana&'ai. 
She was well verfed in the Greek literatures a Wonan of 
the mofl agreeable temper, and of rojral eatiadaon ; fbr 
her father Arubazus was grandfon to a king of Peifia f» 
According to>Ariftobulns, it was Parmenio j^t pat Adff»* 
ander upon this conneiftion with fo accompHfbed a 1 — -^"^ 
whofe beautv was her ISI^ief'fe^on, As for ' 
female captives, thowh^VK}^^ were taU and- 
Alexander took no 6r&elr i«otiae 4>(;them :than m^h.f 

' way of jeft, ** What eye-fows'thefe PerfiaH womenam l^' 
He found a counter-charm in the beauty pf felf govetii^ 
toent and fobriety ; and, in *t]|« ftretigtfa of that, i|^4K4 
them by, as fo many^datocs; . -^ 

f Sod a Uns oCPer|aH4Mtt||^Aa% 

158 Plutarch's livzs. 

Philoxenusy who commanded his forces upon the coa^ 
acquainted him by letter^ that there was one Theodoras* 
a I'arentine, with him, who had ti^o beautiful boys to 
fell, and defired to know whether he chofe to buy them. 
Alexander was fo much incenfed at this application, that 
he afked his friends feveral times, " What bafe inclina- 
** tions Philoxenus had ever feen in him, that he durft 
** nuke him fo infamous a propofal ?" In his aniwer to 
the letter, which was extremely fevere upon Fhiloxenus* 
he ordered him to difmiis Theodorus and his vile merchan- 
dize, together. He likewife reprimanded young Agnon, 
for offering to purchafe. Crobylus for him, whofe beauty 
was &motts in Corinth. Being ;infbrmed, that two Mace- 
donians, named Damon and Timothcus, had. corrupted 
the wives of fome j>f his mercenaries, who ferved under 
Parmenio, he ordered that officer to inquire into the 
affair, and if they were fotmd guilty, to put them to death, 
as no better than favages bent on the dellru6tion of humaji 
kind. In the fame letter, fpeaking of his owacondud, 
he expreflcs himfelf in thefe terms; *« i^'or my part, I 
'* have neither feen, nor deilred to fee, the wife of Darius; 
•* fo far from that, -I have not fufFer^ any man to fpeak 
" of her beauty before me.'* He ufed to fay, '' That 
*' fleep, and the commerce with thefex, were the things 
*' that made him moft fenfible of his mortality." For 
he confidered both wearinefs and the natural 
cfFe^ls of our weaknefs. 

He was alfo very temperate -in. eating. • Of, this there 
are many proofs ; and we have a remarkable one in what 
he (kid to Ada> whom he called his mother, and had made 
queen of Caria*. Ada, to exprels her a fFe^ionate re- 
gards. Tent him every day a number of excellent difhes and 
a handfome defert; and at lail.fhe feut him fome of her 
beft cooks and bakers. But he faid, " He had no need of 
'* them ; for he had been fupplied with better cooks by 
** his tutor Leonidas ; a march before day to dreis his 
** dinner^ and a iigbt -dinner to prepare his fiipper." 


• This Princefs, after the death of her eldeft brother Maufolos, and 
his confort Artemina, who died without children, fuccceded to the 
throne with her brother Hidrcus, to whom fhe hid been inairled, 
Hidreus dying before her, Pexodoru$>, her third brother, dethroned her, 
and after his death his fon-in-law Orontes feized the crown. But 
AJexander ratlortd hCf to the poiTeffion of her dominions. 

A'L£:SAK£>£K. I59 

Hi add«d^ that '' the fame LeoBidas ufed to examine thd 
^ cheiis and wardrobes in which his bedding and clothes 
'^ were put, leil fomething of luxury and fuperfluity (hoidd 
•* be introduced there by his mother." 

Nor wiis he/4b much addided to wine as he,was thought 
to be. It wat fuppofed {o, becaufe he pafled a great deal 
of time at table ; but that time was (pent rather, in'talking 
than drinking ; every cup introducing. Tome long difcourie. 
Befides.^ he never made thefe long meals but^whenhe had 
abundance of leifure upon hk hands. <>. When bufineis calU 
ed, he. was not to be detained by wine,- or fleep, or plea- 
fure, or honourable. love, or the mofl entertaining fpe&acle, 
though the motions ofother generaU have been retarded 
by fome of ^thefe .-things^ .His life fufhciently confirms 
thisaiTertion ; for^ though veiy ihoa» he performed in it 
inaumerable great anions. ^, 

Onhis. days of leifure, as foon as he was rifen he facri- gods^ after which he took his dinner fitting^ 
The reil of the diy he . fpent in hunting, or deciding the 
diiFejrencea among his troops, or in reading and writing. 
If he was upon a march which, did not require hafte,. he 
would exercife himfelf in (hooting and darting thejavelin, 
or ia mounting and alighting fpom a chariot at full ipeed. 
Sometimes alfo he diverted himfelf with fowling- and fbxr 
hunting, as we iind by-hia journals. . 

On his return .to lus quarters, when he went^ to be re-^ 
frefhed with the- bath and with oil^ he inquired of the 
ftewards of his. kitchen, whether they had prepared every 
thini^ in a handfome ;aiasner for fupper. It was not till 
late in the evening, and when night was come on, that he 
took .this meal> and then^ he -eat in- a recumbent pofture* 
He was very attentive to his guefts at table, that they mieht 
beierved equally, and none-'.negle^edu. His enteruuns 
xacnus,: as we have already^ obferved, lafled many hours | 
bot^they were lengthened out rather by, conversation than 
drinking.> His conyerfation> in many refpe^> was. more 
agreeable than that of mofl princes, for he was not defi« 
cient in the graces of fociety* His only fault was his re- 
taining fo much of the foldier^, as to indulge a trouble- 
fome vanity. He would not only boaft^f hb own adions, 


e~Tbe ancients, in their comic piecesy ofed always to put the Rho« 
domontadea in the cbaraaer of • fokUer. At pr«£«a\\^ utcr) \a!«\ 
as Uttle vanity; ss any fct of jpcoplt vrhaX«vcT» 


but fuftered himfelf to be cajoled by ilatterers to an amaz- 
ing degree. Thefc wretches were an intolerable burden 
to the reft of the company, who did not choofe to con- 
tend with them in adulation, nor yet to appear behind 
them in their opinion of their king's achi^ements. 

As to delicacies, he had fo little regard for them, that 
when the choiceft fruit and fi(h were brought him from 
diftant countries and Teas, he would fend fome to each of 
his friends, and he very often left none for himfelf. Yet 
there was always a magnificence at his table, and the ex- 
pence rofe with his fortune, till it came to ten thoufand 
(drachmas for one entertainment. Theroi it flood ; and he 
did not fuffer thofe that invited him to exceed that fum. 

AAer the battle of IfTus he fent to Damafcus, and 
feized the money and equipages of the Perftans, together 
with their wives and children. On that occafion the 
I'helTaUan cavalrv enriched themfelves moil. They had, 
indeed, greatly dillinguifhed themfelves in the adlion, and 
they were favoured with this commiffion^ that they might 
have the befl (bare in the fpoil. Not but the reft of the 
army found fufficient booty; and the Macedonians having 
once tafted the treafures and the luxury of the barbarians, 
hunted for ' the Periian wealth, with all the ardour of 
hounds upon fcent. 

It appeared to Alexander a matter of great importance, 
before he went farther, to gain the maritime powers. 
Upon application, the kings of Cyprus and Phoenicia 
made their fubmiffion : only Tyre held out. He befieged 
that city feven months, during which time he ere^ed vaft 
mounts of earth> plied it with his engines, and invefted 
it on the fide next the fea with two hundred galleys. He 
had a dream in which he faw Hercules offering him his 
hand from the wall, and inviting him to enter. And 
many of the Tyrians dreamed, '* That Apollo declared he 
«* would go over to Alexander, becaufe he was difpleafed 
«• with their behaviour in the town." Hereupon, the 


• One of the Tyrians dr««iii<c!, he faw Apollo flying from th« city. 

' *l^ Upon his repordng this to the people, they wonki have ftoned hinri^ 

' ■ ' 1 ' fuppofing that he did it to intimidate them. He was obliged, therefore;, 

'to take refuge in the teniple of Hercules. But the magiftrates, upon 

tnatnre deliberation, refoWed to fix one end of a gold chain to the ftatue 

«f-ApoUo, and the other to the altar of Hercaks. DiopoR.Sic* 


T/rians, as if the god had been a deferter taken in the 
fad, loaded his ilatue with chains, and nailed the feet to 

. the pedeftal ; not fcrupling to call him an Alexan^rift. In 
another dream Alexander thought he faw a fatyr playing 
before him at fome diftance ; and when he advanced to 
take him, the favage eluded his grafp. However, at laft, 
after much coaxing and takingand many circuits rouiid him, 
he prevailed with him to furrender himfelf. The inter- 
preters, plaufibly enough divided the Greek term for 

Jaiyr into two, Sa Tyros, which fignifies Tyre if thint. 
They ilill fhew us a fountain, near which Alexander it 
faid to have feen that vifion. 

About the middle of the iiege, he made an excurftoil 
againit the Arabians who dwelt about Antilibanus. There 
ke ran a great rifk of his life on account of his preceptor 
Lyfimachus, who infilled on attending himj being, ai 
he alleged, neither older nor lefs valiant than Phoenix. 
But when they came to the hills, and quitted their horfes. 
to march up on foot, the reft of the party go far before 
Alexander and Lyfimachus. Night came on, and, as the 
enemy was at no great diftanCe, the king would not leave 
his preceptor borne down with fatigue and the weight of 
years. Therefore, while he was encouraging ahd help- 
ing him forward, he was infenlibly feparated from hii 
troops, and had a dark and very cold night to pais in an 
expofed and dififtal fituation. In this perplexity, he ob- 
ferved at a diftance a number of fcattered fires which the 
enemy had lighted ; and depending upon his fwiftnefs and 
adlivity, as well as accuftomed to extricate the Macedo- 
nians out of every difHculty, by taking a ftuure in the la- 
bour and danger, he ran to the next fire. After having 
killed two of the barbarians that fat watching it, he feizea 
a lighted brand, and haftened with it to his party, who 
foon kindled a great fire. The figlit of this fo intimidated 
the enemy, that many of tlfem fled, and thofe who ven- 
tured to attack him, were repulfed with confiderable lofs, 
,By thefe means he pafled the night in fafety, according tp 
the account we have from Chares. 

As for the iiege, it was brought to a ter^nation in this 
manner. Alexander had permitted his main body to 
repofe themfelves, after the long and fevere fatigues they 
had undergone, an4 ordered only fome fmall parties to 
keep the Tyrians in play. In the mean time, AtviOb&xidK^> 


l62 ^LUTARCH*8 LIVE Si' 

his principal foothfayer, oiFered facrifices; and orih day ' 
upon inlpeding the entrails of the vidim; he boldly al- 
fertcd among thofe about him, that the city would cer- 
tainly be taken that month. As it happened then to be ■ 
the laft day. of the month, his aflcrtion was received with • 
ridicule and fcorn. The king perceiving he was difcon- 
certed, and making it a point to bring 3ie prophecies' of 
his minifters to completion, save orders that the day ihould 
not be called the thirtieth, but the twenty-eighth of the 
month. At the fame time, he called out his forces by 
found of trumpet, and made a much more vigorous aiTault- 
than he at firft intended. The attack was violent, and 
thofe who were left behind in the camp, quitted it to have 
a fliare in it, and to fupport their fellow-foldiers ; info- • 
much that the Tyrians were forced to give out> and the - 
<ity was taken that very day. 

*rom thence he marclied into Syria, and laid ficgc ta ' 
Gaza, the capital of that country. While he was em- 
jployed there, a bird, as it flew by, let fall a clod of earth 
upon his ihoulder, and then going to perch on the crofs 
cords with which they tamed the engines, was entangled 
«nd taken; The event anfwered Ariftander's interpreta- 
tion of this fignt Alexander was wounded in the (houlder, 
but he took the city.. He fent mod of its fp^ to Olym- 
plas and Cleopatra, and others of his friends.' His tutor 
Leonidas was not forgotten ; and the prefent he made him 
had fomething particular in it. It confided of five hundred 
talents weight of frankincenfe^/and a hundred of myrrh, 
and was fent upon recollefiion of the hopes he had con- 
ceived when a boy^ It (demr Lfeonidas one day had ob- 
ferved Alexander at a facrifice throwing incenfe into the 
£re by Jiandfuls ; upon which he faid, ** Alexander, when 
" you have conquered the country where fpices grow, 
*' you majr be.thus liberal of your incenfe; but, in the 
" mean time, ufe what you have more fparingly." He 
therefore wrote thus : *' I have fent you frankincenfe and 
*' myrrh in^abundance, that you may be no longer a churl 
** to the godsi" 


• The common Attic talent in Troy wdght was 56 ix 00 i7« 

This talent confined of 60 viv,a\ but there was ano- 
ther Attic talent, by fome faid to confift of So, by 
others of 100 OTi>^. Themintf was -<-> o9 xi 7 16^ 

Iht talent of Alexandria was -^ 104 o 19 14 


A caflcct being one day brought him, which aj^eared 
•ne of the moil curious and valuable things among the 
treafures and the whole equipage of Darius, he afked his 
friends what they thought moft worthy to be put in it ? 
Different things were to be propofed, bat he faid,' " The 
•' Iliad mod deferved fuch a cafe.'* This particular is 
mentioned by feveral writers of credit. And if what the 
Alexandrians fay, upon the faith of Heraclides, be true> 
Homer was no bad auxiliary, or ufelefs counfellor, in the 
courfe of the war. They tell us, that when Alexander 
had conque'red Egypt, and determined to build there a 
great city, which waa to be peopled with Greeks, and- 
called after his own name, by the advice of his architedti 
Ke had marked out a piece of ground, and was preparing 
to lay the foundation ; but a wonderful dream made him 
£x upon another fituation. He thought a perfon with 
grey hair, and a very venerable afpedl^ approached bim« 
and repeated the following lines : 

High o*cr a fn»Jpl^y fw the Pharian ide 

Fronts the deep roar of diiemboguing Kile. Po^s* 

Alexander, upon this, immediately left hh hcd, and went 
to Pharos, which at that time was an lAand lyinf a litthl^ 
above the Canohic mouth of the Nile, but nowXBjoiaedto 
the continent by a caufeway. He no fodner caft his eye* 
upon the place, than he perceived the conunodioufaei* 
of the fituation. It is a tongue of land, not Unlike aft 
ifthmus, whofe breadth is proportionable to its length* 
On one fide it has a great la|ce, and on the other the fea^ 
which there forms a capacious harbour "^.^ This led hinn 

f Dacicr underOands this whole paffage (which, as heobi<;rvcs, is not 
vUhout its difficulties) as a dtfcription of the ifle of Pharos. It cer- 
tainly >»'as the ifle of Pharos that £orm*jd the harbour, which was » 
double one, and he adduces the authorities of Csefar and VkgiLto provf 
that point. But how did the ide of Pharos lie between, or divide thf 
fea and a great lake ? Dacier takes ^i^y^y rt sfoXXfjv x»t SdiXdKr0>a« 
to mean the fame as Xifji,tuh ^ahxa-a-at, Alexandria, however, doe* 
certainly fVand between the lake Marea, orMareotis, tnd the Canopii 
branch of the Nile, which may well enough be called a fea. And thf 
word hiioy^vos does undoubtedly iiivM>fJi^araun^ocd\vid^^^%^ 


to declsLtCt that '' Homer^ among his other admirable qua* 
'* lifications^ was an excellent architc^,** and he ordered 
a city to be planned fuitable to the ground, and its appen- 
dent cc^vcniencies. For want of chalk, they made ufe of 
flour, which anfwered well enough upon a black foil, and 
they drew a line with it about the femicircular bay. The 
Arms of this femicircle were terminated by lira it lines, fo 
that the whole was in the form of a Macedonian cloak. 

While the king was enjoying the deiign, on a fudden 
^n infinite number of large birds of various kinds, rofe, 
like a black cloud, out of the river and the' lake, and 
lighting upon the place, eat up all the Hoof that was ufed 
in marking out the lines. Alexander was difturbed at the 
omen ; but the diviners encouraged him to proceed, by 
aiTuring him, it was a iign that the city he was going to 
build would be bleft with fuch plenty, as to furniSi a fup- 
ply to all that (hould repair to it from other nations. 

The execution of the plan he left to his architedls, and 
went to vifit the temple of Jupiter Ammon. It was a long 
atkd laborious journey * ; and befide the fatigue, there was 
|wo great dangers attending it. The one was, that their 
water might fell, in a defert o/many days journey which 
afforded no fupply ; and the other, that they might be 
furprifed by a violent fouth wind amidft the wafles of 


Oar verflon of this paffage is, moreover, confirmed hy the account 
ifirhich Diodorus the Sicilian gives of the ficuation of Alexandria. That 
hj^orian fays, ir was feated very commodioudy by the haven of Pharos ^ 
f h9 Areets were fo contrived as to adit^it the cooling breezes, which re. 
irefhed the air* Alexander ordered a broad and high wall to be drawn 
around it, fo as to have the Tea clofe on one fide, and a great 1 on 
the other. Its form refembled that of a foidier's cloak. One large beau- 
tiful i^reet pafTed from g<tte to gate, being in breadth a hundred feet» 
In length forty furlongs, or five miles. It l>€came in after ages fo rich 
and famous, that there were on its rolls three hundred thoufand free* 
inen. Diod. Sic. 1. xvii. 

* As to his motives in this journey, hif^orians diiagree. Arriaii 
(1. iii. c. 3.) tells u&, he took it ip imitation of Perfeus and H«rculcs» 
the former of which had confulted that oracle, when he was defpatched 
•gainft the Gorgons ; and the latter twice, viz. when he went into 
Lybiaagainft Antseus^and when he marched into Egypt agvinfi Bufiris. 
Now, as Perfeus and Hercules gave themfelves out to be the fons of 
the Grecian Jupiter, fo Alexander had a mind to take Jupiter Am- 
cnon for his father. Maximus Tyrius {^Serm* xxv.) infornib us, tbac 
he went to difcover the fountains of the Nile; and Juiiin. ^1. xi. 
f, II.) fays, the intention of this viiit was to clear up his mother'* 
chv&^er, smd to get Iiinifclf the repuuuon of a divine origin. 

AJL£::SAND£R* l6$ 

Iknd, as it happened lone before to the army of Cambyfee. 
Th^ wind raifed the (and, and rolled it in fucll waves^ 
that it devoured full fifty thoufand men. .Thefe difficul- 
ties were confidercd and reprefented to Alexander i but 
it was not eafy to divert him from any of his purpofes/ 
Fortune liad fupported him in fuch a manner^ that his rc- 
folutions were become invincibly flrpng ; and his courage 
infpired him with fuch a fpirit of adventure, that he thought 
it not enough to be vidtorious in the £e]d> but he muft 
conquer both time and place. 

The divine aflldances whkh Alexander experienced in 
this march, met with more credit than the oracles deli- 
vered at the end of it ; though thofe extraordinary afllf- 
tances, in fome meafure, confirmed the oracles. In the 
firft place, Jupiter fent fuch a copious and conflant rain, at 
not only delivered, them from all. fear of fufFeting by thirft» 
but, by moifiening the fand, and making it firm to the 
foot, made the air clear, and fit for refpiration. In the 
next place, when they found the marks which* were to 
ferve for guides to travellers removed or defaced, and in 
confequence wandered up and down without any certain 
route, a Hock of crows made their appearance, and di- 
reded them in the way. When they marched briflclv on, 
the crows flew with equal alacrity ; when they lagged be- 
hind, or halted, the crows alfo ftopped. What is ftiU 
ilra;iger, Callifthenes avers, that at night, when they hap- 
pened to be gone wrong, thefe birds called them by their 
croaking, and put them right again. 

When he had paiTed the defert, and was arrived at the 
place, the minifter of Ammon received him with faluta- 
tions from the god, as from a father. And when he 
inquired, " Whether any of the afiiai&ns of his father had 
*' efcaped him?" the prieft dcfired he would not exprcfs 
himfelf in that manner, " for his father was not a mortal." 
Then he aiked, *• Whether all the murderers of Philip 
** were punifhed ; and whether it was given the pfopo- 
** nent to be the conqueror of the world ?" Jupiter an- 
fwered, *' That he granted him that high diflinftion; and 
*^ that the death of Philip was fuificiently avenged.''* 
Upon this, Alexander made his acknowledgments to the 
'god by rich offerings, and loaded the priefts.with prefentB 
'of great value. This is the account moft hiftorians give 
us of the affair of the oracle i but Alexander hiTXvfeli, vx 

(n. d. 17^4.} - ^^ 

i(6 Plutarch's lives. 

the letter he wrote to his mother on that occafioR>'0n]f 
fays, ** He received certain private anfwers from the or*- 
*f cle, which he would communicate to her> and her onl^t 
^* at his return." 

Some fay, Ammop's prophet being defirous to addrefi 
him in an obliging manner in Greek, intended to {ay, 
O FaidioHy which fignifies. My Sons but in his barbaroii* 
pronunciation, made the word end with an /, inilead of an 
«, and fo faid, O pai dios, which fignifies, O Son ofjupt" 
ter. Alexander (they add) was delighted with the miitak^ 
in the pronunciation, and from that miilake was propa- 
gated a report, that Jupiter himfelf had called him his fon. 

He went to hear Plammo an Egyptian philofopher, and 
the faying of his that pleafed him moft, was, ** That aGl 
"** men are governed by God, for in every thing th^ 
'** which rules and governs is divine." But Alexander's 
own maxim was more agreeable to found philofpphy : He 
faid, '^ God is the common fathei^ of men« but more par- 
** ticularly of the good and virtuous." 

When among the barbarians, indeed, he affefled a lofty 
port, fuch as might fuit a man perfeftly convinced of his 
tiivine original; but it was in a fmall degree, and with 
great caution, that he aifumed any thing of divinity among 
the Greeks. We muft except, however, what he wrote 
to the Athenians concerning Samos. *• It was not I who 
*' gave you that free and famous city, but your then Lord^, 
•* who was called my father," meaning Philip *. 

Yet long after this, when he was wounded with an ar- 
row, and experienced great torture from it, he faid, 
** My friends, this is blood, and not the ichor 

" Which Weft immortals fhed." 

One day tt happened to thunder in fuch a dreadful man- 
ner, that it aftoniflied all that heard it; upon which* 
Anaxarchus the fophill, being incompany with him, faid, 
*' Son of Jupiter, could you do fo f " Alexander anfwered, 
with a fmile, *« I do notchoofe to be fo terrible to my^ 
** friends as you would have me, who defpife my enter- 
♦' tainments, becaufe you fee fi(h ferved up, and not the 
*' heads of P^riian grandees." It feems the king had made 


• «e knew the Athenians were fonlc Into fuch meannefs, that they 
vtroyJd readily admit his pretenfions K> dly^tuv^* *^q niw^^td* ^hey 
d€j/Scd Dem€tria$0 

> itephsef&on a prefent of feme fmaU fifii> and 'Anaxarelius . 
obferving it, laid, •' Why did he not rather fend von the 
'* heads of princes • ;**^ intimating, how truly deipicable 
thofe glittering things arc which conquerors purme with 
fo much danger and, fatigue ; fince, $fter ail, their enjoy- 
ments a re .little pr nothing fuperior to thofe of other men. 
It appears, then, fron\ what has been (aid, that Alexander 
neither believed, npr^was elated wh, the. notioa of liia 
divinity, but t^^t h&only loade ufe of it as a means t6 

: bring others into lulyeftion. 

At his return from. Egypt lo Phoenicia, he honoured the 

gods with facrifices and ^folemn proceflions ; on which oc- 

caiion the people were entertained with mafic and dancings 
: ^d tragedies were prefented. in the greateft perfe$ion« 
; not only inrefpcdt or the magnificence of the fcenery, bu^ 
; ^he fpirit'Of emnlajtion in thofe vrho exhibited them. In 

Athens perfons are chofen by lot out Of the tribes to con- 
, dud thofe exhibitions ; but in this cafe the ptinces of Cy« 

prus vied with e|ich other ^yith incredible ardour ; parti- 
( cularly Nicpcreonfking of $alami;s^ and Paficrates kin^ 
, of Soli. They chofe the mod. celebrated a£bors that could 
; 'jbe found ; Paficra^tes riiked the vi6iO]j upon Ath^nodoras, 
. ^nd Nicocreon upon Theitalus. Alexander interefted 

himfelf particularly in behalf of the latter j but did not 
. ^ifcover hi^ attachment/ till Athenodohis was declared 
^ vidlor bjr all the fuffrages. Then, as he left the theatre* 

he faidi" I commend the judges for wjiat they have 
. ** done ; but I would have given half my kingdom rather 
. ** than have feen Theffalus conquered." 

However, when Athenodorus was fined by the Atht- 
,nians for not making his app^cance on th^ii^ ftage at 
i the feafts of Bacchus, and mtreated Alexander to wiitc 
. to them in his favpu/ ; though he refufed. to comply with 
ijthat requeil, he paid his fine fbr him* Another aflor, 


'■* Diogenes imputes this faying of Anaxar«bo8 to the aver/Ion he had 
{ for Nicocreony tyrant of Salamif . According to him, Alexander hav- 
ing one day invited Anaxarchus to dinner^ »nced him bow he liked 
J lis entertain menr? **ltis excellent,** replied the gueft, *« it wants but 
* one dilh, and tliat a delicious one, the head of a tyrant**' Not the 

> heads of the Satrapa, or govgrnors of provinces, as it is m Plutarch. 
Jf the philofopher really meant the head of Nicocreon, he paid dear for 
.his faying afterwards ; for after the death of Alexander^ he «ajk Aott^tii^ 
4>y contrary winds, upon the coaft of Cjptus^ ^Vnett ^ v<|t%aE& V&»& 

jhim, Mnd put him to death* 

|68 Plutarch's lives. 

named Lycon^ a native of Scarphiaj performing with great 
applaufe before Alexander^ dextroufly inferted in one of 
the fpeeches of the comedy, a verfe in which he afked him 
for ten taleiits. Alexander laaghed, and gave him them. 

It w::s about this time that he received a letter from 
Darius, in which tliat prince propofed, on condition of a 
pacification and future friendfliip, to pay him ten thoufand 
talen(§ in ranfom of the prifoners, to cede to him all the 
countries on this fide the Euphrates, and to ^ive him his 
daughter in marriage. Upon his communicating thefe 
proposals to his friends, Parmenio faid, " If I were Alex- 
" ander, I would accept them.** So would I," faid Alex- 
ander *, " if I were Parmenio.*' The anfwer he gave 
Darius was, *' That if he would come to Mm, he ihould 
'< find the bed of treatment ; if not, he mull go and fe«k 
•' him." 

In confequence of this declaration he began his march ; 
but he repented that he had fet out fo foon, when he re- 
ceived information that the wife of Darius was dead. That 
princefs died in child-bed; and the concerns of Alexander . 
was greatj becaufe he loft an opportunity of exerciiing his 
clemency. All he could do was to return, and burv her 
with the utmoft magnificence. One of the eunuchs of 
the bed-chamber, named Tireus, who was taken prifoner 
along with the jg-incefTes, at this time made his efcape out 
of tue camp, and rode olF to Darius, with news of the 
queen's death. 

Darins fmote upon his head, and fhed a torrent of tears. 
After which he cried out, " Ah cruel deftiny of the Per-; 
*' fians I Was the wife and fifter of their king, not only 
«' to be uiken captive, but after her death to be deprived 
•'•of the obfequies due to her high rank I" The eunuch 
anfwered, " As to her obfequies, Q King, and all the 
*' honours the qi\een had a right to claim, there is no 
*' reafon to blaipc the evil: genius of the Perfians. Fpr 
** neither my miflrefs, Statira, during her life, or your 
'* royal mother, or children, miiled any of the advan- 
*' tages of their former fortun0> except the beholding the 
** light of your countenance* which the great Oro- 

** mafdcs 

* Longinns takes noiici of kKs at an in fiance, that k is natural hr 
men of genius, ever. In dicli comnoon difcourfe, to lee fall fomediuny 


•' mtfdes * will again caufe to Ihine with as much luilrc 
" as before. So far from being deprived of any of the 
" folemnities of a funeral, the queen was honoured with* 
'* the tears of her very enemies. For Alexander is as ' 
*' mild in the ufe of his vidories, as he is terrible in ' 
" battle." 

On hearing this, Darius was greatly moved, and flrange 
fufpicions took poflellion of his foul. He took the eunuch » 
into the moft private apartment of his pavilion, and faid, 
" If thou doll not revolt to the Macedonims, as the for- 
*' tune of Perfia has done, but ftill acknowledgeft in me 
'* thy lord ; tell me, as thou honoured the light of Mirtha 
'* and the right-hand of the king, is not the death of Sta- 
*' tira the leaft of her misfortunes I have to lament ? Did 
** not (he fufFer more dreadful things while fhe lived ? 
** And, amidft all our calamities, would not our difgrace 
" have been lefs, had we met with a more rigorous and 
'' favage enemy ? For what engagement in tne compafs 
^' of virtue could bring a young man to do fach honour to 
*' the wife of his enemy ?" 

While the king was yet fpeaking, Tireus humbled his 
face to the earth, and intreated him- not to make ufe of . 
crpreffions fo unworthy of himfelf, fo injurious to Alexan- 
der, and fo difhonourable to the memory of his deceafed 
wife and fifter ; nor to deprive himfelf of the grcateft of 
confolations in his misfortune^ the refledling that he was 
not defeated but by a perfon fuperior to human nature. 
He aflurcd him, Alexander was more to be admired for the 
decency of his behaviour to the Periiac women, than for 
the valour he exerted againil the men. At the fame timej» 
he confirmed all he had faid with the mod awful oaths^ 
and expatiated dill more on the reeolarity af Alexander^a 
conduct, and on his dignity of mind. 

Then Darius returned to his friends; and lifting up ' 
hw hands to heaven, he faid, ** Ye gods, who are the 
*' guardians of our birth, and the proteftors of kingdomj> ♦ 
'* grant that I may re-cdablilh the fortunes of Perfia, and 
^« leave them in the glory I found them; that viftbry may 
'' put it in my power t& return Alexander the favours; 

" which .' 

• Orcmafifet V9is vior(h\ppt6 by the Pcrfians as the Author of all 
Good i and Arimanws deemed the Author of EviJ j agreeably to the 
principles from which they were believed to fprln^, U?,\vX wi^\>«>fc- 
nefs. The PerQan writen ciali them Tcrdan dxA-Jhriman* 

17^ P L U T A IL€ H^9 L IVZH^ 

'♦ which my deareft pledges experienced from him in my 
'* fall ! But if the time determined by fate and the divine 
^^ wr.ith, or brought about by the viciffitude of things, is 
'* now come, and the glory of the Periians muft fall, may 
" none but Alexander fit on the throne of Cyrus !'* In 
xhis manner were things conduced, and fuch were the 
fpeeches uttered oh this occasion, according to the tenor 
of hiftory. 

Alexander having fubdued all on this fide the Euphrates, 
began his march againft Darius, who had taken the field 
with a million of men. During this march, one of his 
friends mentioned to him, as a matter that might divert him, 
that the fervants of the army had divided themfelves into 
two bands, and that each had chofen a chief, one of which 
they called Alexander, and the other Darius. They began 
Jto fkirmilh w»ith clods, and afterwards fought with their • 
fifts J and at laft, heated with a defire of vidlory, many of 
them came to ilones and flicks, infomuch that they could 
hardly be parted. The king, upon this report, ordered 
-the two chiefs to fight in fiugle combat, and armed Alex.- 
ander with his own hands, while Philotas did the fame for 
Darius. . The whole anny flood and looked on, confidering 
the event of this combat as a prefage of the ifTue of the war. 
The two champions fought with great fury ; but he who 
.bore the name of Alexander proved viftorious. He was re- 
warded with a prefcntof twelve villages, and allowed to 
wear a Perfian robe, as Eratofbhenes tells the flory. 

The great battle with Darius was not fought at Arbela ♦, 
Hi mofl hillorians will have it; but at Gaugamela, which^ 
:in the Perfian tongue, is fa id to iignify the boufe of tin 
camel \ 9 fo ca1led,-Di5cauft one of the ancient kings hav- 
ing' efcaped his enemies by the fwiftnefs of his camel, 
placed her there, and appointed the revenue of certain 
villages for her maintenance; 

In the month of September there happened an eclipfe 
.of the moon }, about the beginning oftche feiHval of the 


^ But as Gaugamela was only a I'lIIage, and Arbela a confiderable 
town> (lood near it, the Macedonians chofe to diftinguiOi the battle by 
the name of the latter. 

•)- Danusy the foo of HyAafpcs, croflTed the dcferts of Scythia, upon 
.ihat camel. 

J, Ailronomcrt aiTurc i», this eclipfe of the moon happened the loth 
^fSeptemherf according to the Julian calendar i and therefore the battle 
.j^ArbeU was iQnght. tbf lA of OC^r. 

;jre«t myfteries at Athens. The eleventh night aifter that 
eclipfe, the two armies being in view of each other, Da- 
rius kept his -men under arms, and took a general review 
rof his troops by torch-light. Meantime Alexander fuf- 
fered his Macedonians to repofe themfelves, and with his 
foothfayer Ariftander, performed fome, private ceremoniei 
-before iiis tent, and oftered facrifices to Fear*. The 
oldeH of his friends, and Parmenio in particular, when 
they beheld the plain between Niphates and the Go^da^aa 
-Mountains, all illumined with the torches of the bar- 
barians, and heard the tumultuary and appalling 4ioi& 
from their camp, like the bellowings of an immenfe fea, 
were aftonilhed at their numbers, and obferved among 
themfelves how arduous an enterprize it would be to meet 
fuck a torrent of war in open day. They waited upon 
the king, therefore when he had finiihed the facrifice, and 
advifed him to attack the enemy in the night, whendark- 
ncfs would hide what was moid dreadful in the combat. 
Upon which. he gave them that celebrated anfwer, / w/Z^ 
nptjieal a *vidiory. 

It is true, this anfwer has been thoijght bv fome to fa- 
vour of the vanjty of a young man, who derided the moil 
obvious danger : Yet others .have thougJit it not only well 
calculated to •ncourage his troops at that time, but politic 
enough in refpe^l to the future ; becaufe, if Darius hap- 
pened to be beaten, it left iiim no handle to proceed to 
another trial, under pretence that mght and dajrknefs had 
been his adverfaries*, as he had before laid the blame upon 
the mountains, the narrow paAes, and the fea. For in inch 
a vafl empire, it could never be the want of arms or men 
that would bring Darius to give up the difpute ; but the 
ruin of his hopes and fpirits, in x^oniequence of theiofs of 
* a battle, wh^re he had the advant^e of nuihbers and of 

When hisHTriends were gone, Alexander retired to reft 

in his tent, and he is faid to have flept that night much 

founder than ufuaij infomuch, that wJien his oiiicers came 

I^ .to 

• In the printed react it is ^o»€c% f Jfyollo^ but Amiot tdk oi, he 
found in feveral MSS. OoQu, /o Fbax. Fsak was not without hec 
altars; Thefeus facrificed to her, as wc have feeci m Vu^ \vV^ \ Ktv^i., 
Plutarch tells u$. in the life of Agis and CYeomtwes t\>ax ^\t Va.c^«« 
monja/js built a temple to Fiar , whom xbty Honovitt^^ Tvo\. ^^ % lg<?* 
■nkjcvs desn^riyhvt its the t>ond cf aJl jood ^^tr^tuctiX* 

172 Plutarch's lives. 

to attend him the next day, they could not but exprefs 
their Yurprife at it, while tHey were obliged themfefves! 
to give out orders to the troops to take their morning re- 
fremment *. After this, as tne occafibnwas urgent. Par- - 
menio entered hip apartment, and ftanding by the bed, 
called him two or three times by name. When he awaked, 
that officer aiked him, " Why he flept like a man that had 
" already conquered, and not rather like one who had 
" the greateft battle the world ever heard of to fight?" 
Alexander imiled, at the queftiqn, and faid, *' In what light 
•' c^i you look upon us out as conquerors, when we have 
" not now to traverfe defolate countries in purfuit of 
" Darius, and he no longer declines thecombat?" It was 
not, however, only before the battle, but in the face of 
danger, that Alexander Ihewed his intrepidity und ex- 
xellent judgment. For the battle was feme time doubt- 
ful. The left wing, commanded by Parmenio, was al- 
moft broken by the impetuofity with which the BaArian 
cavalry charged ; and Mazseus had, moreover, detached a 
party of horie, with orders to wheel round and attack the 
corps that v^s left to guard . the Macedonian baggage. 
Parmenio, greatly dillurbed at thefe circumftances, fent 
mefTengers to acquaint Alexender, that his ^amp and bag- 
gage would be taken if he did not immediately dcfpatch a 
ftrong reinforcement from the front to th^ rear: The 
moment that account was brought him, he was giving his 
right wing, which he commanded in perfon, the fignal to 
charge.. He flopped,' however, to tell the meflenger, 
** Pajrmenio muft have loft his fenfes, and in his diforder 
•* muft have forgot, that ^he conquerors are always 
" mailers of all tmt belonged to the -enemy ; and the con- 
*' quered need not give themfelves any concern about their 
*' treafures or jprifoners, nor have^ny thbg to think of 
" but how to iell their lives dear, and *die in the bed of 
" honour." 

As foon as he had returned Parmenio this anfwer, 
he put ,on his helmet ;' for in other points he came ready 
armed out of his tent. He had a fhort coat of the Sicilian 
fafliion, girtclofc about him, and over that a breaft-plate 
of linen ftrongly quilted, which was found among the 
fpoils, at the battle of Iffus. His helmet, the workman- 


ALEXANDElt; l/j 

fliip of TheopKiIuS, was of iron, but fo well poliftiedy 
that it fhone like the brightefl filver. To this was fitted* , 
gorget of the fame metal,, fet with precious ftones. His 
iword, the weapon he generally. u fed in battle, was a pre- 
fent from the ting of the Citieans, and could not be ex-' 
celled for lightnefs or for temper. • But the belt which he 
wore in all cngagementj?, was more fuperb than the reft of 
his armour. It. was given him by the Rhodians, as a mark 
of their rcfped> and. old Helicon had exerted all his art ia 
it. la drawing up his army and giving orders, as well 
as exercifing and reviewing: it, he fpared Bucephalus on 
account of his- ag^,. and rode another horfe; but he con- 
ilahtiy chatged upon him ; and he had no fooner mounted • 
him> than the.fjgoal was always given. • 

The fpeech he made to the ThefTulians and the other 
Greeks, was of fome length on this occaiion. » When he 
found that they, in their turn, llrove to add to his confi- 
dence, and called out to hfm to leid them againft thebar- 
bariaiis, he ihifted his javelin to his left hdnd ; and llretch- 
ing his right hand towards heaven, according to CajU 
liwhenes, he intreated the gods " to defend and in- 
** vigbrate the Greeks, if he was really the fon of Ju- 
" piter." J 

Arillander the foothfayer, who rode by his fide, in it 
white robe, and with a crown of gold upon his head, thci 
pointed out an eigie flying over him, and direifling his 
courfe againil: the enemy. The fight of this fo animated 
the troops, that after mutual exhortations to bravery, tht; 
cavalry charged at full fpeed, and the phalanx rufhed on 
like a torrent *. Before the firft ranks were well engaged, 


^ *^ Pl'jtnrch, as a 'Ttntti of lives, not of hirtories^ does not pretend to 
%\Y& an exa6t dcfcription cf battles. But as many of our reader.^^ we 
belie V;', will be 5hd to fee f:^me of the more remarkable in detail, w« 
fiiall give Arrian's account of this. * 

Alexander's li^ht wing charged fif ft upon the Scythian hprfe, who^as 
they wtre well armed, and very robuft, behaved at the beginning very 
well, and made a vigorous refinance. That this might anfwcr more 
efFettuaily, the chai iots placed in the left wing bore down at the fame 
time upcn the Macedonians. Their appearance was very terrible, and 
threatened entire deftru6>ion \ but Alexander's ligl:t«armed troops, by 
their darts, arrows, and ftones, killed many of the drivers, and nnore 
of the horfes, fo thit few reached the Macedonian line ; which Q^^ti- 
ing, as Alexander had direded, they. Only pafT.d i\\To\i^> avA >N^t^ 
then either tiken, or difiblcd by his bodi^ of relwve. TVv^ViOtfe ccitv- 
i 3 <vei\xt.\ 


MUTARCH^s Livrsr. 

the barbarians gave way. and Alexander prefled hilrd upthr- 
the fugitives, in order to penetrate into the midft of the 
hoft, where Darius aded iw perfon. For he beheld him at 
a dLlance, over the foremoS ranks, amidll his royal fqua- 
dron. Bciides tJiat he was mounted upon a lofty chariot, 
Darius was eafily diflinguiflied by his ii^e and beauty. A 
numerous body of feleit cavalry ftood in clofe order about 
the ch.iriot,anJMl*emed well prepared to receivothe enemy* 
But Alexander's approach appeared fo terrible, as he drove 
the fugitives upon thofe who Hill maintained t hoiy-g round ,.. 
that they were feized with conllernation, and the greatefl 
part of them difperfed. A few of the bed arid braveft of 
them, indeed, met their death before the kirrg^s chariot, 
and falling in heaps one upon another, ilrove to flop th« 
purfuit ; for in the very pangs of death they- clung to- the 
Macedonians, and caught hold of their liorfcs legs a« they 
lay upon the ground. 

Darius had now the moft dreadful dangers before his 
cjrcs* His own forces, that wer« placed m the front to 
defend Jiim, were driven back upon him; the wheels of 
lu9 chariot wese, moveover, entangled amoog the dend 


<nucd ftUl engaged ; and, b« fore any thing dccifive happened there, the 
Peifian foot, near iheir left ning, began to move, in hopes of falling 
%pon the ftank of the Macedonian riglit wing, or of penetrating fo far 
as to divide it from its centre. Alexander, perceiving this, fent Arataa 
withacrrps to charge ihem, and prevent their intended manosovre. 
Jq the mean timej prtfccuting his firft defign, he broke their cavalry 
in the left win^, and entirely rouitd it. He then charj^ed the Ptrfian 
foot in fiank, and they m»de hut a ftebl£^refi(lancc« Daxius, per- 
•eiving thisj gave up ail for h fV, and Aed. 

Vide Arrian, 1. iii. c. 13, & feq. ubi plura, 

Diodorus afcribes t?ie fuccefs vthich for a time attended the Perfiar^ 
troops, cniirtly to the ccndu£l vdcur of Darius. It unfortunately 
|jappcncd,.th:»t AlcxapdcT,;»ttackjng his guards, threw adart at DaripSy 
which, though it miffed him, iUuck the charioteer, who fat at his feet, 
rfead; and as he ftll forwnjrds, fome of the guart^s raiftd a loud cry,, 
whence thofe b«;hind them conj- £lured that the king wa« ilain, and 
thereupon fled. This obliged Darius to follow their example, who 
knowing the route he took, could net be difcovtrtd en aectuntof the 
dud and confuHon, wheeled about, and got behind (he Kerlian army, 
and continued his flight tl^t way^ while Alexander purfucd right 
forwards. " ( Di<;d. Sic. 1. xvii. 

Juftin tells us, that when tliofe about Darius advifcd him to break 
down ihc bridge of the Cydnus, to retard the tnemy's purfuit, he an- 
fwcrcd, *» I will never purchafe faftiy to myfdf at thecxptnce of Co 
y> marji rhcwfands of my fubjeQs, as mufl bjjthis means be loH." 

\Vi%TvU xi» c. IV 

ffodicti fo that It was almoft impoffible to tarn it; and 
the horfcs plunging among heaps of the flam, bounded up' 
and down, and no longer obeyed the hands of the chario- 
lecr. In this extremity he quitted the chariot and his arms, 
and fled, as they tell us, upon a nure whicli had newly 
foaled. But, in all probability, he had not efcaped fo, if 
Parmenio had not again fent ibme horfemen to delire Aler- 
ander to come to his afliftance, becaufe great part of the 
enemy's forces flill ftood their ground, and kept a good 
countenance. Upon the whole Parmenio is acculed of want: 
©f fpirit and aftivity in that battle : Whether it was that 
age had damped his courage ; or whether, as Callifthenes 
tells us, he looked upon Alexander's power and the pomp- 
ous behaviour he affumed, with an invidious eye, and con-" 
fidered it as an inftipportable burden*. Alexander, tho* 
vejced at being fo ftoppcd in his career, did not' acquaint 
the troops about him with the purport of the me flugcj but 
«ndcr pretence of being weary of" fuch a carnage, and of 
its growing dark founded a retrear. However, as he was 
riding up to that part of his army v*'hich had been repre^ 
fented in danger, he was informed that the enemy were ' 
totally defeated and put to flight. 

The battle having fuch au ufue, the Perfian empire ap-' 
peared to be entirely delhoyed, and Alexander was at* 
knowjedged king of all Aiia. The iirft thing he did was 
to make his acknowledgments to the gods by magnificent 
^criflces ; ax»d then to hi* frifenJs, by rich gifts ofhoufes, 
filiates, and governments. As he was particularly ambi* 
tious of recommending himfelf to the Greeks, he fignified 
by letter, that all tyrannies fhould be aboliihed, and that 
they i]\ould be governed by their own laws, under the 
aafpices of freedom. To the Platseans in particular he 
wrote, that their city fliould be rebuilt, becaufe their an- 
ceftors had m-idc a prefent of their territory to the Greeks, 
in order that they might fight the caufe of liberty upon 
their own lauds. He feat alfo a part of tlie fpoils to the 
I 4 Crotonians 

• The troth fecms to bf , that Parmenio had too much concern for 
Alexanier. Philip of Macedon confeifcd !*ar incnio to bt the oiily ge* 
ncral lie knew : ^nd on this cccition he probably confi luted, that if 
thd wing under hi« cofnair.nd had been beaten, that corps cf Peiflan^ 
would have been able to keep the 6eH, and the fugitives rallying, and 
joining it there would have beta a refpcdablc for^c i/tv.tVv «Cv^v\\.V»isM^ 
res<«ined ihe day. 

fij6 Plutarch's lives. 

Crotonians in Italy, in honour of the fpirit and courage of 
their countryman Phaylus*, a champion of the wreftling- 
ring, who in the war with the Medes, when the reft of 
,the Greeks in Italy fent no affiftance to the Greeks their 
brethren, fitted out a (hip at his own ex pence, and repaired 
to Salamis, to take a fliare in the common danger. Such 
a pleafure did Alexander take in every inftance of virtue, 
and Co faithful a guardian was he of the honour of all great 

He traverfed all the province of Babylon f-, which im- 
rmediately made its fubmiflion ; and in the diftrift of Ec- 
batana he was parricularly ftruck with a gulph of fire> 
which ftreamed continually, as from an inexhauftibic fource. 
He admired alfo a flood of napthay not far from the gulph> 
which flowed in fuch abundance that it formed a lake. 
The napiha in many refpe6ls rcfemblcs the bitumen, but it 
h much more inflammablej. Before any fire touches it, 
it catcRes light; froni a flameLat fame diftance, and afte« 
kindles all the intermediate air. The barbarians, to ihcw 
.the king its force and the fubtilty of its nature, fcattered 
.f jme drops of it in the ftrcct which led to his lodgings ; 
and llanding at one end, they applied their torches to fomc 
.of the firft drops ; for it was night. The flame commu- 
nicr.tcd itfelf fwitter than thought, and the ftreet was in- 
llantaneoufly all on fire. 

There was one Athcnophanes, an Athenian, who, among 
others, waited on Alexander when he bathed, and anointed 
him V ith oil. This man had the greatell fuccefs in his at- 
timpls to divert him ; and one day a boy, named Stephen, 
happening to attend at the bath, who was homely in his 
pcribn, but an excellent finger, Athcnophanes faid to the 
king, •' Shall we make an experiment of the naptha upon 
•' Stephen \ If it takes fire upon him, and does not pre- 

*' fcntly 

* In KcrccVtn?, Flryliuu See 1. via. 47. 
• -f In the original it is,y^5 be trnvLyfidtke terr'tory of Balyhfi^be fLurd 
U the difr:6} sf Eclatanj^ Sec, Every body knows that Ecbatana was in 
Media, not in the province of Bahylon. The gulph here mentioned 
was rear Arbda, in the diftridt oi Artaane, [See Strab. cd. Par. 
p. 737. D. & fe{|.] But Scaliger propofes, that we (hould read ArcSiane 
<from A cct nr.cnticncd. Gen. x. 10.) both here, inllcad of Ecbatana, 
and in ti.e psfH^ge of Strabo, above cited. 

t Sunt qui et naptham bituminis gcncri afcrlbunt. Vcrum ardens 
e'us vis ignium natu;?? coenata procul onrini ab ufu efK 


*' fently die out, we muft allow its force to be extraordi- 
" nary indeed." The boy readily confented to undergo 
the trial ; but as foon as he was anointed with it*. Jus 
whole body broke out into a flame, and Alexander waa 
extremely concerned at his danger. Nothing cpuld have 
prevented his being entirely coni'umed by it, if there had 
not been people at hand with many veflels of water for 
the fervicc of the bath. As it was, they found it difficult 
to extinguilh the fire and the poor boy felt the bad ciFefls 
of it as long as he lived. . 

Thofe, therefore, who define to reconcile the fable with 
truth, are not unfjpported by probability, when they fay. 
It was this drug with which Medea anointed the crown 
and veil fo well known upon the Ilagef . For the flame did 
not come from the crown or veil, nor did they take fire of 
themfelves ; but upon the approach of fire they foon at- 
traded it, and kindled imperceptibly.. The emanations 
of fire at fome diflance have no other efFet^l upon mofl 
bodies, than merely to. give them light and heat ; but in 
thofe which are dry and porous, or faturated with oily par- 
ticles, they cplleft themfelves into a point, and immedi- 
ately prey upon the matter fo well fitted to receive them. 
Still there remains a difficulty as to the generation of this 
naftha; whether it derives its inflammable quality from 
»***«#»#** 1^ or rather from the undluous and 
fulphureous nature of the foil. For in the province of Ba* 
bylon the ground is of fb fiery a quality, that the grains 
of barley often leap up and are thrown out, as if the vio-. 
lent heat gave a pulfation to the earth. And in the hot 
months the people are obliged to fleep upon ikins filled 
with water. Harpalus whom Alexander left governor of. 
the country, was ambitious to adorn the royal palaces and . 
walks with Grecian trees and plants ; afad he fucceeded in 
every thing except ivy. After all his attempts to propa* 
gate that plant it died : For it loves a cold foil, and there- 
fore could not bear the temper of that mold. Such digref- 
I 5 fions 

• As no mention Is made here of the application of fire, unlefs that 
be couched undtr the words >:ow ^ly^n^i we muft fuppofe an eledrical 
virtue in the r.apha. But Plutarch feems to difclaim that afterwards, ' 
la the cafe of Creon's daughter. 
t Hoc ddibatis alia donls pcllicem 
Scrpcnte faglt alitc HOR. 

J Something hcrp is wanting in ihc on^inaV 

|6S Plutarch's lives. 

named Lycon, a native of Sc4rphia« performins with great 
applaufe before Alcxaiuier« dextroully inferted in one of 
tne fpeeches of the comedys a verfe in which he aiked him 
far ten talerits. Alexander laughed, and gave him them* 

It wfis about this time that he received a letter from 
Darius, in which tliat prince propofed, on condition of a 
pacification and future friendinip, to.p#iy him ten thoufand 
talen(§ in ranfom of the prifoners, to cede to him all tha 
countries pn this Ade the Euphnitesji and to give him his 
daughter in marriage. Upon^ his communicating thefe 
propoials to h^ friends, Parmenio faid, ** If I were Alex- 
" ander^ I would accept them." So would I,'* faid Alex- 
ander*, ** if i were rarmenio.'- The anfwer he gave 
Darius was, *' That if he would come to lum, he (hould 
" find the beft of ueatment ; if not, he miift go and ieak 
« him." 

In confequei|ce of this declaration he began his march ; 
but he^ repented that he had fet ou^ fo icxSi, when he re- 
ceived information that the wife of Darius wi^ dead. That 
princefs died in child-bed ; and the^concenu of Alexander . 
was great, becaufe he loft an opportun|ty.of exercifing his 
clemency. All he could do was to return, mid bnrv her 
with the* utmofl magnificence. One of the eunuchs of 
the bed-chamber, named Tireus, who was taken prifoner 
along with the jg-incefTes, at this time made his eicape out 
of the camp, and rode off to Darius, with newt of the 
queen's death. 

Darins fmote upon his head, and (bed a torrent of tears, 
Afler which he cried out, " Ah cruel deftiny of the Per^ 
*' fians I Was the wife and iifter of th^ir king» not only 
*' to be taken captive, but after her death to be di^rived 
•*«of the of>requies due to her high rank I" The eunuch 
anfwered, '' As to her obfequies, O King, and all the 
'' honours tlie qmeen had a rig&t to claim, there is no 
*' reafOn to bfatjie the evi^ genius of the Perfiaas. Fpir 
''neither my milbefe, Statira> during her life, or your 
'< royal mother, or. chiVlTen»- mi£ed any of the advan- 
<' tages of their forDaer fi:>rtana, except the beholding the 
«' light of your, cooalenance; which the great Qro- 

'' maifdes 

* Longinnf takes notice of dhS ss an in(laDce« that u is aataral \tit 
men ofgemuSf even ui tiicir <;omi|)oa iUfcourf6» to IctlaU iomecUny 
great and fubSnic* . \ 


•' mtfdes * will again caufe to ftiine with as much luilre * 
" as before. So far from being deprived of any of the" 
'^ folemnities of a funeral, the queen was honoured with* 
** the tears of her very enemies. For Alexander is as ' 
*' mild in the ufe of his vidories, as he is terrible in * 
" battle." 

On hearing this, Darius was greatly moved, and flrange 
fufpicions took pod'eilion of his foul. He took the eunuch » 
into the moft private apartment of his pavilion, and faid, 
" If thou doll not revolt to the Macedoniins, as the for- 
** tune of Perfia has done, but ftill acknowledgeft in me 
*' thy lord ; tell me. as thou honoured the light of Mirtha 
'* and the right-hand of the king, is not the death of Sta- 
*' tira the leaft of her misfortunes I have to lament ? Did 
" not (he fufFer more dreadful things while fhe lived ? 
*< And, amidft all our calamities, would not our difgrace 
'* have been lefs, had we met with a more rigorous and 
'* favage enemy ? For what engagement in tne compafs 
" of virtue could bring a young man to do fach honour to 
'* the wife of his enemy ?" 

While the king was yet fpeaking, Tireus humbled his 
face to the earth, and intreated him- not to make ufe of . 
erpreffions fo unworthy of himfelf, fo injurious to Alexan- 
der, and fo dilhonourable to the memory of his dcceafed 
wife and fifter ; nor to deprive himfelf of the greateft of 
^ronfolations in his misfortune* the refledling that he was 
not defeated but by a perfon fupcrior to human nature. 
He affurcd him, Alexander was more to be admired for the 
decency of hb behaviour to the Periiac women, than for 
the valour he exerted againft the men. At the fame time, 
he confirmed all he had faid with the mod awful oaths, 
and expatiated ftill more on the regularity af Alexanders 
condu^, and on hb dignity of mind. 

Then Darius returned to his friends; and lifting up ' 
his hands to heaven, he faid, '* Ye gods, who are the 
*' guardians of our birth, and the prote^ors of kingdoms, . 
^' grant that I may re-cftablilh the fortunes of Perha, and 
" leave them in the glory I found them; that viftory may 
" put it ift my power t& return Alexander the favours; 

" which • 


• Orcmafdet vf2S vror(h\ppt6 by the Pcrfians as the Author of all 
Good J and Arimanwi deemed the Author of EviJ ; agrecablY lo \Aft^ 
principles from which they were believed to fprln^, lA?JcvX ixi^\>«>fc^ 
nefs. The PerQan writen ciali them Tcrdan 9xA' Ahriman* 

iSo plutab^ch's lives. 

'' of his ftr2un> have more figpally avenged the caufe of 
** Greece upon the Periians» than all that the generals be« 
*' fore him could do by fea or land." 

This fpeech was received with the loudeA plaudits and 
moil tumultuary acclamations. All the company flrove to 
perfuade the kine to comply with the propofal. At laft, 
yielding to their inflances> he leaped from his feat, and^ 
with his garland on his head, and a flambeau in his hand, 
led the way. The reft followed with fhouts of joy, and, 
dancine as they went, fpread themfelves round the palace. 
The Macedonions who got intelligence of this frolic, raa 
up with lighted torches, and joined them with great plea- 
fure. For they concluded, from his deftroying the royal 
palace, that the king's thoughts were turned towards 
Aome, and that he did not defign to Bx his feat among the- 
barbarians. Such is the account moil writers give ui of 
the motives of this tranfadtion. There are not, however, 
wanting thofe who ajQert, that it was in confequence of 
cool reSeftion. But all agree that the king foon repented,, 
and ordered the fire to be extinguiihed. 

As he was naturally munificent, that inclination in- 
ijreafed with his extraordinary acquiiitions ; and he had. 
alfo a gracious manner, which is the only thing that gives 
bounty an irrefiftible charm. To give a few inftances : 
Ariflon, who commanded the Paeonians, having killed one 
of the enemy, and cut off his head, laid it at Alexander's 
feet, and faid, '' Among us. Sir, fuch a prefent is re« 
*< warded with a golden cup." The king anfwered, with 
a (mile, " An empty one, I fuppofe;. but I will give you 
** one full of good wine ; and here, my boy, I drink ta 
*' yc^" One day, as a Macedonian of mean circum- 
ilances was driving a mule, laden with the king's money, 
the mule tired ; the man then took the burden upon his 
own l^oulders, end carried it till he tottered under it, and- 
w^ ready to give out. Alexander happening to fee him, 
and being informed what it was, faid, *' Hold on friend, 
'* the reft of the way, and carry it to to your own tent; for 
" it is yours." Indeed, he was generally more offended 
at thofe who refiifed his prefents, than at thofe who aiked; 
favours of him. Hence ne wxote to Phocion, ** That he 
" could no longer number him among his friends, if he 
*' rejeAed the marks of his regard." He 'i/kd given no- 
thing to Scrapion, one of the youths that played with him 



at ball, becaufe he aflccd nothing. One day, when they 
were at their diverfion, Serapion to6k care always to throw 
the ball to others of the party ; upon which, Alexander 
faid, *' Why do not you give it me ?" " Becaufe you did 
*' not afk for it," faid the youth. The repartee pleafed 
the king much ; he laughed, and immediately made him 
very valuable prefcnts. One Proteas, a man of humour, 
and a jelter by profeiTion, had happened to offend him. 
His friends interceded for him, and he fued for pardon 
with tears ; which at !all the king granted. ** If you do 
" really pardon me," refumed the wag, ** I hope you will 
'^ give me at leaft fome fubftantial proof of it." And he 
condefcended to do it in a prefent of five talents. 

With what a free hand he fhowered his gifts upon hia 
friends, and thofe who attended on his perfon*, appears 
from one of the. letters of Olympias. " You do well,'*' 
faid ihe, ** in ferving your friends, and it is right to adt 
*' nobly ; but by making them all equal to kings, in pro-. 
" portion as you put it in their power to make friends,. 
*' you deprive yourfelf of that privilege." Olympias often: 
wrote to him in that manner ; but he kept all her letters^ 
fecret, except one, which Hephsftion happened to caft 
his eye upon, when he went, according to cuftom, to read 
over the king's fhoulder ; he did not hinder him from^ 
reading on j only, when he had done, he took his fignet 
from his finger and put it to his mouth f. 

The fon of Mazaeus, who was the principal favourite 
of Darius, was already governor of a province, and the 
conqueror added to it another government ftill more con- 
itderable. But the young man declined it in a handfome 
manner, and faid, " Sir, we had but one Darius, arid now 
*.' you make many Alexanders." He bellowed on Par- 
menio the houfe of Bagoas, in which were found fuch. 
goods as were taken at Sufa, to the value of a thoufai\d 


♦ He probably means lo particular tlic fifty young rocn brought him 
by Amyntas,who were of the principal fannllies ir. Macedonia. Their 
office was to wait on him at table, to attend with horfes when he went 
to fifht or to hunt, and to keep guard day and night at his chamber dooiv 

-f- To enjoin him filcnce. 

J Tuv WE^j cii<rut^^ifji,a,m[jiMv, drapery gtods. This we take to 
mean fuch like purple as was taken at Sufa, or perhaps that very pur- 
ple. Dacier rcado Hepbaftm, inftead oi Par menio. The Vulcobu M..jS% 
h^ Jsj-a inftead of Yac-av^ which fs cwtainV^ beixw% 

l8? PLUTAfcCH's tlVZS. 

talents. He wl-ote to Antipater to acquaint him, that 
there was adefigi;t formed againft his life, and ordered him 
to keep guards abgut him. As for his mother, he mude 
her many magrifljtent prefimtsj but he would not fulFer 
hcT^jufy genius jLo exert itfelf in ftatc affairs, or in theleail 
to conironi- the proceedings of .government. She com- 
plained of this as a Jiardihip, and he bore her ill-humour 
with great mildnefs. Antipater once wrote him a long 
letter full of heavy complaints againlt her ; and when he, he faid, ** Antipater knows not tlut one tear 
" of a mother can -blot our a tiwufand fuch complaints." 

He found that Ids great oflicers fet no bounds to their 
luxury, tJiat they were moft extravagantly delicate In their 
diet, and profulein other refpcL^ls ; infoilluch that A<rnon 
of Teos wore £lvcr nails in his ihoes ; Leonatus had 
many camel loads of cArth: brought from Egypt to rub. 
himfelf with when he went to the wrefliing-ring; Philotay 
had hunting-nets that would enc)ofe the Ipace of a hun- 
dred furlongs, more miiie ufe of rich edences than oil 
after bathing, and had their grooms of the bath, as well 
as chamberlains wiio excelled in bed^making. This dege- 
neracy he reproved with alL the. temper of a philofopher. 
He told them, ** It was very ftrange to him, that, after . 
•* having undergone fo many glorious confli6t£, they did 
" not remember that thofe who come from labour and ex- 
•' ercife always lleep more fweetly.than tlie inactive and 
" efiieminLiie; and thatin,compwing the Ferfian manners 
*' with the Macedonian, they did not perceive that no- 
•' thing w^is mors, (cr vile than A: the love of plea fu re, or 
•* more prince'y than a life of toiL. How will that man,*' 
continued he, tiike care of his own horfe, or furbiih his 
" l.ince and hei:T:et, whoie hands are too .delicate to wait ^ 
•• on his own dear perfon? Know you not that the end of ; 
" conqueft is, not to do what the conquered have done^>. 
•* but fometiiing greatly fuperior?" After.this^ hexon- 
flantly took ihj cxcrcife of war or huniing, and .expofed 
himfelf to danger and fatigue with leis precaution than . 
ey^r ; fo that a L.*xeda:nionian ambaflador, who attended 
him one day when he killed a fierce lion, faiJ,. *• Alex- 
•' ander, you havedifputed the prlzeof royalty gloriouily. 
** with the lion.** Craierus got this hunting-piece repre- 
fented in bronze, and confecrated it in the temple at Del- 
phi. There were the lion^.Uie dogs, the king fighting 
J uiih 


With the Hon, and Cratcrus making up ^o the king's affitt^ 
anre. Some of thefe ftatues were the workmanlhip of. 
Lyfippus, and others of Leochares. 

Thus Alexander hazarded his perfon, by way of exer- 
cife for hinifelf, and example. to. others. . But hisi friends, 
in the pride of wealth, were fo devoted^tohixujfyandv 
eafe, that they confidered long.marches * and ^campaigns 
as a burden* and by degrees cane, to .niurmur and fpeak 
ill of the king.. At firil he bore tiicir cen Aires with great 
moderation, and ufed tofa-v, '"^ There was l^jmething noble. 
•* in hearing liimfelf ill ipokenr. off. while hj. waa doing 
*' well*.'' Indeed, in the leaft-of the good offices he- 
did his friends, there were great marks of alfedion and 
refpedl*^. We.will give an inflance or tw<? of it. He wrote 
to reueeftas, who had been bit by sl bear in hunting, to 
complain^ that he had given an accoant of .the accident^ 
b^,letters, to others of his friends, and not to. him. "But 
*' now,'* fays he, " let me know, however, how you do, 
'* and whether any of youj* company defer ted you, that L 
** m^Y punilh them if fuch there were**' When He-- 
phxflion .happened to be abfent. upon budnefs, he ac- 
quainted him in one of his. letters^ that as they were di* 
verting thcmfelves with -hunting the ichneumonf, Cra- 
tcrus had the misfortune to berun through the thighs, with 
Perdlccas's lance. When Peuceflas recovered of a dan- 
gerous ilJnefs, he wrote a letter with his own hand to 
Alexippus th? phyficiivn, to thank him for his care. Du- 
ring the iicknefs of Craterus, the king had a dream, in 
confeijuence of which, he offered ilicrij&ces for his recovery, 


• Voltaire fiys fotnewherf > thit it is »«obIt?<l iftg to make IncratM* 
He fccms to be indebted for tlit- ftotlmcm to Altx.nder." 

+ The Evrypiian rat, called icbncumortr is of the fize of a cat,' with 
vary rou .b hair, fpotttd with wlute, ytUciw, and afh-cclour; tii. noCc 
likovtlut .of-a l>cg, with which ic di^ up the ^rth. It hn.flii/rc 
black le^'», and a tail like a lox. )r Uvea oa liz^c^s, ierpcnts> fnails^ 
chameleons, &c. and is cf great fervice in EeypT,hy its natural inikiH^ 
of hunting out and breaking the c<' , of the crocodik, and thereby pre- 
venting toa great an increafc of il.... deftrudlivc creature. The natu- 
ralifts alfo fay, that it is fo greedy alter the crocodi.Vshver, that rolliog 
itrrlf up ii) -mud, it (lii:s down his throat, wUi.c he.Heepi with hi& 
mouth open, and gnr^ws its way out again. 

DioD. Sic. p. 32, 78. Pltn. 1. vili. c. 24, 25* 

The Egyptians worfliipped the ichneumon for dcOroying the croco- 
diles. They worHiipped the crocodile, coo^probabbf a,% vl^ \t^^va»\^ 
the ^^vi)} that it nr.I^hl do them no hurt* 


and ordered him to do the famek Upon Panfanias the phy-- 
fician's defign to give Craterus a dofe of hellebore, he 
wrote to him, expreifing his great anxiety about it, and 
deiiring him to be particularly cautious in the ufe of that 
medicine* He imprifoned Ephialtes and Ciflus, who 
brought him the firft news of the flight and treafonable 
pra^ices of Harpalus« fuppofing their information falfe. 
Upon his fending home the invalids and the fupcrannu- 
ated, Euryalochus, the Agaian, got himfelf enrolled among 
the former* Soon after, it was difcovercd that he had no 
infirmity of body ; and he confeffed it was the love of 
Telefippa, who was going to r€tarl^home', that put him 
Upon that expedient to follow -her. Alexander inquired' 
who the woman was, ^nd being informed that though a 
courtezan, fhe was not a flave, he faid, " Eurylocjius, I 
** am willing to affift you in this affair ; but as the wo- 
V man is free-born, you muft fee if we can prevail upon 
*5 her by prefents and courtfliip.** 

It is furpriflng, that he had time or inclination to write 
letters about fuch unimportant affairs of his friends, as ta 
give orders for diligent fearch to be made in Cilicia for 
Seleucus's run-away flave ; to commend Peucellas for 
having feized Nicon, a flave that belonged to Craterus ; 
and to direft Megabyzus, ifpoflible, to draw another 
flave from his afylum, and take him, but not to touch him. 
while he remained in the temple. 

It is faid, that in the firfl years of his reign, when ca- 

Sital caufes were brought before him, he ufed to flop one of 
is ears with his hand, while the plaintiff was opening 
the indidlment, that he might referve it perfedlly unpreju- 
diced for hearing the defendant. But the many falfe in« 
formations which were afterwards lodged, and which, by 
meansof fome true circumflances, were To reprefented as U) 
give an air of truth to the whole, broke his temper. Par- 
ticularly in cafe of afperiions upon his own character, his 
reafon forfook him, and he became extremely and inflex- 
ibly fevere ; as preferring his reputation to life and em- 

When he marched againfl Darius again, he expefted 
another battle. But upon intelligence that Beflbs had 
feized the perfon of that prince, he difmifled the ThefFa- 
li^s, and fent them home, after he had given them a 
gratuity of two thoufand talents, over and above their pay. 



'The purfuit .was long and laborious, for he rode three 
thoufand three hundred furlongs in eleven days *. As 
they often fufFered more for want of water than by fatigue, 
many of the cavalry were unable to hold out. While they 
were upon the march, fome Macedonians had filled their 
bottles at a river, and were bringing the water upon 
mules. Thefe people feeing Alexander greatly diftrefled 
with thirft, (for it was in the heat of the day) immediateKr 
filled a helmet with water, and prefented it to him. He 
afked them to whom they were carrying it ? and they 
faid, '' Their fons : but if our prince does but live, we 
** ihall get other children, if we lofe them." Uppn this, 
he took the helmet in his hands ; but looking round, and 
feeing all the horfemen bending their heads, and fixing 
their eyes upon the water, he returned it without drink- 
ing. However, he praifed the people that offered it, and 
faid, *^ If I alone drink, thefe good men will be difpi- 
" ritcd +.*' The cavalry, who were witncfTcs to this aft 
of temperance and magnanimity, cried out, *' Let m? 
** march ! We are neither weary nor thirfty, norfhall we 
•' even think ourfelves mortal, while under the conduft 
•' of fuch a king.'* At the fame time they put fpurs to 
their horfes. 

They had all the fame affeftion to the caufe, but only 
fix ty were able to keep up with him till he reached the 
enemy's camp. .There they rode over the gold and filver 
that lay fcattered about, and pafling by a number of car- 
riages full of women and children, which were in mo- 
tion, but without charioteers, they haftened to the lead- 
ing ffjuadrons, not doubting that they fliould find Darius 
among them. At laft, after much fearch, they found him 
extended on his chariot, and pierced with many darts. 
Though he was near his laft moments, he had flrength to 
afk for fomething to quench his tliirft. A Macedonian, 
named Polyflratus, brought him fome cold water, and 
when he had drank, he ^id, " Friend, this fills up the 
*' meafure of my misfortunes, to think I am not able to 

*' reward 

• As this was no more than forty miles a- day, our Newmarket he- 
roes would have beat Alexander hollow. It is nothing when compared 
to Charles the Twelfth's march from Bender through Germany, nothing 
to the expedition of Hannibal along the, African coad. 

f Lucan has embeDifhed this ft cry for C^o, axxd \\ai% ^^(SX^^ \tiX\Q- 
ducrd it merely upon imitation. 

r86 FLirxAttcH^s live^. 

♦* reward thee for this aft of kindnefs- But Alexander 
•* will not let thee go without a recompence ; and the 
*• gods will reward Alexander for his humanity to my 
^ mother, to my wife, and children. Tell him I gave 
•* him my hand, for I give it thee in his flead." So 
faying, he took the hand of Polyftratus, and immediateljp 
expired. When Alexander came up, he Ihewed his con- 
cern for that event by the ftrongeft expreflioni, and covered 
the body with his own robe. 

^ Befius afterwards fell into his hands, and he punifhed 
his parricide in this manner. He caufed two ilraight trees 
to be btnt, and one of his legs to be made fall to each j 
then fifffering the trees to returiv to their former pollure, 
tu€ body wa^ torn alunder by the violence of the recoil ♦• 

As for tiie btxiy of Dariub, he ordered it fhould havc- 
k\\ the horxours of a royal funeral, and fcnt it embalmed 
to his T^.oiher. Oxathncs, that prince's brother^ he ad- 
mitted into the number of his friends. 

His next movement was into Hyrcania, which he en- 
tered with the dower of his army. There he took a view 
of the Cufpian fea, which appeared to him not Icfs than 
the Euxine, but its water was of a fweeter teilc. He could 
get no certain information in what manner it was formed,. 
-Cutiie conje&ured that it came from an outlet of the Palus 
Majoiis. Yet the ancient Naturalifls were not ignorant of 
its origin; for, many years before Alexander's expedition, 
they wrote, that there are four i'eas which ftretch from the 
main ocean into the continent, the fartheft north of which 
is the HyrcanJan or the Cafpian f . The barbarians here 
fejl fuddenly upon a party who were leading his hone 
Bucephalus, and took him* This provoked him io much, 
ihat he fent a herald to threaten them, their wives, and 
children, with utter extermination, if they did not rcHor 
him the horfe. But, upon their bringing him back* and 
furrcndcring to him their cities, he treated them with grea 
clemency, and paid a confiderable fum, by way of ran- 
fcm^ to thofe that took the horfe. 


♦ Q^Curtius tells us> Alexander delivered up thcaffaffin to OxatlireB, 
the brother of Darius ; io copfcqucnce of which he had his rofc and. 
ears cut off, and was faflcn.d to a cioi'ny whtre i:t w^s defpatctied wiih 
darts and arrows. 

f This is an error which Pliny too has fcllowcd. The Cafpian fcm 
/r^j» no cctrtiiiualcat'sOii With ihc ccci«n. 

ALEXANbER^ 187: 

trom ilience he marched into Parthia ; where finding 
Mo employment for his arms, he firft put on the robe o^ 
the barbarian kings : whether it was that he conformed » 
little to their cuftoms, beeaufe he knew how much a fimi- 
larity of manrfers tends to reconcile and gain mens hearts ; 
or whether it was by way of experiment, to fee if th« 
Macedonians might be brought to pay him the greater 
deference, by acculVoming them infcnlibly to the new bar- 
baric attire and port which he aHamed. However, h« 
thought the Median habit made toaftifFand exotic an ap- 
pearance, and therefore took not the long breeches, orthc 
fweeping tr^tn, or- the fJara; but adopting fomething be- 
■^Lwean the Median and Perfian mode, contrived vellinent* 
kfs pompous than the former, and more majelHc tlian th# 
latter. At fir ft he ufed this drefs only before the barba- 
rians, or his particular friends within doors ; bat in time- 
he cftme to wear it when he appeared in public, and fat 
for the defpatch of bufmefs* Tius was a mortifying, fight 
to the Macedoniahs ; yet, as they admired his other vir- 
tues, they though^ he might be fofFeredto pleafe himielf 
a little, and enjoy^ his vanity. Some indulgence feemed 
due to* a prince, who, beiide his other hard(h^s« faad^ 
lately been wounded in the leg with' an arrow, whfch' 
(battered the bone in fuch a manner, that fplinters wert 
taken out j who, another time, had fuch a violent blow 
from a (lone upon the nape o£ his neck, that an alarming^ 
darknefs covered his 9ye$y and oontiiiaed.£ar fome timd> 
and yet continued to expoftr his perfbn without the leaft 
precaution. On the contrary; when he had pafl'ed the 
Orexartes, which he fuppofed ta be the Tanais, he not 
only attacked the Scythians and routed them, but purfued 
them a hundred flirlongs, and fpke of wharhe fu^ered at 
that time from a- flux. 

There the queen of the Amazons came to vifit him^ a» 
Clitarchttd, Policritus, Oneficritus, Antigenes, Ifter, and 
many other hiftorians,. report. But ArillobuJus, Chares 
^f Theangela*, Ptolemy, Anticlides, Phila the Theban, 
Philip who was alfo of- Theangela, as well as Hecataeus 


* In the Greek text it is 6i<r«/yiXet' ?, both her* and juft aftttr 
t.i<jxf'y0.tvi iignifiEs a gentleman udierj but it does not appear 
that either Chares or Philip ever hdd fuch an office. It is certoift 
€>t»rytXgv<; is the right rcadint?, from Aihenxxis^ ^cioV. n\. "^, •s.-^v 
"wl.Vfc he mentions PJjiiip as beWnjInj to TUwiv^^tV^L \xv C^v^* 


ofEretria, Philip of Qhalcis, and Duris of Samos, tret 
the ftory as a fidiop. And indeed Alexander himfcl^ 
. {ecms to fupport their opinion. For in one of his letters 
.to Antipater, to whom he gave an cxaA detail of all that 
pafTed, he fays, the king of Scythia offered him his 
.daughter in marriage, but he makes not the leaft men- 
tion of the Amazon. Nay, when Oneficritus, many 
.years after, read to Lyfimachus, then king, the fourth 
book of his hillory, in which this ftory was introduced, 
he finiJed and faid, ** Where was I at that timef" But 
whether we give credit to this particular, or not, is a 
matter that will neither add- to aor leficn- our- opinion of - 

As he was afraid that many of the Macedonians might 
diflike the remaining fatigues of the expedition, he left 
the greateH pait of the army in quarters, and entered 
JWyrcania with a (dc^t body of twenty tho^and foot and ' 
'three thoufaiii horfc. The purport of his. fpeech upoa 
the occa£oa was this : " Hitherto the .barl^arians have 
** feen us only as in a dream. If you ibould think of re- 
" turning, after having given Afia the alarm only, they 
** will fall upon you with contempt as onenterprifing and 
" effeminate. Neverthelefs, fuch as defire to depart have 
«* my confcnt for it : But, at the fame time, I call the 
•* gods to witncfs, tliat tijey defert their king when he is 
•* conquering the world for tiie IvLiccdonians, and leave 
'' him to the kinder and more faithful attachment of thofc 
•* few friends that will follow his fortune." This is almoil 
word for word the fame with what he wrote to Antipater; 
and he adds, " THat he had no fooner done fpeaking, 
** than they cried, he might lead them to what part of the 
" world he pleafed." Thus he tried the difpofition of 
thefe brave racn ; and there was no diHicalty in bringing 
' the whole body into their fentiments ; they followed oJ' 

After this, he accommodated himfelf more than ever to 
the manners of the Afiatics, and at the fame time perfuadea 
them to adopt fome of the Macedonian fafhions ; for by 
a mixture of both, he thought an union might be pro- 
moted, much better than oy force, and his authority 
maintained when he was at a diflance. t'or the fame rea- 
fon he elcdled thirty thoufand boys, and gave them maf- 



ters to inflruft tlicm in the Grecian literature, as well at 
to tram them to arras in the Macedonian manner. 

As for his marriage with Raxana, it was entirely the 
efFedl of love. He faw her at an entertainment, and found 
her charms irrefiftible. Nor was the match unfuitable to 
the fituation of his affairs. The barbarians placed greater 
confidence in him on account of that alliance, and his 
chaftity gained their affedion ; it delighted them to think, 
he would not approach the only woman Jie ever paflionately 
loved, without the fandion of marriage. 

Hephaeftion and Crat-erus were h'ls two favourites. The 
fonner praifed the Perilan fafliions, and drefled as he did ; 
the latter adhered to the cufloms of his own country. He 
therefore employed Hepha^ltion in his tranfaftions with' 
the barbarians, and Craterus to fignify his pleafure to the 
Greeks and Macedonians. The one had more of his love, 
and the other more of his efteem. He was perfuaded in- 
deed, and he often faid, " Hephaeftion loved Alexander, 
** and Craterus the. king." Hence arofe private anipio- 

^ fities, which didnot fail to break out upon occafion. One = 
day, in India, they drew their fwords, and came* to blows. ' 
The friends of each were joining in the quarrel, when 
Alexander interpofed. .He told Hcphseilion publicly, 
" He was a fool and a madman, not to be fenfible, that 
*' without his matter's favour.he would be nothing.*' He 
gave Craterus alfo a fevere reprimand in private ; and 
after having brought them together again, and reconciled 
them, he fwore by Jupiter Ammon, and all the other gods, 
*' That he loved them-raore than all the men in the world : 
*' but, if he perceived ^hem at variance again, he would 
*' put them?^bothito<ieath, or him, at leaft, who begaa 
«*• the quarrel.-** .Thi$ is faid to have had fuch an effcft 

. upon them,' that they never exprefled any diflike to each 

t other,' even in jeft, afterwards. 

Mmong the Macedonians, Philotas, the fon of Par- '* 

• mcnio, had^reat authority. For he was not only, valiant 
and indefatigable in the field, but after Alexander, no 
man loved his friend more, or had a greater fpirit of ge- 
nerofity. We arc told, that a friend of his one day re- 
queued a fum of money, and he ordered it to be given 

. jiun. The fteward faid, he had it not to give. " What,** . 
fays Philous, *' haH thou not plate, or lome other move- 
«V able ?** However, Jieaffeded an oitentation of ^c«\xKx ^ 
(n. d. 1794.) ^'^^ 

r9« t^L-UTARCH^s xmsu 

and a magnificence in his drefs and table, that was abore 
the condition of a fubje6l. Beiides, the loftinefs of hia 
port was altogether extravagant ; not tempered with any 
.natural graces* but formal and oncoufth* it expofed him 
both to. hatred and fufpicion; infomuch that Pasmeni* 
one day faid to him, " My fon, be leis.*' He had long 
been repreleoted in an invidious light to Alexander. 
When jDamafcufiy with all its riches, was taken, upon the 
defeat of Darius in Cilicia, among the number of captivei 
that were brought to the^amp, there was a beautiful young 
woman, called Antigone, a native of Pydna, who fell to 
the fhare of Philotas. Like a young foldier with a fa- 
vourite miftre(s, in his cups he indulged his vanity, and 
let many indifcreet things efcape him ; attributing all the 
^reat adions of the war to himfelf and to his father. As 
for Alexander, he called him a boy, who by their means 
enjoyed the title of a conqueror. The woman told thefe 
things in confidence to one of her acquaintance, and he 
(as is comman) mentioned them to another. At lail, they 
came to the ear of Craterus, who took the woman pri- 
vately before Alexander. When the king had heard the 
whole from her own mouth, he ordered her to go as ufual 
to Philotas, but to make her report to him of all that he 
faid. Philotas, ignorant of the fnares that were laid for 
him, converfed with the woman without the leafl referve, 
and either in his relentment or pride uttered many unbe- 
coming things againft Alexander. That prince, though 
he had fulficient proof againl^ Philotas, kept :the matter 
private, and difcovered no tokens of averfion ; whether it 
was that he confided in Parmenio's attachment to him, or 
whether he was afraid of the power and intereft of the 

About this time, a Macedonian, named Limnus ^, a 
native of Chalaeftra, confpircd againft Alexander's life, 
and commonicaced his defign to one Niqomachus, a youth 
that he was fond of} defiring him to take a part in the 
enterprize. Nicomachiis, inllead of embracing the pro- 
pofal, informed his brother Balinusf of the plot, who 
went immediately to Philotas, and defired him to intro- 

* It fliould, ondoDhleHVy, be read Dy^nus^ as Q^duftlus and D'lO- 
dorut have it«. Nothing it cafier than f<tr a tranfcriber to cfcan^e the 
-A Into a A> 
f Q^ Curtius Mils biro QhaJlnuu 

^r^imirottring ;<o relieve lum without. feattliiiig the wound* 

.But Anaxarchus, who had a particular walk in philofophy» 

and looked upon his fdlow labourers in fcience with* con* 

tempt, cried out, on entering the room, " U this Alex- 

*^«* Ander upon whom the whole world have their eye»l 

** Can ^it'hc he who lies extended on the ground^ crying 

' ** like a (lave, in fear of the law and the tongues of mcn^ 

"to whom he fhould himfelf be a law, and the meafiiro 

<' of right and wrong.? What did. he conquer for^i^ut t0 

'' rule and to. command, not fervilely to fubmit to the 

'*' vain opinions of men: Know .you not, continj^ed hew 

''^ that Jupiter is reprefented with Themis and Juftice by 

' ** his iide, to (hew, that whatever is done by * Tupreme 

-/' power is right ?" By this, and other difcourfes of the 

'fame kind,riie alleviated the king's grief. indeed, but madfe 

iiim, withal, more haughty and unjufb. At the fame time» 

he infinuated himfelf into his favour in fo extraordinary n 

manner, that he could no longer bear the converfation c^ 

/Calliilhenes, who before was not very agreeable, on sic- • 

, count of his aufterity. 

One day, a difpute had arifen at table about the feaibiis 

and the temperature of the climate. Callifthenes heM 

with thoie who averted, that the county they were theik 

vin was much colder, and the winters more fevere^ thanift 

Greece. Anaxarchns maintained the contrary with great 

'X>b(linacy. Upoo( Avhich Callifthenes (sad, ** You tnuk 

** needs acknowledge, my friend, that this is modi tJi9 

'** colder ;^for there you went in winter in oae.cloaiE» aad 

*' here you caanot fit at table without three hoi^ngxo* 

*' verlets one over another/' This ftroke went to t2i# 

lieart oi Anaxarchus. 

Callifthenes was difagreeable to all Jtke other fephifta 
andJatterers at court; the more fo, becaufe he was. M* 
lowed by the young men on accomit of his etoqoenee* 
and no lefs acceptable to the old for his regular^ grare* 
lelf-iatisfied courfe of life. All whkh confirms what iraa 
.iailrto be t&exajofe of his going to Alexanderi nafnel)r, an 
K z asibitiom 

too much of the (pirit of liberty, to be fit for a Covrt. He did not 
fliew It, boiRpe¥ery in this inftance. Ariftotle forewarned him, tluK if 
be went on to treat the King with the freedom wliich hit fpiHt 
pfOflSpted, it would one day b^ fatal to hiro. ^ 

** Short d4te of life, my ^en» theC« ^«fd% iD«t>MAit:^ 


After the execatioQ of Philotas, he immediately fent 
orders into Media that Parmenio fhould be put to death ; 
a man who had a fhare in mod of Philip':; conquefls^ and 
who was the principal, if not the only one, of the old 
counfcllors, who put Alexander upon his expedition into 
Afia. Of three fons whom he took over with him, he had 
fecn two flain in battle, and with thcthird he fell a facri- 
fice himfelf. Thefe proceedings made Alexander terrible 
to his friends, particularly to Antipater. That regent, 
tf;erefore, fent privately to the -/Etolians, and entered into 
league with them. They had fomething to fear from A- 
lc;Kander, as well as he, for they had fackcd the city of 
the CEniides ; and when the king was informed of it, he 
faid, '^ The children of the CEniades need not revenge 
" their caufe ; I will punifti the -^toKans myfelf." 

Soon after thijs, happened the affair of Cfitus ; which, 
however fjmply related, is much more fhocking than the 
execution of Philotas. Yet, if we refled on the occafion 
and circumilances of the thing, we fliall conclude it was 
a misfortune, rather than a deliberate a£l, and that Alex- 
ander's unhappy paiTion and intoxication only furnifhed 
the evil genius of Clitns with the means of accomplilhing 
his deftruftion. It happened in the following manner. 
The king had fome Grecian fruit brought him from on 
board a vefTel, and as he greatly admired its freftinefs and 
beauty, he delired Clitus to fee it, and partake of it. It 
happened that Clitus was offering facrifice that day ; but 
he left it to wait upon the kinff. Three of the fheep on 
which the libation was alreadv poured^ followed him. 
The king, informed of that accident, confulted his footh- 
fayers, Ariflander, and Cleomantis the Spartan, upon it ; 
and they aiTured him it was a very bad omen. He, there- 
fore, ordered the vidinu to be immediately offered for the 
health of Clitus ; the rather, becaufe three days before he 
had a flrange and alarming dream, in which Clitus ap- 
peared in mourning) fitting by the dead fbns of Parmenio. 
However, before the facrifice was finiihed« Clitus went to 
fup with, the king, who that day had been, paying his 
homage to Caflor and Pollux. 

After they were wanned with drinking, fomebody began 

to fing the verfes of one Pranicus, or, as others will have it, 

of Pierio, written in ridicule of the Macedonian officers 

who had lately been beaten by the barbarians. The older 

4 , ^n 


part of the company were greatly oflenJed at it, and con- 
demned both the poet and the finger; but Alexander, 
and thofe about him, liftcned with pleafure, and bade him 
go on. Clitus, who by this time had drank too much, 
and was naturally rough and froward, could not bear their 
behaviour. He fa id, *' It was not well dqne, to mate a 
*' jeft, and that among barbarians and enemies, of Mace- 
" donians that were much better men than the laughers, 
'* though they had met with a misfortune." Alexander 
made anfwer, ** That Clitus was pleading his own caufe, 
*' when he g:iyc cowardice the foft name of miofortune.'* 
Then Clitus ftartcd up, and faid, " Yet it was this cowar- 
'• dice that faved you, fon of Jupiter as you are, when you 
" were turning your back to the fword of Spithridates. It 
•' is by the blood of the Macedonians and thefe wounds 
*' that yo%are grown fo great, that you difdain to ac- 
'* knowledge Philip for your father, and will needs pafs 
*' yourfelf for the fon of Jupiter Ammon.*' 

Irritated at this infolence, Alexander replied, *^ It is in 
" this villainous manner thou talkefl of me in all com- 
" panies, and flirrell up the Macedonians to mutiny; 
" but doft thou think to enjoy it long ?" «' And what do 
" we enjoy now T' faid Clitus, ** what reward have we 
** for all our toils ? Do we not envy thofe who did not live 
" to fee Macedonians bleed under Median rods', or fue to 
'' Periians for accefs to their king V^ While Clitus went 
on in this ra(h manner, and the king retorted upon him 
with equal bitternefs, the old men interpofed, and endea- 
voured to allay the flame. Meantime Alexander turned 
to Xenodochus the Cardian, and Artemius the Colopho- 
nian, and fa^d, *^ Do* not the Greeks appear to yoa among 
*' the Macedonians like demi-gods among fo many wild- 
*' bealls ?" Clitus, far from giving up the difpute, caHed 
upon Alexander " To fpeak out what he had to fay, or not 
" to invite freemen to his table, who would declare their 
" fentim'ents without referve. . But perhaps, continued 
** he, it were better to pafs your life with barbarians and 
" flaves, who will worfhip your Perfian girdle and white 
*• robe without fcruple."' 

Alexander, no longer able to reftrain his anger, threw 
an apple at his face, and then looked about for his Avord. 
But Ariftophancs *, one of his gu^irds, had taken it away 

♦ Q. Curtius and Arrian c^Il lim Ariftonus. 

VolumW, K 

104 viutarcb's litis* 

in time, and the company gathered about him> and m-. 
treated him to be quiet. 1 heir remonftrances> however, 
were vAn» He broke from them^ and called out, in the 
Macedonian language, for his guards, which was the fig- 
jial»f a great tumult. At the fame time he ordered the 
trumpeter u> 'found, and flruck him with this fift, upon 
his difcovering an unwillingnefs to obey. This man wac 
afterwards held in great efteem, becaule lie prevented the 
whole army from being alarmed. 

As Ciitus would not make the leail fubmifTion, his 

friends, mih much ado, forced him out of the room. But 

Jbe foon returned by another door, repeating, in a bold 

and difrefpedful tone thoie verfes from the Androm^^che 

^tf Euripides. 

Are thefe your cuftoms ? Is it thus that. Greece w 
^J<.ewards her conibatantt ? * Shall pne man fjaim 
- The trophies won by tboufands ? 

'Then Alexander fnatched a fpear from one of the euards, 
and meeting Ciitus as he was. putting by the,curt.^in, ran 
him through the body. ..He fell immediately to the ground, 
Xand with a difmal groan expired. 

Alexander's rage fubiided in a tnoment ; he came to 
himfelf ; and feeing his friends Handing in filent aftonifli^ 
ment by him, he haftily.drew the fpear out of the dead 
, body, and was applying it to his o^n throat, when his 
guards feized his hands, and carried him by force into his 
chamber. He paiTed that night and the next da) in an- 
guifh inexpreffiole ; and when, he had wafted himfelf with 
-tears and lamentations, he lay in fpqechlefs grief, uttering 
.only now and then a groan. His friends, alarmed at this 
..melancholy filence, forced themfclvcs into the room, and 
attempted to confole him. Bat he would liflen to none of 
them, except Ariftander, who put him in mind of his 
dream and the ill omen of the (heep, and aiTured him, that 
*the whole was by the decree of fate. As he feemed a 
little comforted, Calliflhenes the philofopher, Arillotle'« 
near relation, and Anaxarchus the Abdehte, were called 
.in !• Calliflhenes began in a foft and tender manner, en- 

• This IS the fpecch of Pelens to Menelaus. 
f CalliAhenes was of the city of Olynthus, and had been recom- 
tnendcd te Alexander by Ariitotlei wboft relation he was. He bad 


\ i.LEXANDElt. 19^ 

4hwoving .to relieve him without fearching the wound. 
Jlat Anaxarchus, who had a particular walk in philofophy^ 

fud looked upon his feUow labourers in fcience with con* 
lempt, cried out, on entering the room, " Is this Alex- 
*^jkiider upon whom the whole world have their eyes/ 
'' Can it'Oe he who lies extended on the ground^ crying 
''' like a flave, in fear of the law and the toneues of men» 
'*' to whom he fhould himfelf be a law, and the meafure 
^' of right and wrong. ? What did. he conquer for but to 
^' rule and to command, not fervilely to fubmit to the 
•*' vain opinions ofn>en: Know you not, continued hew 
1 '^ that Jupiter is reprefented with Themis and Juftice by 
^•' his fide, to Ihew, that whatever is done by • fupreme 
J-*' power is right?" By this, and other difcourfes of the 
-'fame kind,Jie alleviated the king's grief indeed, but made 
: Jhim, withal, more haughty and unjufb. At the fame time* 
he infmuated himfelf into his favour in fo extraordinary n 
manner, that he could no longer bear the converfation of 
jlvCalliflhenes, who before was not very agreeable, on ac- ■ 
.count of his aufterity. 

One day, a difpute had arifen at table about the fealbns 
and the temperature of the climate. Calliflhenes held 
with thoie who afferted, that the countiy they were theft 
vin was much colder, and the winters more fevere, than ia 
iGreece. Anaxarchus maintained the contrary with great 
'X)b(llnacy. Upon Avhich Callifthenes faid, ** You muft 
*' needs acknowledge, my friend, that this is much the 
-** colder ;^for there you went in winter in one.cloak» and 
*' here you cannot fit at table without three houiing , co-^ 
*' verlets one over another/' This ftroke went to the 
.'leart of Anaxarchus. 

Calliiihenes was difagreeable to all .the other fopbifti 
and batterers at court ; the more fo, becaufe he was ibU 
lowed by the young men on account of his eloquence^ 
and no lefr acceptable to the old for his regular, gniv^ 
ielf-iatisfied courfe of life. All which confirms what was 
ibii'io be tieraufe of his going to Alexander j namely, an 
K z nnbiuoq^ 

too much of tbe fplrit of liberty, to be fit for a Court. He did not 
fliew it, however, in this inftance. Ariftotle forewarned him, that iC 
be went on to treat the King with the freedom which hit fpirit 
pfompted, it would one day b? fatal to him. 

** Short ddtc of Jlfe, m% fon, iheC« ^oid% toftVAft:'' 


Plutarch's lives. 

ambition to bring Jiis fellow citizens back, and to r&- 
people the place of his nativity*. His great reputation 
naturally expofed him to envy ; and he gave feme rvoom 
for calumny himfclf, by often refufmg the king's invita- 
tions, and when he did go to his entertainments, by fitting 
folemn and filent ; which Shewed that he could neither 
commend, nor was fatisficd with what palled : Infomuch 
that Alexander faid to him one day. 

; hitc the Sa/e 

Who leaps no fruits of wifdom lo himjcif. 

Once when he was at the king's table with a hirgc 
company, and the cjip .came to him, he was djfireJ to 
pronounce an eulogium upon the Macedonians extempj/e, 
which he did with fo much eloquence, that the guefts, 
befide their plaudits, rofe up and covered him with their 

farlands. Upon this, Alexander faid, in the words of 

When great the tlj#me, 'tis cafy to cxccJ. 

" But (hew us now," continued he, " the power of your 
** rhetoric, in fpeaking agtinfl the Macedonians, that tluy 
'* may fee their faults, and amend." 

Then the orator took the other Me, and fpoke with 
.-equal fluency againft the encroachments and other fiults 
of the Macedonians, as well as againft the divifions among 
the Greeks, which he (hewed to be the only caufe of the 
great increafe of Philip's power 5 concluding with thefe 

Aimdd Sedition's waves 
The wor/l of mortals may emerge to honour. 

By tliis -he drew upon himfelf the implacable hatred of the 
Macedonians, and Alexander faid, ** He gave not, in this 
*' cafe, a fpecimcn of his eloqucnc.e, but of his male- 
«* volence." 

Hermippus alTures us, that Stroibus, a perfon employed 

by Callillhcnes to read to him, gave this account of the 

matter to Ariftotle, He adds, th^t Callillhcnes per- 

^ ceiving 

• Olynthus was one of the cities dcftroyed by Philip; whether 
Alexander permiiied the philofophcr to rc-eftablifh it is uncertain; 
•fcut Cicero informs us, that, in his 'time, it was a flouiilhin^ place. 
,^Wf Or, HI, in Vcrrem* 


Ceiving the klivg's averfion to him, repeated this vcrfe two 
or three times at parting; : 

Patroclus, thy fuperior Is no more* 

It was not, therefore, without reafon, that Ariiflbtle fsiS 
of Callifthenes, «* His eloquence, indeed, is great, but 
** he wants common fenfe.'* He m)t only refufed, with! 
ill the firmnefs of a philofopher, r<r paf his refpeds'tQ' 
Alexander by proftration, but flood forth fingly, and ot- 
tered in public many griev'ances which the beft and oldefl 
of the Micedonians durft not reileft" upon but in fccret, 
though they were as much difpleafed at them as he. Br 
preventing the proftrationi he faved the Greeks, indeccf, 
from a great diihonour, and Alexander from a greater; 
but he ruined hinifrlf ; becaufe his manner was fuch, that 
he feemeJ rather defirous- to compel than to perfuade. 

^ Chares of Mitylene tells us, that Alexander, at ont of 
his entertainments, after he had drank, reached the cup 
to one of Lis^ friends.. That friend had no fooner received 
it than he rofe up, and turning towards the hearth *> where 
flood the domeftic gods, to drinir, he worfhipped, and thdtt' 
kifled Alexander. This done, he took his place againft 
the table. All the guells did the fame in their ordei»; C-T- 
cept Callifthenes. When it came to his turn, he\lraiik/ 
and then approached to give the king a kifs, who being 
engaged in fome difcourfe with Hephseftion, happenea 
not to mind him. But Demetrius, furnamed Phidon,^ 
cried out, " Receive not his kifs ; for he alone has not' 
** adored you." Upon which, Alcvander refufed it, and' 
Callifthenes faid aloud, " Then I return one kifi the 
'' poorer." , • 

A coldnefs, of courfe, cnfued : but many other thin{»' 
contributed to his fall. In the firft place, Hephaeftiod's 
report was believed, that Callifthenes had promifed him. 
to adore the king, and broke his word. In the next 
place, Lyfimachus and Agnon attacked him, and faid, 
•* The fophift went about with as much pride as if he 
K 3 •• had 

* Dacler Is of opinion, that, by this a^ion, the Aatterer wanted to 
miinuate, that Alexander oaght to be reckoned among the domeftic g^t** 
But, as the king fate in that part of the room whete tlie Penates were,^ 
we rather think it was a Yile excufe te the man^s own ccnfcidnce'for 
this ad of religious worihip, becaufe their pofition mad^ v\. 4>a?cy\saJ0A^ 
whether it was intended for Alexander or f«T t.\ven\« 

^ liftd deiiiolKh«da tyranny^ «nAike young toetftollb^^ 
'' him, as the only frcbman among'^ many thooiands.'^ 
TMe things, upon the diicevcry of Hermc^ns's plot 
aeakift Alexander, prre an- aif iof probability* to what was' 
aueg^ a|;ainfl Callifthenes« His enemies (kid, Henno* 
laus inquired of him,. " By what means he taight become ' 
** the* m^ famous man in th^ worU?" and that he an*- 
fWered, " By killing the moft famous." They farthtp 
aflbrted, that by way of encouraging him ttf the attempt, 
he bade him «* not be- afraid of the golden bed« but re- 
" member he had to do with a man who had fuFered both 
**'lwr fickneis and by wounds."^ 

Neither Hermolaus, however, ntr any of his accom- - 
joiicesj made any mention of Callillhenes amidft the ex-^ 
tremities ef torture. Nay> Alexander himfelf^ in the ac- 
•CHint he immediatel)^ gave of the plot to Cratems, At- 
tains and^Alcetas,^ writes, /* That>the young mesy whcnr- 
'* put to the torture, declared, it' was entirely^ their own' 
^ enterprtae, and i4iat no man beiides was p^ivy to it;^* 
Yet afiier wards, in a letter to Antip;^cer, he affirms, that 
Calllflhenes was as guilty as. the rctl;'*' The Macedonians," 
iays he, ** have Hailed the young men to death. As for 
•* in«-fophtt, I will punifii him myfclft and thoie thatfcnt? 
••' him, too: Nor fhall the towns that harboured ther 
••• confpifitors efcapc." In which he plainly difcovers 
llis averiion to Ariilotle, by whom Callillhenes was brought 
|ip, as- a^ relation ; for he was the fon of Hero, A'riilotle's 
mecer His death is varioufly related. Some fay, Alex^- 
/«nder ordered him to be hanged ; others, that he fell fick 
and died in chains. And Chares writes, that he was kept 
icven months in prifon, in-order to be tried in full coim- 
ail in the prcfence of Ariftotle ; but that he died of exccf- 
jfive corpulency and the loufy difeafe, at the time that 
Alexander was wounded by the Malli Oxydracx in India. 
This happened, however, at a later period than that we 
ar« upon. 

In the mean time, Demeratus thr Corinthian, though 
Ar advanced in years, was ambitious of going to fee Alex- 
ander. Accordingly he took the voyage, and when he 
lieheld him, he faid, " The Greeks fell fhort of a great 
** pleafure, who did not live to fee Alexander uj>on the 
'^ thcon^ of Darius." But he did not live to enjoy the 


V */*:-^-..S* 

fting^s fiiendihip. He ikkened and died Toon after. T^ 
king, liowetrer, performed his obrequies in the moft mag- 
nificent manner ; and the armjr threw up fpr him a momf^ 
ment of earth of great extent^ and fbuncore cubits hj^gjh^' 
His aihes were carried to the fea-ihore in 91 44i4uri^.i|n4 
four, with the richeft ornaments* 

When Alexander wis upon the point of ietti^g ou^lfir ' 
Indiaj .he faw his troops were fo laden wiUi; fpoiU.fhaft -• 
they were unfit to march. Th^efore^ early in tJie^iiiQinw, * 
ing that he was to take his departure^ after the c^riaglQt - 
were afTembled, he firfl fet hre tq his own baggage and V^ ^ 
of his friends ; and then gave orders that the re^ Diouldi " 
be ferved in the (ame manner. The reflation appe^Jtcd 
more difficult to take> than it was to execute.- Few wei;f 
difpleafed at it, and numbers received jt i^ith^acclamatjoiia';-' 
of joy. They freely gave part of their etfulpage to fuclK * 
as were in need, and burnt and ^eftroyed whatever wa* ' 
foperfluous. This greatly encouraged and fortified Alex- ' 
ander in his defign. Befides, by this time he was becpmis - 
inflexibly fevere m punifhing oiFences. Menander, thoogh: " 
one of his friends, he put to death, for refufing to ftav. iqt. * 
a fortrefs he had eiven him the charge of 3 ai(>d oneottif^ ^ 
barbarians, named Ofodatesj he^fhot dead with a^ anrow«v * 
for the crime of rebellion. - . . •:? >^. 

About this timeafheiep yeaned a iamb with. t)«efi€|feft. 
form and colour of a tiara upon its head, on, ej^ch, 4c[e fl£ 
which were teiliclesy Looking upon the prodigy wit^ 
horror, he employed* the Chaldaeans, wIk)^ attended Juif^ 
for fuch purppics, to purify him by their expiations. 1^. 
told his 'friends, on thi» occafionr ^^ * That he was. mori^ 
" troubled on their account than his owiir; for be.wa|| ' 
^* afraid that after his death fortune would throw the em^ 
** pire intone hands of iome obfcure and;i.f' ./^ 
better omen, however, foon diffipatedhis fears. AMa^ 
dontan, named Proxenu», who had the charge of thejdn^ 
equipage, on opening * the ground by the river OxoSj;.!!)^ 
order to pitch his mailer '^s* tent, idifcovered a fprin^ oJTa 
grofs oily liquor; which after the furface was ta]cen Q^ 
came perfedly clear, and neither in tafte nor fm^UilEi^red. 
from real oil^ nor was inferior to it in fmoothnefs and 
K 4 brightneis 

. * Strabo (Jib. ii.) afcilbes the fame properties lo the fround new tbe 
driver Ochus. Indeed, the Ochos and tiK Oaut nnitc Chnr Atf ams^^p^ 
€w together iau> the Cufplan iCJi* 

200 Plutarch's lives. 

brightnefs, though there were no olives in that country. It 
is uid, indeed, that the water of the Oxus is of fo unftu- 
ous a quality, that it makes the ikins of thofe who bathe 
in it fmooth and fhining •. 

y/ It appears, from a letter of Alexander's to Antipater, 
that he was greatly delighted with this incident, and rec-» 
koned it one of the happieft prefages the gods had afFord- 
«d him. The foothfayers faid, it betokened, that the ex- 
pedition would prove a glorious one, but at the fame time 
laborious and diiBcult, becaufe heaven has given men oil 
to refrefti them after their labours. Accordingly he met 
i\ith great dangers in the battles that he fought, and re- 
ceived very confiderable wounds. But his army fufTered 
tnoft by want of neceflaries and by the climate. For his 
part, he was ambitious to fhew tliat courage can triumph 
over fortune, and magnanimity over force ; He thought 
nothing invincible to the brave, or impregnable to the 
boldf . Purfuant to this opinion, when he befieged Siii^- 
melhres J upon a rock extremely deep and apparently in- 
acceiTible, and f;iw his men greatly dilcouraged at the en- 
terprize, be aft.ed Oxyartes, *• V/hether Sifimethrcs wer^ 
** a mi'.n of fpirit ?** An J being anfwered, ** Tha-t he wa? 
*' timorous and daftardly," he faid, ** You inform me the 
*' rock may be taken, fince there is no fcrengih in its de- 
/* fender." In fad, he found means to intimidate Sift- 
xnethres, and made hirafelf mafter of the fort. 

In the fiege of another fort, fituated in a place equally 
fleep, among the young M.icedonians thit were to give the 
affault there was ofte called Alexander; and the king took 
occafion to fay to him, ** You muft behave gallantly, 
•' vsvj friend, to do jullice to your name. He was in- 

• Pliny tells us, that the furface of thefe rivers was a confiftence 
of fait, and that the waters flowed under it as under a cruft of ice. 
The fait confiftence he imputes to the dt fluxions from the neighbour- 
irg mcuntains, but he fjys nothing.of the unftuous quality of the e 
iwaters mentioned by Plutarch. Nat. Hift. lib. xxxi. 

•f- One of the manufcripts, inftead of itloA/tAOK* has aloXfjLoi^, 
Then the latter rnember of the fentence would be, nor fecure to the 

J This ftrons; hold was (ituated in Ba£lr!ana. Strabo fays, it was 
fifteen furlongs high, as many in compafs, and that the top was a fer* 
tile plain, capable of maintainin£ five hundred. It was in Badlriana 
^that Alexander married Roxana, the daugluer of Oxyartes. 


ibrmed afterwards that the young man fell as he was 
didinguiihing hitnfelf in a glorious manner, and he laid 
it much to heart. 

When he fat down before Nyfi *, the Macedonians 
made fome difii<^lty of advancing to the attack, on ac- 
count of the depth of the river that waftied its walls, till 
Alexander faid, '* What a wretch am I, that I -did not 
** learn to fwim," and was going to ford it with his fhield 
in his Jiand. After the firft aifault, while the troops were' 
refrefliing themfclves, ambafllidors came with an offer to 
capitulate ; and along with, them were deputies from fome 
other places. They were furprifed to fee him in armour 
without any p^mp or ceremony ; and their aftonilhment 
increaled, when he bade the oldeft of the ambaflkdors, 
named Acuphis, take the fofa that was brought for him- 
felf Acuphis, ftruck with a.benignity of reception fo for 
beyond his hopes, aiked what they mull do to be admitted 
into his friendihip ? Alexander anfwered, ** It muft be on • 
*' condition that they appoint you their governor, and 
*' fend me a hundred, of their beft men for hojftagcs." 
Acuphis fmiled at this, and faid, '* I (hould govern better 
** if you would take the worlt, inftead of the bcft." 

It is faid, the dominions of Taxiles, in India f , were " 
as large as Egypt : TJiey afforded excellent pafturage too, • 
and were the moil fertile in all refpeds^ As he was a man 
of great prudence, he waited on Alexander, and after ther. 
ftrft compliments, thus addreffed him : " What occafion 
** is there for- wars between you and me, if you are not 
*' come to take from us our water and other neceffaries of 
*' life ; the only things that reafonable men will take up 
'' arms for ? As to gold and iilver and other poffeiIions» 
" if I am richer than you, I am willin? to oblige you with 
" part ; if I am poorer, I have no objection to Iharing 
" in your bounty." Charmed with his franknefs, Alex- 
ander took his hand, and anfwered, " Think yOu, then, 
" with all this civility, to efcape without a conflift ? Yoi^ 
" are much deceived, if you do. I will difpute it with 
*' you to the lall : but it Ihall be in favours and benefits ; 
K 5 " for 

• Arrlan calls it Nyfla; fo Indeed does the Vulcob. MS. Th>t 
hinorian places It near Mount Meris, and adds, ih;)t it was built b/ 
Dionyfius, or Bacchus. Hence it had the name of Dion)fiopoUs» It 
i< now called Nerg. 

f Between the Indus and the Hydafj>w, 


" for I will not have yoa exceed me ui gcnerofity.***^ 
Therefore^ after havine received great prefents from hiai,. 
^i made greater, he laid. to him one evening, " I.driulc 
•* tayou, Taxiles,^fure as you pledge me^ youfhall 
•♦•have a thoufand talents." His friendfc were oftended* 
ftt.his giving away fuch inmenfe fums, but it made many 
tf^the oaib^ians. look upon him with a (cinder eye. 

The moft w^likc of the Indians ufed to fight for payi. 
Upon this invafion they, defended the cities that hired 
ttem, witif great vigour, and Alexander fufTered by them 
iiot a. little.. To one of the cities he granted. an honour- 
9blc capitulation, and yet feized the mercenaries, as they^ 
were. upon their nurch homewards, and f^t thenv all to 
tbe.fword. This bthe only blot in his military condud ;.; 
9il his' other proceedings were agreeable to the laws of 
war, and worthy of a king *. 

The philofophers gave him no leis trouble than the mer^. 
Cffuuies. by endeavouring to fix a mark of. infamy upoa 
iHofe princes that, declared for him, and by exciting the 
feee nations to take up arms ; for which rea(bn he hanged^ 
auuiy of them. 

As to his war with- Poms, we have^ an^account of it in.. 
]u$ own^letters. According to^ them, the river Hydafpes 
was between the two armies, and Porus drew up hi3 ele- 
phants on the banks oppofite the enemy, with: their heads 
towards the flream, to guard it. Alexander caufed a great . 
Skoife and buille to be made every day in his camp, that 
tile barbarians, being accuflomed to it, might not be fo 
jFcady to take the alarm f . TJvis done, he took the ad- 
'vantage.of a dark and ftormy night, with-part of his in- 
fentry, and a feledt body of cavalry, to gain a little ifland 
ip^ the river, at k>mc diftance from the Indians. When he 
-wa9. there, he and his troops were atucked with a mo^ 


* Irwas jufl and lawfuf, itfetms, to goaboot harafTingaod deftroy^ 
Sng th( fe nations that had never ofifended Ki-m, and upon which he had 
no daim, except that avowed by the northern barbarians, when they . 
entered Italy, namely, that the weak muft fubmiLto the fhx>ng ! In- 
deccfy. thofe barbarians were much honefter^nen, for they had asother^ 
and a better plea ; they went to feek bread. 

f The Latin and French tranilators have both miAaken-the fenfe of 

this paflaee.— ES»^o»I« th« Bcc^o^^k p»J f o^»Kr$«i, is certainly c»- 

jirabls of the fenfe we have given it, and the context requires it Ihould 

be fo aoder(\ood. See Arrian, (1. v. Ed. St. p. io8. A. and B.) in fup- 

:^are of tint conftrud4on. See alfo <^CurtiuS) 1. viit. p. 263. Ed. Am, 

vtolent wind and rain, accompanied with drdEKifal thunder 
jCnd lightening. But, notwithftanding this hurricane, in .• 
which he faw feveral of' his mtn pcrilh by the lightening* . 
"ie advanced from, the ifland to the oppofite bank. The • 
Hydafpes, fwelled witli the rain, by its violence and ra- 
pidity made a breach on that fide, which received water / 
enough to form a bay, fo that when he came to land, he 
found the bank extremely (lippery, and the ground broken . 
and undermined by the current. On this occaiion he Lf - 
faid to have uttered. that celebrated faying,^ «' Will- you 
** believe, my Athenian friend*, what dangers I undergo, . 
•* to have you the hefidds of my fame ? V The laft parti- 
cular we have from OneTicritus : But Alexander himfelf . 
only fays, they quitted their boats,* and; armed a» they / 
were, waded up the^breach breaft high; and that wheil i 
they, were landed, he advanced with the horfc twenty , / 
furlongs before the foot, ^coaclndinc; that if the enemv'- ■/ 
atucked him witk-thm cavalry, he £oold. be greatly their * 
fuperior, and that if they, made a moyement .with their . 
in&ntry, his would come up time enough to receive them. . . 
Nor, didv he judge amifs. The enemv detached againU . 
hiifi a thoufand horfe and fixty armed chariots, and he 
defeated them with eafe. The chariots he tQok>. and killed. . 
four; hundred of the. cavalry upon the (pot. By thitf. Fonts -^ 
underflood that Alexander himfelf had pafied the tiver,^ 
and therefore .brought np his whole armyy except what 
appeared JiecefTary to keep the reft of the Macedonians . 
from making good their padage. Alexander ^Hifidering 
the force of the elephants, ancf the enemy's fuperior num- 
bers, did not ohbofe to engage them in front, ont attacked . 
the left ^ing himfelf, while.Casnns, according to his orders^ . 
fell upon the -right.! Both, wings being broken, retired 
to the elephants in the centra* aiid ranied there. . The , : 
combat then was of^a. more mixed. kind;, but maintained *1 
with fuch obftinacy, that it was not decided till the eighth . 
hour of the day. v Thii defcription of the battle We have ;.' 
from the <:onqueror fiimielf, in one of his epiftles.. .. 

Mq& hiftonans agree, that Porus was four cubitff^and ^ .-. 
pahn hieh, and that though the elephant he rode wa^ ^ 
one of the largeft, his ftature and bulk, were ftoh^: that h% .. 
appeared but proportionably mounted. This elephant^' . 
ducini; the whole oattle, eavje extraordinary aroo6of h3.. »- 
jagacity and cart of the king's perfon. Ai W%a.V tSbaat 

204 Plutarch's lives. 

prince was able to fight, he defended him with great eot»* 
rage, and repulfed all afTailants ; and when he perceived 
him ready to fink, under the multitude of darts and the 
wounds with which he was covered, to prevent his falling 
off, he kneeled down in the fofteil manner, and with his 
probofcis gently drew every dart out of his body. 

When rorus was taken prifoner, Alexander alked him, 
** How he dcfired to be treated ?" He anfwered, '* Like 
** a king." •* And have you nothing elfe to requcft ?" 
replied Alexander. '' No," faid Jie ; *• every thing is 
*• comprehended in the word king." Alexander not only 
reilored him his own dominions itnmediately, which he 
was to govern as his lieutenant, but added very extenfive 
territories to them ; for^having fubdued a free country, 
which contained fifteen nations, £ve thoufand confiderable 
cities, and villages in proportion, he beftowed it on Porus. 
Another country, three times as large, he gave to Philip, 
one ef his friends, who was alfo to adl there as his lieu- 

In the battle with Porus, Bucephalus received feveral 
wounds, of which he died fome time after. This is the 
account moft writers give us : But Oneiicritus fays, he 
died of age and fatigue, for he was thirty years old. A- 
lexander inewed as much regret, as if he had loft a faithful 
friend and companion. He efteemed him, indeed, as fuch; 
and built a city near the Hydafpes, in the place where he 
was buried, which he called, after him, Bucephalia. He 
is alfo reported to have built a city, and called it Peritas, 
in memo/y of a dog of that name, which he had brought 
up and was very fond of. This particular, Sotio fays, he 
had from Potamo of Lefbos. 

The combat with Porus abated the fpirit of the Mace- 
donians, and made them refolve to proceed no farther in 
.India. It was with difficulty they had defeated an enemy 
who brought only twenty thoufand foot and two thoufand 
horfe into the field ; and therefore they oppofed Alexander 
with great firmnefs, when he infifted that they Ihould pafs 


* Some tranfcrlber Teems to have |:iven us the number of inhabi- 
tants in one city for the number of cities. Arrian*s account of this : 
h He took thirty fcvcn cities, tbe lead of v/blch contained five thou- 
** fand inhabitants, and feveral of .them above ten thoufand. He took 
*^ alfo a number of villages not lefs populouii than Che c'.tics; ifUl 
** fay? ihc gcvcinmcnt of the couoiry to Pt-rus."^ 


the Ganges *> which, they were informed, was thirty^two 
furlongs in breadth, and in depth a hundred fathom. The 
oppoAte ihore too was covered with numbers of fquadrons, 
battalions, and elephants. For the kings of the Gandarites 
and Praefians were faid to be waiting for them there, with 
eighty thoufand horfe, twoT hundred thoufand foot, eieht 
thoufand ciiariots, and fix thoufand elephants trainea to 
war. Nor is this number at all magnified : For Andro-' 
cottus, who reigned not long after, made Seleucus a pre- 
fent of five hundred elephants at one time f , and with a^> 
army of fix hundred thoufand men traverfed India, and 
conquered the whole. 

Alexander's grief and indignation at this refufal were 
fuch, that at firft he (hut himfelf up in his tent, and lay 
proftrate on the ground, declaring " He did not thanfe 
•* the Macedonians in the leait for what they had done, if 
<< they would not pafs the Ganges ; for he coniidered a 
'* retreat as no other than an acknowledgment that he 
** was overcome." His friends omitted nothing that 
might comfort him ; and at lait their remonilrances, to- 
gether with the cries and tears of the foldiers, who were 
fuppliants at his door, melted him, and prevailed on 
him to return. However, he firft contrived many vain^ 
and fophiilical things to ferve the purpofes of fame; a- 
mong which were arms much bigger than his men could 
. ufe, and higher mangers, and heavier bits than his horfes 
required^ left fcattered up and down. He built alfo 
great alurs, for which the Praefians ftiU retain much ve- 
neration, and their kings crofs the Ganges every year to 
offer facrifices in the Grecian manner upon them. An- 
drocottus, who was then very young, had a Hght of 
Alexander, and he is reported to have often faid after- 
wards, " That Alexander was within a little of making 
•* himfWf mafler of all the country ; with fuch hatred and 
*' contempt was the reigning prince looked upon, on ac- 
" count of his profligacy of manners, and meanncfs of 
*' birth." 

Alexander, in his march from thence, formed a defign 
to fee the ocean ; for which purpofe he caufed a numbei« 


* The Ganges is the largefl of all the rivtrs In the three continents, 
the Indus the fecond, the Nile the third, and the Danuhe thi foartb. 

f Dacier'fays Jtve thoufandy but does not mention hit authotVt^^ ■ 
Perhaps it was only a Hip in the writing) or Vti \Vie ^u\vCiti<^. 

I of row-Bo 


of row- Boat 9 and rafts to be con ft runted j and, upon th^HT/ 
fell down the rivers at his leifure. Nor was this navigatioa 
unattended with hortilines. He m^iLdc fcverai defcents by 
the Way, and a racked the adjacent cities, which were all 
forced to fubmit to his vii5larioiis arms. Howeverj he 
was vtry near being cut in pifeces by the Maiii> who arc 
called the moll warlike people in Indi^. He had driven 
I'omc of them from the w^ll wilh his miilive weapons, and 
was the Aril man that afeended it. Uai preiently afcer he 
was up, the fcaling ladder broke* Finding himi'elf and 
his fniall company • nmch galled by the darts of the 
barbariajis frcm below, he poifed nimfclf, and leaped 
down into the midil of the enemy* Ey good fortune he 
fell upon his feet ; and the barbarians were fo aftoniflied j 
At tlie ftalhing of hi:i anijjs n^ hs came down, that they' ' 
thought they beheld ligjvteaing, or fome fupernattiral -* 
iplendor ifliiiiig from hi.s body. AtErft, therefore, they 
drew b-ick and difperfed. But wh^n they had recolle^ed ^ 
thcinfeiv^es, and law him attended onl^y by two of hii' 
guards, they attacked him hand to hand, and wounded 
him thjough his armour with their Avordi atid fpears, ^ 
notwithiianding the vilour with which he fought. One - 
of them ilanding farther oif, drew an arraw with fuch , 
ftrength, that it made its way through his cuirafs, and ^ 
entered the ribs under the brealK Its force was fo great, 
that he g*ive back and was brought upon his. knees, and^ i 
the barbarian ran up with hh drawn fcimitar to defpatch i 
'Jiim. Peuce[^as and Limnseus f plnced themfelves before • 
hinij but the one was wounded and the other killed. . Peu- 
ceftas, who furvived, was fkill makijig fome reitftance, , 
when Alexander recovered himiel^ and laid the barbarian .., 
at his feet. The kine> however,, received neur.twounds, . , 
and at iaft had fuch a blow from a bladgeon upon his neck, ^ 
that he was forced. to fupport himfelf by the wall, and..^ 
there flood with his. face, to the enemy. The Macedo- 
Bians, who by this, timer had got in, gathered about him, ..^ 
and carried him off to his tent.!: 

His fenfes were gone, and it-wa» t|ie. current reportJir-^ 
the army that he was deader When they had, with great 
difficulty, iawed off the ihaft, which was of wood, and with 

c^nal . 

* The word oXifofOf impliest that he was not quits alone s and it 
ipfears immediately after that hd was not* 
t <^Curclas calls him^TiMSfi^. 

AljlXAN^EIU 207^ 

eqtial trouble Kad taken oiF the cairaf9» tlief proceeded to 
extradi the head> which was three Enrers hsosid, and four 
long, and ftuck faft in the bone. He fainted under tht 
operation^ and was very near expiring; but when the head 
was got out, he came to himiclf. Yet, af^ the danger 
was over« he continued weak» and along time confined 
himfelf to a regular diet, attending folely to tlie cune ofhis' 
wound. The Macedt>niaiis could not bear ^ be fo long 
deprived of the %ht of their king ^ they affembled m a 
tumultuous manner about Lis tent. Wiienrhe perceived 
tiiis, he put on his robe, and made his appearance; but as 
foon as he had facriftced to the gods, he:^etired again. As. 
he was oa^his way to the place ot-his deftination •/though 
carried in a litter by the water fide, he fubdued a large 
tcack .ofiand, and many refpeflable cltiea. 

In the courfe of this,, expedition,* he^ took ten of the 
Oj;mtto/ophifisf, who had been, prificipally concerned in 
infligatiug Sabbas to revolt, and had brought numberlefs 
other troubles upon the Macedonians. As. thefe ten were 
jFCckoned the moft acute and. concife in their anfwers, he 
put the moil difficult queilions. to, them that could be 
thought of, and at. the fame time <iec]ared> he would put 
the hr/i: perfon that angered wrong to deathj^ and after 
him all the reft. The. oldeftma^ii among th«m was to be 

He demanded of the £rft, *' Which^were moft numerous, 
•^ the living or. the dead?? He anfwered, " The living; 
** for the dead no longer exift J." 

TRhe-fecond was. afked, " Whethw the earth or the fea 
** produced the largeft animals V* He anfwered^ «* The 
** earth ; for the fea is part of it." 

The^third, '* Which was the craftieft of all animals ?*» 
•^ThsiU*' (aSd he^^ witK3¥hi^hmai¥is not yet acquainted H.'* 


-f , Thefe philofopberv fo cSi.Iod from their going naked, were di^ded 
into two feds, the firachmani and the Germani. The Brachmani were 
moft eAeemed, becaufe there was a confiftency in their principles. Apu- 
klu« tel.'s us that npt only the fcholars, but the younger pupils, were 
aflbmbled about dinner-timr> and escamined what good they had done 
that day ; and fuch as could not point out fome ad of hamanity» or 
«feful .purAiit that they had been engaged in, were not allowed any . 

I They did not hold the mortality, but the tranTmigration of the ^U 
This we fuppofe to mean mun bimfelf, as not beln^ acc^AaMft4 
with himfolf. 


The fourth, '* What was his reafon for perfuadinr 
** Sabbas to revolt T* *' Becaufe/* faid he, " I wifhed 
*' him eitlier to live with honour, or to die as a coward 
" deferves *." 

The fifth had this queftion put to him, '* Which do 

' ** you think oldeft, the day or the night?" He anfwered, 

•* The day, by one day," As the king appeared furprifed 

at this folution, the philofopher told him, " Abftrufe 

** quellions mull have abftrufe anfwers." 

Then addreffing himfelf to the fixth, he demanded, 
•^ What are the bell means for a man to make himfelf 
*' loved?" He anfwered, " If pofTefTcd of great power, 
** do not make yourfelf feared." 

The feventh was aiJied, ** How a man might become 
'* a god?" He anfwered, '* By doing what is impoffible 
*' for man to do." 

The eighth, ** Which is ftrongeft, life or death ?" 
** Life," faid he ; " becaufe it bears fo many evils." 

The laflqueftion that he put was, ** How long is it good 
** for a man to live ?" " As long," faid the philofopher, 
*' as he does not prefer death to life." 

Then turning to the judge, he ordered. him to give fen- 
tence. The old man faid, " In my opinion they have 
" all anfwered one worfethan another." " If this i!> thy 
" judgment," faid Alexander, " thou fhalt die fijil." 
** No," replied the philofopher; " not except you choofe 
*' to break your word : For you declared the man that 
" anfwered word fhould firfl: fufFer." 

The king loaded them with prefents, and difmiffed them. 
After which he fent Oneficritus, a difciplc of Diogenes, 
to the other Indian fages who were of moll reputation, and 
lived a retired life, to delire them to come to him. 
Oneficritus tells us, Calanus treated him with great info- 
lence and harlhnefs, bidding him to llrip himfelf naked, 
if he defired to hear any of his dodrinej *' Youlhould not 

" hear 

• One of the manufciips gives us xaX&>$ here, inftead of xa;{a»f. 
T!ien the fcnfe will be, »» Becaufe I wifhed him cither to live or cie 
•* with honour,*' Which we cannot .bur prtf-.r; for he v/!jo has re- 
gard enough for a nrian to wifh hinti to live wiih honour, cannot be 
io envious as to wifh him to die with dilhcr.our At the (^mc tiiie 
we agree with Mofes Du Soul, that fontie archnefs is intended in moft 
of the anfwers; but what archnefs i> there in this, as it is c~m;Tionl/ . 
tranHatcdy Becauft I w'Jhed him citler U Rvs bonoural {y, or tj die m'lfcrabljf . 


»* -hctr mc on any other conditioa," laid he, '» though yoa 
** came from Jupiter himfelf." Dandamis behaved with 
more civility ; and when Oneficritus had given him an 
account of Pythagoras^ Socrates> and Diogenes, he faid, 
•* They appeared to him to have been men of genius* 
*' but to have lived with too paffive a regard to the laws." 

Others fay, Dandamis entered into no difcourfe with 
the meffenger, but only afked, " Why Alexander had 
** taken fo long a journey ?" As to Calanus, it is certain 
Taxiles prevailed with him to go to Alexander. His true 
name was Sphines ; bat becaufe he addrelTed them with 
the word Cole, which is the Indian form of falutation, the 
Greeks called him Calanus. This philofopher, we arc 
told, prefented Alexander with a good image of his 
empire. He laid a dry and (hrivelled hide before him, 
and firfl trod upon the edges of it. This he did all round ; 
and as he trod on one iide, it ftarted up on the other. At 
lail, he £xed his feet on the middle, and then it lay ftilL 
By this emblem he fhewed him, that he ihould £x his re- 
iidence, and plant his principal force in the heart of hit 
empire, and not wander to the extremities. 

Alexander fpent feven months in falling down the rlverf 
to the ocean. When he arrived there, he embarked, and 
failed to an ifland which he called Scillouftis*, but others 
call it Pfiltoucis. There he landed, and facrificed to the 
gods. He likewife confidered the nature of the fea and 
of the coaft, as fai as it was accelTible. And after having 
befought Heaven, " That no man might ever reach beyond 
** the bounds of his expedition," he prepared to fet out on 
his way back. He appointed Nearchus admiral, and 
Oneficritus chief pilot, and ordered his fleet to fail roand«^ 
keeping India on the right. With th^ reft of his forces 
he returned by land, through the country of the Orites ; 
in which he was reduced to fuch extremities, and loH fuch 
numbers of men, that he did not bring back from India 
above a fourth part of the army he entered it with, which 
was no lefs than a hundred and twenty thoufand foot, and 
fifteen thoufand horfe. Violent dillempers, ill diet, and 
exceflive heats deilroyed multitudes ; but famine made 
ftill greater ravages. Kor it was a barren and uncultivated 
country ; the natives lived miferably, having nothing td 


* Arrian calls it Cilutta. Here they firft obferved \V« tV^>c»\tt%iifi&. 
flowipg of tlie fea, which furprifed them nota Ultle, 

fubllil on a few bad fheep, which ufed to feed on lhe'9t(tf 
tlirowa up hy the fea | coniequeutly ihey were poor> and 
their Hefh of a bad flavour. 

With much difficulty he iraverfed this country in (ixtf 

>*i^P» 3.nd then arrived in Gedrofia. There he found pro* 
yiiJons in iibundance ; for befidea that the land is fertile ia 
ufejfj the neighbouring princes and grandees fap plied 
Slim* After he had given his army fome time to refrefb 
thcmfelves, he marched in Carmania for feveu days in a 
kin d o f B a c c hana lian p roce Ifion , H is ch a rio t , whi c h w a* 
very magnificent, was drawn by eight horfes. Upon it 
was placed a lofty platform, where he and his principal 
friends revelled day and night. This carriage wa^ fol- 
lowed by many others, fomc covered with rich capeftry and 
purple hangings, and others /Iiaded with branches of tree! 
frefh gathered and flooriibing. In thcfe were the reil of 
the king^s friends and geaeralSj crowned with flowers, ftiid' 
exhilarated with wine. 

In this whole company there was not to be feen s 
buckler, a hejmetj or fpear ; but, inllead of I hem, cnps* 
flagons, and goblets. Thefe the foldiers dipped in hug# 
veiTGlB of wine, and drank to each other, Ibme as they 
marched alongj and others feated at tables, which wcr« 
placed at proper diftances on the way. The whole coun- 
try refounded with flutes, clarionets, and fonga^ and with 
the dances and riotous frtjlics of the women. This dtf- 
ordcrly and diffalute march was ctofed with a very immo-* 
defl figure*, and with ail the licentious ribaldry of ihjs 
Bacchanals, as if Bacchus him Tt; If had been prcfenc to car- 
ry on the debauch. 

When Alexander arrived at the royal palace of Ged- 
rofia j-, he gave his army time to refrclh themfelves again, 
und entertained them witli featb and public fpedacksj 
At one of thefe, in which the chorufes disputed the prize 
of dancing, he appeared inflamed with wine* His favoy- < 
rite Bagoas happening to win it, croftt^d the theatre in hij 
habit of ceremony, and feared himfelf by the king* The 


• M. le Fcirre (In hh notes upon An^irc^on) fcemi to have rcftorctf 
tbt^ff^miine reidmg of this p^fT^^i^Y bj |jropu4itig to md^ mAeul of 
Tctiq ^iit?.»i^, C^aAvj^i or ^flX?<.&^. 

f Gtrfr\.fiA h certainly currnpc* Probably we Ihould read CarmcnU, 
B^a-t?^u^^t ftgnifiif « capluL chyi as wdl a& a ro^al |ala^€| bccjuiiB 
^iace^ gcotfitiiy rcQde In their ca^ UiLw 


WSifUSbUxiih expreiTed their fatisfaaion with load phw* 
dtts, and called oiit to the king to idft him, with which at 
laH he complied. 

Nearchus joined him again here, and he was fo modi ' 
delig[hted with the account of his voyage, that he formed 
a dimgn to fail in perfon-from the £aphrates with a great 
fleet, circle the coaft of Arabia and Africa, and enter xhm 
l^diterraneafi by the* Miliars of Hercules. For this pur« 
pofe, ho coiiftru^ed, at Thapfalilus, a number of veiTels of 
all forts, «nd collcu^d mariners and pilots. But thf 
r^rt of the diificuhies he had met with in his Indian ex* 

edition) particularly in hh attack of the Malli, his great 
fs of. men, in th&oountry df the Orites, and the fuppoii- 
lion ht would itever return alive from the voyage he now 
iCierdhated, excited his new fubjedls to revolt, and pot hin' 
j^enerals and- governors of provinces upon difj^aying 
theb injuftice, tofolence, and avarice. In ihort, the wholi 
empire was in cbmmotion, and ripe for rebellion* Olpra* 
vias and Cleoftetra, leaguing againil Antipater, had feiaed 
his hereditary dominions,' and divided them between thenu 
Glympias 4ook Epinis, and Cleopatra, Macedonia. Ths 
tidings of which being brought to Alexander, he iaid« 
^ His mother had conuderedr right ; for the Macedoaiaxui 
^ would never* bear to be governed 6y a woman.*' 

In coniequcDce of thk udfettled ftate of things, he lent 
Nearchus again to fea, having determined to carry tha 
war into the maritime provinces « Meantime he marched 
in perfonto chafiife his lieutenants fbr their mifdemeanoiirs. 
Oxyaptesvone of the (bns of Abulite$« he killed with hit 
own hand, by a ftroke of his javelin. Abalites bad laid 
in no provifions for him ; he had only coUei^ed three 
Wioufand talents m money. Upon his prefenting thisj 
idexander bade him offer it to his horfes ; and, as thejr 
4id not touch it; he faid, ** Of what ufe will this provifion 
«< now be to me f " and immediately ordered Abulites to 
Ve taken into cuftody. 

The iirft thing he did after he entered Periia, was to 
give this mone^ to the matrons, according to the ancient 
euilom of the kmgs, who, up^n their return from any ex« 
curiion to their Perfian dominions, ufed to give every wo- 
man a piece of gold. For this reafon, feveral of them, 
we are told, made it a rule to return but feldom; and 
Ochus never did : He banQhed himielf to iave hia movvc^ . 

212 Plutarch's lives. 

Having found the tomb of Cyrns broke open, he put tit 
author of that facrilege to death, though a native of Pella> 
and a perfon of fome diftindlion. His name was Polym^ 
chus. After he had read the epitaph, which was in the 
Perllan language, he ordered it to be infcribed alfo iif 
Greek. It was as follows: o man ! whosoever thou^ 


KARTH THAT COVERS MY BODY. Alexander was much. 
alFedted at thefe words, which placed before him in £> 
ilrong a light, the uncertainty and viciilitude of things. 

It was here thit Cnlanus, after having been difordered* 
little while with the cholic, defircd to have his funeral pile 
crefted. Ke approached it on horfeback, offered up his 
prayers to heaven, poured the libations upon himfelf^ CJt. 
oif part of his hair*, and threw it on the fire; and, before 
he afcended the pile, took leave off the Macedonians, dc- 
iiring them to fpend the day in jollity and drinking with 
the king ; " For I (hall fee him," faid he, " in a little time 
*' at Babylon." So faying he flretched hinifelf upon the 
pile, and- covered himfelf up* Nor did he move at the 
approach of the flames, but remained in the fame poflur6 
■ till he had finilhed his facrifice, according to the cullom of 
the fages of his conntry. Many years after, another Indian 
did the fame before Auguftus Caefar at Athens, whofe tomb 
is fhewn to this day, and called the Indian^ stofnb,. 

Alexander, as foon as he retired from the funeral pile^ 
invited his friends and officers to fupper, and, to give life 
to the caroufal, promifed that the man who drank moft- 
iliould be crowneii for his vidory. Promachus drank four 
me.ifures of winef ; and carried of^ the crown, which was 
worth a talent, but furvived it only three days. The reft 
of the guefts, as CLires tells us, drank to fuch a degree, 
that forty-one of them loft their lives, the weather coming 
upon them extremely cold during their intoxication. 

When he arrived at Sufa, he married his friends to Per- 
fian ladies. lie fet them the example, by taking Statira", 
the. daughter of Darius, to wife, and then diftributed 
among his principal officers the virgins of higheil quality. 


• As fomc of the hair uFcd to be cut from the forehead of vif^ims. 
f ^bout fourteen quarts. '^\\^dteui was fix pints nine-tenths. 


As /or thofe Mac^doniaiM who had already married in 
Pe(fia, he nude a general entertainment in commemora- 
tion of their nuptials. It is faid» that no lefs than nine 
thoofand guefls fat down^ and yet he prefented each with 
a golden cup for performing the libation. Every thing 
,clle was conduced with the utmoft magnificence ; he even 
paid oiF all their debts ; infomuch that the whole expencc ' 
amounted to nine thoufand eight hundred and feventy ta- 

An officer, who had but one eye, named Antigenes, put 
himfelf upon this lilt of debtors, and produced a pcrfon 
who declared he w^is fo much in his books. Alexander 
paid the money ; but afterwards difcovering the fraud, in 
Tiis anger forbade him the court, and took c*way his coin- 
mifllon. There was no fault to be found with hini as a 
foldier. He had diftingui(hed himfelf in his youth under 
Philip, at the iiege of Feririthus, where he was wounded 
.in the eye with a dart fhot from one of the engines ; and 
yet he would neither fuffer it to be taken ^out, nor quit the 
field, till he had repulfed the enemy, and forced them to 
retire into the town. The poor wretch could not bear the 
difgrace he had now brought upon himfelf; his f rief and 
,defpair were fo great, that it was apprehended he would 
put an end to his own life. To prevent fuch a cataftrophe, 
.the king forgave him, and ordered him to keep, the money. 

The thirty thoufand boys, whom he left under proper 
jnallers, were now gr.own fo much, and made fo handfome 
an appearance ; and, what was of more importance, had 

fained fuch an adtivity and addrefs in their exerciies, that 
e was greatly .delighted with them. But it was matter 
.of aneannefs to the Macedonians ; they were apprehenilve 

that the king would have lefs regard for them. There- 
;fore, when he gave the invalids there route to the fea, in 

order to their return, the whole army coniidered it as an 
^injurious ^nd opprelfive meafure : *' He ha^ availed him- 

•' felfi" faid they, ", beyond all reafon, of their fervices, 
.*' and now he fends them b'ack with difgrace, and turns 

** them upon the hands of their country and their parents, 

" in a very different condition from that in which he re- 
-" ceived them. Why does not he difmife us all ? Why 

** does not he reckon all the Macedonians incapable of . 
-" fervice, now te has got this body of young dancers f 
^* Let him go with them and conquer the wond." 

(n. d. 1794.) ^tx^xAsit 

%14 ^LUTAILCH's Jt'lTOT. 

Alexander, incenfcd at thi; mutinoas behavioor/loaddtv 
them with reproaches ; and ordering them off, took Per- 
fians for his guards, and filled up other offices with them. 
When they faw their king with thefe new attendants, and 
themfelves rejeded and fpumed with diihonour^ they were 
greatly humbled. They lamented their fate to each other, 
and were almofl Aantic with jealoufy and anger. At 
laft, coming to themfelves, they repaired to. the king's tent, 
without arms, in one thin garment only ; and with tears, 
and lamentations delivered themfelvjes up to his ven- 

feancei defirin^ vhe would treat them as ungrateful men 
cferved. ^ 

^e was foftened with their complaints, but would not 
appear to hearken to them. They flood two days aiul 
nights, bemoaning themfelves in this manner, and calling 
for their dear malier. The third day he came out to them ; 
and when he faw their forlorn condition, he wept a long 
time. After a gentle rebuke for their mifbehaviour, Jje 
cond^fcended to conyerfe with them in a freer manner j 
and fuch as were unfit for fervrice he fent over with mag- 
jiificent prefents. At the fame tinxe,he fignified his.pleafur<e 
to Antipater, that at all public diyerfions they fhould have 
the moft honourable feats in the theatres, and wear chap- 
lets of flowers there ; and that the children of thofew^o 
had loft their lives in his fervice, (hould have their fathers* 
pay continued to them. 

When he came to EcbatanainMedi^jandhad defpatched 
the moft urgent affairs, he employed himfelf again in the 
celebration of games and other public folemnities ; for 
which purpofe three thopfand^ttficers, lately arrived, from 
Greece, were very ferviceable to him. *But unfortunately 
Hephaiftion fell fick of a fever in the midft of this fefti- 
vity. As a young man and a foldier, he.cQ.uld not bear 
to be kept to ftriet diet ; and taking the opportunity to 
dine when his phyfician Glancus was gone to the theatre, 
he ate a roaftea fowl, and drank .a flagon of wine made at 
cold as pofllble ; in confequencctof which he grew worff^ 
and died a few days after. 

Alexander's grief on thisfOCcaiion escceeded all bounds* 
He immediately ordered the horfes and mules, to be ihorn, I 
that they might have their fhare in the mourning, and with 
the fame view pulled down the ba^tlemenu of the nei|;h« 
baring. cities. TJie poor phyfician he crucified. He lor- < 

bade J 

^sUte the fittie and all other mufic in his camp for « long 
time. This continaed till he received an oracle from Ja- 
piter Ammon, which foijoined him to revere Hephaeftion* 
and, facrifice to him as a demi-^d. After this he fought 
,%o relieve his. for row by hunting, or rather by war; for 
^is game were men. In this expedition he conquered the 
iCufikans, and put all that were come to years of puberty 
.^o the fword* This he callcfd a facrifice to the ma»es of 
silephsilion ! 

Hjs defigned to lay out ten thouland talents upon his 
t>^mb and the monumental ornaments^ and that the work- 
inanfhip, as well as defign, ihould exceed the expence, 
'.great as it was^ He therefore defired to have Stancratet 
jfor his ai-chited, whofe genius promifed a happy boldnefs 
^nd grandeur in every thing that he planned. This was 
■;the man who had told him« fome time before^ that Momnt 
>Athos in Thrace was mo(l capable of being cut into a 
human iij^ure; and ^at^ if he had but his orders, he would 
convert it into a ftatue for him, the moil laHin? and con- 
/picuous in the world : A ftatue, which fhould nave a city 
with ten thoufand inhabitants in its left hand, and a river 
that flowed to the fea with a flrong current in its right. 
He did not> however, embrace that propofal, though at 
^hat time he buiied himfelf with his architeds in contriv- 
ing and laying 4>ut even nM)re abfnrd and expeniive d«^ 

As he was advancing towards Babylon^ Nearchos^ wha 
was returned from his expedition on the ocean, and come 
<Yip the Euphrates, declared, he had "been applied to by 
fome Chafdaeans, who were itrongly of opinion that Alex- 
ander (hould not enter Babylon. But he flighted the warn* 
in^ and continued his march. Upon his approach to the 
walls, he faw a great number of crows fighting, fome of 
which fell down dead at his feet. Soon after this, being in- 
formed, that Apollodorus, governor of Babylon^ had iau 
crificed> in order to confult the gvfJs concerning him; he 
fent for Pythagoras the diviner ; and, as he did not deny 
the &dt, a&ed him how the entrails of the vidlim appeared. 
Pythagoras anfwered, the liver was without a head. ''A ter* 
«' rible preiage, indeed !" faid Alexander. He let Py^ 
tiiagoras go with impunity : Bat by this time he was fon^ 
he had not liflened to Nearchus. He lived moftly in hu 
pavilion withq^t the Walls^ and diverted himfelf ^'i^C%3X- 

ai6 Plutarch's lives. 

ing up and down the Euphrates. For there had happened 
fcveral other ill omens that much dillurbed him. One of 
thelargeft and handfomell lions that were kept in Babylon* 
wa« attacked and kicked to death by an afs. One day 
he rtripped for the refreihment of oil, and to play at ball: 
After the diverfion was over, the young men who played 
with him, going to fetch his clothes, beheld a man fitting 
in profound (ilence on his throne, drefled in the roy aerobes, 
with the diadem upon his head. They demanded who he 
was, and it was a long time before he would anfwer. At 
laft, coming to himfelf, he faid, " My name is Dionyfius, 
" and I am a native of Meflcne. Upon a criminal pro* 
** cefs againft me, I left the place, and embarked for 
*' Babylon. There I have been kept a long time in chains. 
*' But this day the god Seripis appeared to me, and broke 
*' my chains 5 after which he conducted me hither, and 
'* ordered me to put on this robe and diadem, and fit here 
" in filcncc." 

After the man had thus explained himfelf, Alexander, 
by the advice of his foothfayers, put him to death. But 
the anguifh of his mind increafed ; on one hand, he almoft 
defpaired of the fuccours of heaven, and on the other 
diftrufted his friends. He was moft afraid of Antipater 
and his fons ; one of which, named lolaus*, was his cup- 
bearer ; the other, named CafTander, was lately arrived 
from Macedonia ; and happening to fee fome barbarians 
proftrate themfelves before the king, like a man ac- 
cuftomed only to the Grecian manners, and a ftranger to 
fuch a fight, he burii out into a loud laugh. Alexander, 
enraged at the affront, feized him by the hair, aod with 
both hands dafhed his head againft the wall. Caffander 
afterwards attempted to vindicate his father againft his 
accufers ; which greatly irritated the king. ** What is 
*' this talk of thine ?" faid he. •' Dofl thou think that 
** men who had fuffered no injury, would come fo far to 
" brine a falfe chargeJ*" *' Their coming fo far," replied . 
Caflander, "is an argument that the charge is falfe, be- 
*' caufe they are at a difiance from thofe who are able to 
*' contradid them." At this Alexander fmiled, and 
faid, " Thefe are fome of Ariilotle's fophifms, which make 

" equally 

* Arrian and Curtlut call him JJlai. Phitarch calk him lohs bO* 

ALEXANDER. ' * llj 

' **''cqiraHyTor either iidc of the queftion. But be a^«reA 
- " 1 will make you repent it, if- thefc men have had the 
** leaft injaftice done them." 

This, and other menaces, left fuch a terror upon Caf, 
fander, and made fo lailing an imprcfCon upon his mind, 
that many years after, when king of Macedon, and mailer 
of all Greece, a£ he was walking about at Delphi^ and 
i taking a view of the flatues, the fudden fight of that of^ 
Alexander is faid to havi ftruck him with fuch horr^or. 
that he trembled all over^ and it was with difficulty he r^ 
< covered of the giddinefs it.caufed in his brain. 

When Alexander had once given himfelf up. to fupcr- 

rdition, his mind was fo preyed upon by vain fears anA 

anxieties that he turned the leall incident which was any 

> thing ftrangc and out of the way, into a fign or a prodigy. 

The court fwarmed with facrificers, purifiers, and prog- 

nofiicators; they were all to be feenexercifing their talents 

there. So true it U, that though the difbelief of religion, 

and contempt of things divine, is a great evil ; yet iupep- 

ilitioA is a greater. For as water gains upon Iot** 

grounds*, fo fuperftition prevails over a dejedVd mind, 

.and fills it with fear ^d folly. This was entirely Alex* 

.ander's cafe. Howe^, upon the receipt of ibme oracles 

.concerning Hepha;(lion, from the god he commonly con-> 

Xulted, he gave a truce to his fbrrows, and emplpyed him* 

;felf in fefUve facrifices and entertainments. 

One day, after he had given Nearchus « fumptuous 
treat, he went, according to cuflom, to jrefpeih himfelf isi 
.the bath, in order to retire to reft. But in the mean time 
Medius came and invited him to take part in a caroufal, 
..and he could not deny hiin. There he drank sdl that night 
and the next day, till at lail he found a fever coming upoii 
Jiim. It did nol;, however, feize him as he was drinkinjg; 
.the cup of Herx:ules, nor did he find a fudden pain in his 
back, as if it bad been pierced with a fpear. Thefe are 
circumfl:ances invented by writers, who thought the cataf- 
trophe qf,(p noble a tragedy flioold be fomething atfefl- 

• Tbe^ext "n this place js corrupt. For the fafcc of thofe readers 
who have-not Bryan*s edition of the Greek, we fliali give the enFienda- 
tion which the learned Mofet dn Soul propofes-*— ^ ^ii0'»^ix»//ovi» 
^»x»r vJ'aTOf , an vr^oq ro raTi\viifit.ifO}t %on KATANTEX PEOYXA^ 
-u^tXrviPiu^ y.eti «oStf rot A^iiocvh^t ANEnAHrOt% 

%l$ 4FLutarcm!s lives. 

ing and extraordinary. Ariilohulus tells us, that in th^ 
rage of his fever, and the violence of his thiril, he took a 
draught of wine, which threw him into a frenzy, and that 
^ died the thirtieth of the month Daefius, June. 

But in his journals the account of his ficknefs is as fol* 
lows ; " On the eighteenth of the month Daefius, finding 
•• the fever upon him, he lay in his bath-room. The 
** next day, after he had bathed, he removed into his own 
'** chamber, and played many liours with Medius at dice. 
*« In the evening he bathed again, and after having facri- 
*' iiced to the gods, he ate his fupper. In the night the 
" fever returned. The twentieth he alfo bathed, and, 
'* after the cuftomary facrifice, fat in the bath-room, ai: \ 
" diverted himfelf with hearing Nearchus tell the ftory 
" of his voyage, and all that was moft obfervable with re- 
** fpedl to the ocean. The twenty-firft was fpent in the 
♦* fame manner. The fever increafed, and he had a very 
«' bad night. The twenty-fee ond, the fever was violent. 
<* He ordered his bed to be removed, and placed by the 
■* great bath. There he talked to his generals about the 
*' vacancies in his army, and defired they might be filled 
-•' up with experienced officers. The twenty- fourth, he 
•' was much worfe. He chofe, hQ;w^ever, to be carried to 
" affift at the facrifice. He like wife gave orders, that 
** the principal officers of the army (hould wait within the 
** court, and the others keep watch all night without. 
" The twenty-fifth, he was removed to his palace, on 
*' the other fide of the river, where he flept a little, but 
^* the fever did not abate ; and when his generals entered 
"' the room he was fpeechlefs. He continued fo the day 
«* following. The Macedonians, by this time, thinking 
•*' he was dead, came to the gates with great clamour, 
«' and threatened the great officers in fuch a manner, that 
«* they were forced to admit them, and fufFer them all to 
*' pafs unarmed by the bed-fide. The twenty- feventh, 
«' Python and Seleucus were fent to the temple of Serapis, 
** to inquire whether they fhould carry Alexander thither, 
** and the deity ordered that they (hould not remove him. 
*' Tlie twenty-eighth, in the evening, he died." Thefe 
particulars are taken almofl word for word from his diary. 

There was no fufpicion of poifon at the time of his 
ideathi but fix years after, (we are told) Olympias, upon 


Tome information, put a number of people to death, and 
ordered the remains of lolas, who was fuppofed to have 
given him the draught, to be dug out of the grave* 
Thofe who fay Ariftotle advifcd Antipater to fuch a hor*- 
rid deed, and furnifhed him with the poifon he fent to Ba- 
bylon, allege one Agnothemis as their author, who is pre- 
tended to have had the information from king Antieonus. 
They add, that the poifon was a water ot a cold^ and 
deadly quality*, which diftils from a rock in the territory 
of Nonacris ; and that they receive it as they would do io 
many dew-drops, and keep it in an afs's hoof; its ex- 
treme coldnefs and acrimony being fuch, that it makes its 
^ay through all other vefTels. The generality, however, 
look upon the flory oY the poifon as a mere fable ; and 
they have this ftrong argument in their favour, that tho', 
on account of the difputes which the great officers were en- 
gaged in for many days, the body lay onembalmed f in a 
i'ultry place, it had no fign of any fuch taint, but continued 
frefh and clear. 

Roxana was now pregnant, and therefore had great at- 
tention paid her by the Macedonians. But being extreme- 
ly jealous of Statira, Ihe laid a fnare for her by a forged let- 
ter, as from Alexander ; and having by this means, got 
her into her power, fhe facrificed both her and her fifter, 
and threw their bodies into a well, which Ihe filled up with 
earth. Perdiccas was her accomplice in this murder. In- 
deed, he had now the principal power, which he exer- 
cifed in the name of Aridasus, whom he treated rather as 
a fcreen tjian as a king. 

Aridseus was the fon of Philip, by a courtezan natmed 
Phil in na, a woman of low birth. His deficiency in un- 
derflanding was the confequence of a diltemper, in which 
neither nature nor accident had any ihare. For it is faid, 
there was fomething amiable and great in him when a 
boy; which Olympias perceiving, gavjs him potions that 
diflurbed his brain |. 


♦ Hence it was caUcd the Stygian JFattr* Nonwris wai t city of 

X Portraits of the fame perfoB, talcen at dMfercnt periods of Why 
though they differ greatly from each other, retain a TefecvVAwwc.^ xx^wi 
the whole. And fo it is in general with tht cViMiaw\ ^ iwwv* l^>a.v 


.1^20 .Plutarch's tivEiu 



HEN Sylla had made.^imfclf mafter of Rome*, 
he endeavoured to. bring -Cacfar to repudiate Cornelia, 
daughter to Cinna one of the late tyrants 5 and findine^ 
lie could not efFcd it either by hopes or fearsf , he conti£ 
cated*her dowry. Indeed, Cajfar, as a relation to Marius, 
was naturally an enemy to Sylla. Old Marius had mar- 
ried Julia, Caefar's aunt, and therefore young Marius, the 
fon he had by her, wvls Csefar's coulin gefman. At firft 
Sylla, amidft the vaft number of profcriptions that en^ 
gaged his attention, overlooked this ^nemy ; but Caefar, 
not content with efcaping fo, prcfented himfelf to th« 
people as a candidate for the prleflhood]:, though he was 
not yet come to years of maturity. Sylla exerted his iii- 
iluence againft him, and he,mifcarried. The dictator aif- 
terwards thought of havipghim taken off, and when fome 
faid, there was no need to put fuch a boy to death, he an- 
fwered, " Their fagacity was fmall, if they did not in that 
" boy fee many^Marius's.** 

This faying being reported to Cafar, he concealed him- 
felf a long time* wandering up and down in the country 


Alexander feems to be an exception ; for nothing can admitof greater 
diffimilaiity than that which entered into his difpofition at different 
times, and in difF rent circumftances. He was brieve and pufillanimous, 
merciful and cruel, modell and vain, .ibftemiousand luxurious, rational 
and fuperttitiouL, pclite and overbearing, politic and imprudent. Nor 
were thefc changes cafual or temporary : The rtylcof his charafler un- 
derwent a total revolution, and he paflTcd from virtue to vice in a regu- 
lar and progreffive manner. Munificence and pride were the oi»ly cha- 
raderiftics that never foribok hiir. it there were any vice of wHich 
he was incapable, it was avarice ; if any virtue, it was humility. 

* Some imagine that the beginning of this Life is loft j but if they 
look back to the introdu^ion to the Life of Alexander, that notion 
wiQ vanlih. 

■ -f Caefar would not make fuch a facrifice to the dictator as Pifo had 
donCy who, at his command, divorced his wife Anpia* Pompey, too, 
for the fake of Sylh's alliance, repudiated ^.ntiftia. 
" ' X C«far had the piicfthood belpre.Sylla wasdidlator. Jn the feven- 
Icenth year of his age, he broke his engagement to Coflutia, though 
(he was of a confular and opulent family, and married Cornelia, the 
<taughter of Cinna, by whofe ihtcreft, and that of Mariut, he was 
created Fiamn Diaiss or Prieft of Jupiter, Sylla, when abfolutc mafter 
ofRome^ inGilcd on his divorcing Comdia, and, upon his rcfuia^i de- 
prired hia cf that eOAe. SviTOW,*\n JnUo* 

0? tlie Sabines. Amidft his movements from houfe to 
houfe he fell fick, and on that account was forced to be ' 
carried in a litter. The foldiers employed by Sylla to 
fcarch thofe pj;rts, and drag the profcribed perfons from 
their retreats, one night fell in with him ; but Cornelius, ■ 
who commanded them, was prevailed on by a bribe of 
two talents to let him go. 

He then haftened to Tea, and failed to Bithynia, wher* 
he fought protection of Nicomedes the king. His ftay, 
however, with him was not long. He re-embarked, and 
was taken, near the ifle of Pharnijcufa, by pirates, who 
were mailers of that fea, and blocked up all the pafiagea 
with a number of galleys and other veflels. They aiked 
him only twenty talents for his ranfom. He laughed at 
their demand, as the confequcnce of their not knowing 
him, and promilcd them fifty talents. To raile the mo-" 
ney, he defpatched his people to different cities, and ia 
the mean tivre remained with only one friend and two at- 
tendants among thefe Cilicians, who coniidered murder as 
a trifle. Cajfar, however, held them in great contempt, 
and ufed to fend, whenever he went to flecp, and- order 
them^to keep iilence. Thus he lived among them tiiirty- 
eigi.c diiyo, as if they had been his guards, rather chaa 
his keepers. Perfedly fearlefs and fecur*; he joined in 
their di/cruons, and took his exercif^'s among them. ' He 
wrote poems and orations, and rehearfed them to thefe" 
pir:itcs ; and when they exprefTcd no admiration,* he called 
them dances and barbarians. Nay, he' 'often'' threajiencd- 
to crucify them. They were d^elighted with thefe free- 
doms, which they imputed to his frank and^facetious vein. 
But as foon as the money was brought from Miletus, and 
he liad recovered his liberty-, he manned fome vefTels ia 
the port of Miletus *, in order to attack thefe corfairs. 
He found them ftill lying at anchor by the ifland, took 
moll of them, together with the money, and imprifoned 
them at Pergamus. • After which, he applied to Junius, 
who then commanded in Afia, becaufe to him, as praetor, it 
belonged to punifti them. Junius having an eye upon the 
money, which was a confiderable fum, demurred about 
the matter ; and Caefar, perceiving his intention, returned 
to Pergamus, and crucified all the prifoners, as he had - 
Ii 3 ofteft 

• Dacier reads Melos^ which was one o( v\\^ C^<;U^«%> ^a'^'^ ^fii«i^ ^*^ 

mention his authcrit/k 

a22 >lutarch's lives, 

often threatened to do at Pharxnacufa, when they took 
him to be in jcil. 

When the power of Sylla came to be upon the decline, 
Caefar's friends prefled him to return to Rome. But firft 
Jie went to Rhodes^ to ftudy under Apollonius, the fon of 
Molo *, who taught rhetoric there with great reputation, 
and was a man of irreproachable manners. Cicero alfo 
was one of his fcholars. Ca^far is faid to have had happy 
talents from nature for a public fpcaker, and he did not 
want an ambition to cultivate them ; fo that undoubtedly 
he was the fccond orator in Rome ; and he might have 
been the firll, had he not rather chofen the pre-eminenct 
in arms. Thus he never rofe to that pitch of eloquence 
to which his towers would have brought him, being en- 
gaged in thole wars and political intrigues, which at laft 
gained him the empire. Hence it wai, that afterwards, 
in his AniicatOi which he wrote in anfwer to a book of 
Cicero's, he deiired his readers '* Not to expedl in the 
«* performance of a military man the ftyle of a complete 
«' orator, who had beftowed all his time upon fuch fta- 
*• dies." 

Upon his return to Rome, he impeached Dolabella for 
mifdemeanors in his government, and many cities of 
Greece fuppci ted the charge by their evidence. Dola- 

• It /hould be ApolUmui Molcj not Apolloniu* the fon of Molo. 
According to SuetoniuS) Ca-iar had Audltd under him at Rome before 
this adventure of the pirates. 1 hus far Dacicr ; and Ruauld and other 
critics fay the fame. Yet Strabo (1. xiv. p. 655, 660, 661.) tells us* 
Molo and Apollcnius vvere two difftrtnt mtn. He affirms that they 
-were both natives of Akbanda, a city of Caria ; that they were both 
fcholars of McnacksUhc Alabandian ; and tl.zt thc-y both profelfcd the 
fame art at Rhodes, though Molo went thither later than Apollonius^ 
vho, on that acccur.t, applied to hinn that of Homer, O^t ^jlo^uv, 
Cicero likcwife feems to diftinjruifli them, calling the one Molo, and 
the other Apollcnius the AUbandlan, efpecialiy in his firfl book De 
Craterty where he introduces M. Antonius fpeaking of him thus : " For 
** this one thing I always liked Apollonius the Alabandian ; though lie 
•« taught for mercy, he did not (uflfcr any whom he thought incapable 
•< of making a figure as orators, to iofb their time and labour with 
"•« him, but fent them home, exhorting them to apply thcmfelves to 
»* that art, for which they were,, in his opinion, beft qualified.** 

To folve this difficulty, we are willing to fuppofe, with Ruaiild^ 
that there were two Molo*s, cotemporaries ; for the tefiimonies of 
Suetonius (in Caefare, c. 4.) and of Quintilian (Inftitut. 1. xii. c. 6.) 
ihBt Ccfar and Cicero were pupils to Apollonius Molo, can never be 

C^SAR. 223 

bella was acquitted. Cajfar, however, in acknowledge- 
ment cf the readinefs Greece had fhewn to ferve him» 
aflifled her in her profecution of Publius Antonius for cor- 
ruption. The caufe was brought before Marcus Lucullus, 
prater of Macedonia ; and Caefar pleaded it in fo power- 
ful a manner, that the defendant was forced to appeal to - 
the tribunes of the people j alleging that he was not upon 
equal terms with the Greeks in Greece. 

The eloquence he Ihewed at Rome in defending perfonV- 
impeached, gained him a confiderable intereft, and his 
engaging addrefs and converfation carried the hearts of the- 
people. For he had a condefcenfion not to be expeded 
from fo young a man. At. the fame time, the freedom 
of his table, and the magnificence of his expence, gradually 
increafed his power, and brought him into the adminiflra- 
tion. Thofe who envied him, imigined that his refources 
would foon fail, and therefore, at hrft, made light of his 
popularity^ coniiderablt as it was. . But when it was grown - 
to fuch a height that it was fcarce poflible to demolifh it, 
ftnd had a plain tendency to the ruin of the conftitution, 
they found out, when it was too late, that no beginnings 
of things, however fmall, are to be negledled; becaufe 
continuance makes them great*/ and the very contempt 
they are held. in, gives them opportunity to gain that 
ftrength which cannot be refifted. 

Cicero feems to be the firft who fufpefted fomething 
formidable from the flattering calm of Caefar's political • 
condu6t, and faw deep and dangerous defigns under the ' 
fmiles of his benignity. ** I perceive," faid the orator, 
•* an inclination for tyranny in all he projects and exc- 
'• cutes ; but, on the other hand, when I fee him adjuft- 
'* ing his hair with fo much exaftnefs, and fcratching his 
** head with one finger, I can hardly think that fuch a 
** man can conceive fo vaft and fatal a deiign, as the de- 
*' flrudion of the Roman commonwealth." This, how- 
ever, was an obfervation made at a much later period than 
that we are upon. 

• The firft proof he had of the afFe£^ion of the people, 
was when he obtained a. tribuBefhip in the army before 
his competitor Caius Popilius. The fecond was more 
remarkable : It was on occafion of his pronouncing from 
the roftrum the funeral oration of his aunt Julia, the wife 
of Marius^ in which he failed not to do yiiki^ft \.^\xtx 

L 4 NSsXXikfc- 

424 FLUTAKCH'^a'llTrS;* 

virtue. At the&me tiitie he Kad'the hsrdifiefs to fr6d^^ 
the images of Marias, which had: not been feen befor^ 
during S7lla'8 adminiilration; Mariiid^ and all hisadher* 
rents having been declared enemies to the ftatc. Upon 
this fome began to raife a clamOur agkinil Cedfar-; oat 
they were foon filenccd by the acclamations and plaudits 
^f the people, exprefling their admiration of 'his courage ' 
in bringing the honours of Marias again to light, after lo ' 
lone.a Tuppreflion, and raifing them, as it were, from the*-" 
ihades ibela^r- 

It had long been the cuflom in Rome, for the aged > 
women to have funeral jpanfcgyrics, but not the yoang» - 
Ca;far £rft broke through it, by pronouncing one^ for his 
own wifev who died in her prime* This contributed to^ 
fix him in the aiFe^ioas of the people : ^They fympathized^ 
with him> and confidered hun as a man of great good' 
nature, and one who had the^focial duties at Mart. 

After'thr Ainerar of his wife> he went ovi, ^naeftor int^ ' 
Spain with • AntiiftitisVeter the praetor> whom he honoured 
all his life after ; and when he came to be prsetor him&lfn 
he iicknovt^ledged the ^vour by taking Veter's fon for his 

?nae(lor,^ When that comxnfton was expired, he took 
bmpeia to his third wife ; havfng.a daughter, by his £rft 
wife Cornelia, whom he- afterwards married to Pompey- 
the Great. 

Many people, who oBferved his prodigious expence, 
thought he was pur chafing a fhort and tranfient honour' 
%eTy dear, but, ip fad, he was gaining, the ^reateil thing9 
he could afpire to> at a.fmall price. He is faid to have 
been a thooiand three hundred talents in. debt before he ' 
got any public en^loyment. When. he had the fuperin- 
tendance of the Appian Road, he laid out a great deal of 
his own money; and when aedile, he not only^ exhibited 
three hundred and twenty pair of gladiators, but in the ' 
other diverfions of the theatre, in the procefGons and pub- 
lic tables, he far outihone the mod ambitious that had gone 
before him. Thefe things attached the people to him fo 
llrongly, that every one fought for new honours and em- 
ployments, to recompenfe his generofity. 

There were two fadions m the ftate ; thatofSylla; 
which was the ilrongeft ; and that of Marius. which was 


*-■ See Y£h PatCrcultfty ii. ^ 

in a broken and low condition* Cafar^s ftndy was to » 
raife and revive the latter., In purfuance of which inten- 
tion, when his exhibitions, as 5cdile, were in the higheft 
reputation, he xraufed new imager of'Marius to be pri- 
vately made, together with a repr efcntation of his vic- 
tories adorned -with* trophies j and one night placed them 
in the capitoL Next morning thefc figures were fecn gli- 
ttering witli gold, of the moft exquifitc workmanfhip, and 
bearing infcription« which declared them the achievcmenr^ • 
of Marius againft the Cimbri, The fpedlators were afto- 
nilhedat the boldnefs of txhe man who eredled them ; nor 
was it difficult to know who he was. The report fprtad 
with the utmoft rapidity, and the whole city affembled to 
fee them. Some exclaimed, that Cxfar plainly ufFedcd 
the tyranny, by openly producing thofe honours which 
the iaw3%had condemned to darknefs and oblivion. This, 
they faid, was done to make a trial of the people, whom 
he had prepared by his careflbsi whether they would fuf- 
fer themfelves to be entirely caught by his venal benefac- 
tions, and let him play upon them and make what inno- 
vations he pleafed. On the other hand, the partizans of 
Marius encouraging each other, ran to the capitol in vail 
numbers, and made it echo with their plaudits. Some of 
them even wept for joy at the light of Marius's coun- 
tenance. They beftowed the higheft encomium's upon 
C^far, and declared he was the only relation worthy of/ 
that great man. 

TiiC fenatc v/as afTembled on the occaiion, and Lutatias 
Catuliis, a man of the greatefl reputation in Rome, rofe- 
and accufed Cafar. In his fpeech againft him was this 
memorable expreflioTir *' You no longer attack the com- 
*' monwealth by mines, but by open battery." Caefar, 
however defended his caufe fo welly that tffe fenate^avc 
it for him : And his admirers, ftill more elated, deiired 
him to keep up a fpirit of enterprize, for he might gain 
every thing, with the confent of the people, and caiily be- • 
come the m-il man in Rome/ 

Amid4*: thefe tranfa^lions, died Metellus, the principal' 
pontiff. The office was folicited by Ifauricus and Catulus,. 
two of the moft illuftrious men in Rome, and of the- 
greateft intereft in the fcnate. Neverthelefs, Csefardid. 
not give place to them, but prefented himfelf to tkac 
people as a candidate. The pretenfions and 5r;>{^^QL% ^i 
L 5 ^^^ 

a26 Plutarch's lives. 

the competitors feemed almoft equal, and Catolus* more 
nneafy than the others under the uncertainty of fuccefs, 
on account of his fuperior dignity, fent privately to 
Csdar, and offered him laree fums, on condition that he 
would defift from his high purfuit. But he anfwered, 
** He would rather borrow ilill larger fums to carry his 
^' cleaion," 

When the day of election came, Caefar's mother attend- 
ing him to the door, with her eyes bathed in tears, he 
embraced her and faid, ** My dear motlier, you will fee 
** me this day either chief pontiff or an exile." There 
never was any thing more llrongly contefted; the fuffrages, 
however, gave it for Caefar. The fenate, and others of 
the principal^ citizens, were greatly alarmed at this fuc- 
cefs ; they apprehended that he would now pulh the people 
into all manner of licenttoufnefs and mifrule. Therefore, 
Pifo and Catulus blamed Cicero much for fparing C<cfar, 
when Catiline's confpiracy gave him an opportunity to 
take him off^ Catiline, whofc intention was not fo much 
to make alterations in the conftitution, as entirely to fub- 
vcrt it, and throw all into confufion, upon fome llight fuf-. 
picions appearing againft him, quitted Rome before the 
whole was unravelled ; but he left behind liim Lentulus 
and Cethegus to condud the confpiracy within the city. 

Whether Caefar privately encouraged and fupported 
them, is uncertain: What is univerfally agreed upon, is 
this. The guilt of thofe two confpirators clearly appear- 
ing, Cicero, as conful, took the fenfe of the fenators as 
to the punifhment that fhould be inilidled upon them ; and 
they all gave it for death, till it came to Caefar's turn, 
who, in a ffudied fpeech, reprefcnted, *' That it feemed 
•* neither agreeable to juftice, nor to the cuiloms of their 
** country, to put men of their birth and dignity to death, 
** without an open trial, except in cafe of extreme nccef- 
*' iity. But that they Ihould rather be kept in prifon, in 
*• any of the cities of Italy that Cicero might pitch upon, 
*' till Catiline was fubdued ; and then the fenate might 
^' take cognizance of the crimes of each confpirator ia 
" fiill peace, and at their leifure." 

As there appeared fomething humane in this opinion, 

and it was powerfully enforced by the orator, thofe who 

gave their voices afterwards, and even many who liad 

declared for the other fide of the ^ueftion^ came into it. 

z But, 


But Cato and Catulus carried it for death. Cato, in a 
fevere fpeech againft the opinion of Caeiar> fcrupled not 
to declare his fufpicions of him ; and this, with other 
arguments, had fo much weight, that the two confpirators 
were delivered to the executioner. Nay, as Caefar was 
going out of the fenate houfe, fcveral of the young men, 
^vho guarded Cicero's perfon, ran upon him with their 
drawn fwords; but we are told that Curio covered him 
with his gown, and fo carried him oiF; and that Cicero 
himfelf, when the young men looked at him for a nod of 
confent, refjfed it, either out of fear of the people, or 
becaufe he thought the killing him unjuft and unlawful. 
If this was true, I know not why Cicero did not mention 
it in the hiilory of his confulfhip. He was blamed, how- 
ever, afterwards, for not availing himfelf of fo good an 
opportunity as he then had, and for being influenced by 
his fears of the people, who were indeed ftrongly attached 
to Caefar : For, a few days after, when Caefar entered the ■ 
fenate, and endeavoured to clear himfelf of the fufpicions 
he lay under, his defence was received with indignatioa 
and loud reproaches ; and as they fat longer than ufual, 
the people befet the houfe, and with violent outcries 
demanded Csefar, abfolutely infifling on his being dif- 

Cato, therefore, fearing an infurreftion of the indigent 
populace, who were foremoll in all feditions, and who had 
£xed their hopes upon Caefar, pcrfuaded the fenate to 
order a diflribution of bread-corn among them every 
month, which added five million five hundred thoufand 
drachmas to the yearly expenceof the flate*. This expe- 
dient certainly obviated the prefent danger, by feafonably 
reducing the power of Casfar, who was now praetor eledl, 
and more formidable on that account. 

Caefar 's praetorfhip was not produftive of any trouble to. • 
the commonwealth, but that year there happened a dita- 
greeable event in his own family. There was a young 
patrician, named Publius Clodius, of great fortune, and 
diilinguiflied eloquence, but at the fame time one of the 
foremoft among the vicious and the profligate^ This man 
entertained a paflion for Pompeia, Caefar's wife, nor did 
fhe difcountenance it. But the women's apartment was fo 

narrowly .. 

* Buttbis-diftfibution did not coutitvw VyR^^- 

228 Plutarch's lives. 

uarrQwly obfcrvcd, and all the fteps ofrPompeia (b maclk 
attended to by Aurelia, Caefar's motherj who was a womaok 
of great virtue and prudence, that it was difficult and ha- 
zardous for them to have an interview. 

Anaong the goddefles the Romans worfiiip, there is one 
they call £onal>ea, the good goddefs^ as the Greeks have 
one they call Gymccea^ the fatronefs of the luojnen. The 
Phr}^gians claim her as the mother of their king Midas ; 
the Romans fay, fhe was a Dryad, and wife of Faunus ;. 
and the Greeks aflure as, ihe is that mother of Bacchus, 
whofe name is not to be uttered. For this reafon, the. 
women, when they keep hef:<fcftival, cover their tents witk. 
vine branches -, and, according to the fable, a facred dra- 

fon lies at the feet of the goddefs. No man is allowed to 
e prefent, nor even to be in the houfe, at the celebration: 
of her orgies. Many of the ceremonies the women then 
perform by themfelvcs, are faid to be like tliofe in the. 
fcafts of Orpheus. 

When the annfverfary of the feftival comes , the confuL 
or praetor (for it is at the houfe of one of them it is kept) 
goes out, and not a male is left in it. The wife now hav-. 
riig the houfe to herfelf, decorates it in a proper manner ; 
the mylleries are performed in^the night ; and the whole is 
fpent in mufic and play, Ppmpeia this year was the direc- 
trefs of the fo^^i^i^ Clodius, who was yet a bcardlefs youth, 
thought he might pafs in women's apparel undifcovered,. 
and having tafen the garb r^nd inftrumcnts of a female mu- 
iician, pcrfeftly refemblcd one. He found the door open, . 
and was fafely introduced by n maid-fervant who knew the 
affair. She ran before to tell Pompeia ; and as flie flayed.' 
a cQnfiderable time, Clodius durft not remain v/here flie . 
left him, but wandering about the great houfe, endeavour- 
ing to avoid the lights. At laft, Aurelia's woman fell in; 
with him, and fuppofmg Ihe fpoke to a woman, chal- 
lenged him to play. Upon his refufing it, fhe drew him 
into the midd of the room, and. afked him who he was, 
and whence be came ? He faid, he waited ftr Abra, Pem- 
-peia's maid ; for that was her name. His voice imme- 
diately detected him ; Aurelia's woman ran up to the lights 
ani the -company, crying out ihe had found a man in the 
houfe. The thing ftruck them all with terror and,afto- 
l^fiutnfnt; Aurelia put a Hop to the ceremonies, and 
covered up the fy robols of their my^rious worlbip. She 

ordered _ 

ordered the doors to bemadtfaft, and with lightett torches^ 
hunted up and down for the man. At length ClodUis was 
found, lurking in the chamber, of. the maid-fervant who-; 
had introduced him. The women knew himr and turned/, 
him out of th« houfe; after which, they went home im-- 
mediately, though it was yet night,. and informed theic 
hulb.inds of what had happened. . 

Next morning the report of. the facrilegious-attcmpr'^ 
ipread through all Rome^ and nothing was talked of, 'but . 
that Clodius ought to make fatisfadtion with his life to the 
family he hadvoftended, as well as to. the city, and to the. • 
gods.. One of the tribunes impeached. him of impiety; : 
and the principal fenators ftrengthcned the charge, by ac- 
cufmg him, to his face, of many villainous, debaucheries, , 
and, among the reft, of inceft with hi& own fifter, the wife 
of Lucidlus. Oathe other hand, the people exerted- 
themfelves with equal vigour in his dej^ce, and the great ■ 
influence the fear of them' had . upon his judges, was of ~ 
much fervice to his caufe. Caefar immediately divorced-* 
Pompeia ; yet, when called as an evidence on the trial, he ' 
dficlared he knew, nothing, of. what was alleged againlt- 
Glodius. As this declaration appeared fomewhat ftrange,' , 
tie accufer demanded, why, if that wa^ the cafe, he had \ 
divorced his wife: ** Becaufe," faid he, " I would have the • 
" • chaility of my wife clear even of fufpicion." Some (ay. 
Citfar's evidence was according to his confcience ; others, . 
that he gave it to oblige the people, who were fet upon » 
faving Clodius. Be that as it might, Clodius came off 
dear.; moil of the judges having confounded * the letters- 

upon i 

* Here it is av^'my^vy.ifsa^ roif- ir^xyf4,et<ri tjk yva^af; M. Da- - 
cier would corred hy this the paffage in the life of Cicero^ which is 
rcoi ^tXra^ vvyy.i^vfjisfak; Toiq y^otf/i,lJi,a,^i' • Ut tr^ndutcsitj /a p/upart ' 
des juges ay ant donne Uun amis fur plufieun eff/irn en mime tnnr j (be* 
greateft fart- of the judges cemprehetuiifig other caufis akrg^ with this in their 
jentence. But tlac could not be the cafe 5 for that manner of pa Qing 
fentence, or rather of paiAnj^ billt, was forbicWen by the Lex Caecilia ^ 
et Didia. Befidcs»,>it would bo t have anfwcrcd thypui-pofe : Their 
fentence would have been equally known.- We therefore rather choofe -• 
to correal this paffagcby that in the Life of Cicero.. 

After the pleadings werefinifhed, thepraetor gave each of the judges ' 
three tablets -y one marked with the letter ^, which acquitted j an9ther. 
with the letter C, which condemned, and a third with N. L* Nen 
Liquet J the cafe is not clear. Each judge put into an urn which tablet*^ 
fee pleafed : And as they withdrew to confult before thc^ ^d\x^ v\.h«^'v 


upon the tablets, that they might neither expoie themfelves 
to the refentment of the plebeians, if they condemned 
him, nor lofe their credit witJi the patricians, if they ac- 
quitted him. 

I'hc government of Spain was allotted Ciefar after his 
priBtorfhip. But his circumftances were fo indifferent, and 
his creditors fo clamorous and troublelome when he was 
preparing for his departure, that he was forced to apply 
to Crali'us, the richell man in Rome, who Hood in need of 
Ca2far's warmth and vigour to keep up the balance againfl: 
Pompey, Crafius, therefore, took upon him to anfwer 
the moll inexorable of his creditors, and engaged for eight 
hundred and thirty talents ; which procured him liberty 
to fet out for his province. 

It ia faid, that when lie came to a little town, in paffing 
the Alps, his friends, by way of mirth, took occafion to = 
fa,y, *' Can thertf here be any difputes for offices, any 
*' contentions for precedency, or fuch envy and ambi- 
'* tion as we fee among the great:*' To wliich Carfar 
anfwered, with great fcriodiuefs, '* I aflUre you, I had 
'*, rather be the hrll man here, than the fccond man in 
*«• Rome." 

In like manner we are told, that when he was in Spain, . 
he bellowed fome leifure hours on reading part of .the 
hiilory of Alexander, and was fo much alfe«^ed with it, . 
that he fat penlive a long time, and at lall burft out into 
tears. As his friends were wondering what might be tlie 
reafon, he faid, '* Do you think Ihave not fulUcieat caufe 
**• for concern, w hen Alexander at my age reigned over fo 

•* many 

cafy to deface or obfcure any letters upon the tablets, becaufe they 
were only vrritten in wax. 

Still there occurs this objcftfon. Would the praetor who was to count 
them, and pafs Centence according to the majority, admit of tablets . 
with letters fo defaced orobfcured ? A corrupt one, indeed, might, and 
interpret them the way he waA intlincd. But as Plutarch does not 
fay ohfcured^ but arvyiti^t^iixq. confufed^, poillbly he only meant that - 
the judges, jnflead of putting tablets' all marked with the fame letter, 
put in fcveral of each kind, in order to prevent the difplcafure of th« • 
fcnatc or the people from fixing upon any of them in particular. 

^ It was the government of the farther Spain only that fell to his lot. 
This province compreliended Ltidtania and Baetica ; that is, Portugal * 
and Andalufia. Cauiabon fuppofed the word ncro^ to have flipt cut 
of the text between rr.v and iCt^^iay ;. but it is not a matter pf imt. - 
poruncc eaou^h to aJux the text for it. . 

" many conquered countries, and I have not one glorious 
'* achievement to boaft f ** 

From thb principle it was, that immediately upon his 
arrival in Spain he applied to bufmefs with great diligence, 
and having added ten new raifed cohorts to the twenty hr 
received there, he marched againft the Calla^ians * and 
JLuiitanians, defeated them, and penetrated to the ocean, 
reducing nations by the way that had not felt the Roman 
yoke. His condudl in peace was not inferior to that in the 
war ; he reftored harmony among the cities, and removed 
the occafions of quarrel between debtors and creditors. 
For he ordered that the creditor fliould have two-thirds of. 
the debtor's income, and the debtor the remaining third, 
till the whole was paid. By thefe means he left the pro- 
vince with great reputation, though he had filled hib own 
coffers, and enriched his foldiers with booty, who, upon, 
one of his vidories, faluted him Impcrator. 

At his return he found himfelf under a troublefoine 
dilemma : Thofe that folicit a triumpli bcin^ obliged to ■ 
remain without the walls, and fuch as fue for liic t;oniul- 
fhip, to make their perfonal appearance in Rome. As 
thefe were things that he could not reconcile, . and his ar- 
rival happened at the time of the eledlion of confuls, he 
applied to the fenate for pcrmiffion to ftand candidate, . 
though abfent, and offer his fervice by his friends. Cato 
flrongly oppofed his requell, infilling on the prohibition 
by law ; and when he faw numbers iniiacnced by Ca^far, 
he attempted to prevent his fuccefs by gaining time ; with 
which view he ipun out the debate till it was too late to 
conclude upon any thing that day. Cxfar then determined 
to %\\Q up the triumph, and folicit the confullhip. 

As foon as he had entered the city, he went to^ork. 
upon an expedient which deceived all the world except 
Cato. It was the reconciline of Pompey and CrafTus, two 
of the moil powerful men in Rome. By making; them 
friends, Casiar fecured the interell. of both to himfelf; 
and while he feemed to be only doing an ofhce of. hu? 
maniiy, he was undermining the conftitution. For it was 
not, what mofl people imagine, the difagreement between, 
Csefar and Pompey that produced, the civil wars, but rather. 


^ In the text KotM^uj^C* Cniftrin^ renders it Gall^KQt \ b^l^ ^^* 
carding to CelUiius; he is under a millak^. 

0^2 PturARCH^S LIVES. 

their. uniOn> they firft combined to ruin the authiOTity of 
the fenate, and when that wa$ efFefted, they parted to 
piurfue each his own d«figiis. Cato, who often prophefied 
what'would be the confequenee, was then looked upon as 
a- troublefonHJ'and over-bufy man; afterwards he was 
cileemed a wif€> though not a fortunate counfellor. 

Meantime Caifar walked to the place of eledion between 
Graflus and Fompey ; and, under the aufpices of their 
ftiendfhip, was declared conful, with dilhnguifhed honour^ • 
having Calpurnius Bibulus given him for his colleague. 
He had no fooner entered upon his office, than he pro- 
pored laws not lb fuitable to a conful, as to a feditious tri- 
bune ; I mean the biDs for a divifion of lands and a dillri- 
bution of corn, wiiicli were entirely calculated to pleafe 
the plebeians. As the virtuous and patriotic part of the " 
fenate oppofed them, he was furnifhed with the pretext he 
had long wanted : He proteiled with great warmth, " That 
•' they threw him into the awns of the people againft his 
** will, and that the rigorous and difgracefui oppofitioB of* 
*•" the fenate, laid him under the disagreeable necelfity of 
•* feeking protedion from the commons." Accordingly. 
he did immediately apply to them, • 

Craflus planted himlelf on one fide of him, and Pompcy ' 
on the other. • He demanded of them aloud, ** Whether 
•• tliey approved his laws ?'* and,- as they anfwered in the 
affirmative, he delircd their- affillance againft thofe who ' 
threatened to oppote them with the fword. They declared 
they would ailiil him; and Pompey added," Againft 
•' thofe wno come with the fword, I will bring both iword 
*' and buckler." This expreftion gave the patricians 
great pain : It appeared not only unworthy of his cha- 
racter, the reipedl the fenate had for him, and the reve- 
rence due to them, but even defperate and frantic. The 
people, however, were pleafed with it* - 

Caifar was willing to avail himfelf ftill farther of Pom- • 
pey's intejref:.* His daughter Julia was betrothed to Ser- 
vilius Csepio> but notwithftanding; that engagement, he 
^ve ber to Pompcy ; and told Servilius he mould have 
rdmpey's daughter^ whofe hand was not properly at li- 
berty, for (he was promifed to Fauftus the Ion of Sylla.— 
Soon after this, Cxfar married Calpurnia, the daughter* 
of Plfo, and procured the confulflup for Pifo for the year 
enfciing. Meanwhile Cato exclaimed Idudly againft thefe 

(N. D. lygv") 

C'jE'SAlfi ' 2551 

proceedings, and called both gods and men to witnefsV • 
how unfiipportable it was, that the firft dignities of the ' 
ftate Ihould be proftituted by marriages, and that this' 
traffic of women Ihould gain them what governments* 
and forces they pleafed.- 

As for Bibulus, Cajfar*s colleague, when he found his ' 
oppofition to their new laws entirely unfbccefsful, and 
that his life, as well as Cato's, was often endangered in^ 
the public aftbmblieS, he fhut himfelf up in his own houfc * 
during the remainder of the yearr 

Immediately after this marriage, Pompey filled ihc/hrum ' 
^th armed men, and -got the law5 enacted, which C.tfaT- " 
had propofed merely. to ingratiate himfelf with the people. 
At the fame time the government of Gaul, both on this ' 
and the otherfide the Alps, was decreed to Caefar for five' 
years ', to which was added* Illy ricam, with foiir legions* • 
As Cato fpoke againfl thefe regulations, Caefar ordered him ' 
to be taken -into cuftody, imagining he would appeal to ' 
the tribunes. But when he faw him going to prison with* 
6tit fpeaking one word, and obferved that it not only gave 
the nobility great uneafinefs, but that the people, out of 
reverence for Cato*s virtue, followed him in melancholy 
filence, he whifpered one of th& tribunes to take him out • 
of the HSIon^ hands. 

Very-few of the body of fenatbl-s fbllowed Caefar on this ' 
occafion to the houfe. The greateft part, offended at fuch • 
a<fts of tyranny, had withdrawn.* Conlidius, one of the ' 
oldeft fenators that attended,^ taking occafion to obferve, 
*' That it was the foldiers and naked fwords that kept the 
** refl from affembling,'** Cifar faid', ** Why does not fear- 
" keep you at home too ?" Confidius replied, " Old age * 
♦^ is my defence ;- the fmall remains of my life deferve not'' . 
*' much care or precaution.*' 

The moft difgraceful flep, however, that Caefar took in * 
his whole, feonfullhip; was the getting Clodius dedted tri- 
bune of the people ; the fame who^ had attempted to dif- 
honour his bed, and had profaned the myllerious rites of 
the Good Goddefs. He pitched upon him to ruin Cice* 
ro ; nor would he fet out for Ijis government, before he" = 
had embroiled 'them, and procured Cicero's banilhment,; 
For hillory informs us, that all thefe t ran fa 6lions preceded 
his wars in Gaul. The wars he conduded there, and thd 
many glorious campai j]|;is ia^wliick he reduced \ivsL\.<:.Ci\wsX\>} ^ 

^34 Plutarch's lives. 

rcprefcnt him as another man : Wc begin, as it were, witfr 
a new life, and have to follow him in a quite different 
track. As a warrior and a general, we behold him not in 
the leafl inferior to tltc greateil and moil admired com- 
manders the world ever produced. For whether we com- 
pare him with the Fabii, the Scipios, and Metolli, with, 
the generals of his own time, or thofe who flour iOied a littie- 
before him, with Sylla, Marius, tlie two Luculli, or with 
Pompcy hirafelf, whofe fame in every military excellence 
reached the fkies, Cicfar's achievements bear away the 
palm. One he furpafled in the difficulty of the fcene of 
adlion, another in the extent of ths countries he fubdued; 
this, in the number and llrcngth of tlie enemies he over- 
came, thai, in the favage manners and treacherous dif- 
pofition of the people he humanized ; one, in mildnefs 
and clemency to his prifoners, another, in bounty and 
munificence to his troops ; and all, in the number of battles 
that he won, and enemies that he killed. For in lefs than 
ten years war in Gaul, he took eight hundred cities by 
aifault, conquered three hundred nations, and fought 
pitched battles at different times with three millions of 
men, one million of which he cut in pieces, and made 
another million prifoners. 

Such, moreover, was the afFedlion of his foldiers, and 
their attachment to his pcrfon, tliat they who under other 
commanders were nothing above the common rate of men, 
became invincible where Ca;far's glory was concerned, and 
met the moll dreadful dangers with a courage that nothing 
could refill. To eive three or four inftances ; 

Acilius, in a fta-light near Marfeilles, after he had 
boarded one of the enemy's fliips, had his right-hand cut 
pfF with a fword, yet he Hill held his buckler in his left, 
and puihed it in the enemy's faces, till he defeated them, 
and took the veffel. 

Caflius Sc^va, in the battle of Dyrrhachium, after he 
had an eye fliot out with an arrow, his fhoulder wounded 
with one javelin, his thigh run through with another, and 
^ad received a hundred and thirty darts upon his Ihield *, 

called . 

• Caefar (Bell. Civ, l.ii\.) fays^ this brave foldier received two hon- 
dred and thirty darts upon hU fliield, and adds, that he rewarded tiis 
bravery with two hundred thoufand fcfterces» and promoted h inn from 
the eighth rank to the fir(). He likwife ordered the foldiers of that. 
fioAort double pay, befide other miUiav;! YCH»wd«i». 

CJESAR. 235 

Called otit to the enemy, as if he would furrender Innfelf. 
Upon this, two of them came up to liim, and he ^avc one 
of them fuch a ftrolcc upon the flioulder with his I'word that 
the arm dropt off; the other he wounded in the face, and 
made him retire. His comrades then came up to his afiitl- 
ance, and he faved his life. 

In Britain, fome of the vanguard happened to be en- 
tangled in a deep morafs, and were there attacked by the 
enemy, when a private foldicr, in the fight of Ca;far, 
threw himfelf into tlie midfl of the aflailants, and after 
prodigious exertions of valour, beat off the barbarians, 
and refcued the men. After which, the foldier with much 
difficulty, partly by fwimming, partly by wading, palTed 
the morafs, but in the paffage loit his Ihield. Cajfar, and 
thofe about him, aftonifhed at the adlion, ran to meet him 
with acclamations of joy ; but the foldier, in great diflrefs, 
threw himfelf at Cajfar's feet, and with tears in his eyes 
Pegged pardon for the lofs of his fhield. 

In Africa, Scipio having taken one of Caefar's fhips, 
on board of which was Graniiis Petronius, lately appointed 
quaeilor, put the refl to the fword, but told the quaeflor, 
«* He gave him his life." Petronius anfwered, " It is 
** not the cuflom of Caefar's foldiers to take but to give 
•* quarter,*' and immediately plunged his fword in his 

This courage, and this great ambition, were cultivated 
and cherifhed, in the firfl place, by the generous manner in 
which Caefar rewarded his troops, and the honours which 
he paid them. For his whole conduct lhewed» that he did 
not accumulate riches in the courfe of his wars, to minifler 
to luxury, or to ferve any pleafures of his own, but that he 
laid them up in a common bank, as prizes to be obtained 
by diflinguifhed valour, and that he confidercd himfelf no 
farther rich, than as he was in a condition to do juftice to 
the merit of his foldiers. Another thing that contributed 
to make them invincible, was their feeing Caefar always 
take his (hare in danger, and never defire any exemptioa 
from labour and fatigue. 

As for his expofing his perfon to danger, they were not 
furprized at it, becaufe they knew his paflion for glory ; 
but they were ailonifhed at his patience under toil, fo far 
in all appearance above his bodily powers. For he was 
of a flendcr make, fair, of a delicate conftliuti^xi, ^xA. 

■ '■ . ■ 1 

libje& to yiolent head-achs and epileptic 6u. He t«/' 
^ firft attack of the., fklliiig ficknefs at Corduba. H^" 
did not, however, make thefe diforders a pretence for in-' 
dttlging himfelf. On the contrary, he tought in war % 
itmedy.for his infirmities, endeavouring to ftr^ngthenMs* 
conftitution by long marches, by fitnple diet, by feldom' 
cbrriing nnder covert. Thus he contended with hisdiftem-i 
per, and fortified himfelf againft its attacks. 

When he flept it was commonly upon a march, either' 
in a chariot or a litter, that reft might be no hinderance to ' 
buiinefs*. In the day-time he viiited the caflles, cities, * 
and fortified camps, with a fervant at his (ide; whom he 
einployed, on fuch occaiions, to write for him, and with 
ft'ioldier behind* who carried his fword. By thefe meilns 
he travelled fo feft, and with fo little interruption, as to' 
reach the Rhone in eight dayrafter his firil fetting oq& for*' 
thofe parts from Rome« - , 

He was a good horfeman in his early years, and broughf^ 
that exercife to fuch perfe£tion by practice, that he could * 
fit a horfe at full ipeed with his hands behind him. In this 
expedition he alfo accuftomed himfelf to di£iate letters as 
hi? rode oh horfeback^ and f^und fufficient employment 
for two fecretarics at once, or, according to Oppius, for' 
more. It is* alfo faid that Gaefar was the firil who conv 
trived to communicate his thoughts by letter to his friendsi 
who were in the fame city with him, when any urgent af- 
fair required it, and the multitude of bufinefs or great ex»-' 
tent of the city did not admit of an interview. 

Of his indifference with rcfpe£l to diet they give us this* 
remarkable proof. Happening to fup with Valerius Leo, 
a* friend of hi», at Milan* there was fweet ointment poured •' 
trpon the afparagu^^ inftcad of oil* Caefar eat of it freely^ 
notwithHanding, and afterwards- rebuked his friends for 
cicpreffing their diflike of it. ** It was enough," faid he, 
" to f6l-bear eating, if it w^s difagreeable to you. He 
^ who finds fault with any ruilictty> is himfelf a ruftic.*' 

One day; as he was upon aft excurlionv* a*vioknt'ftorm 
forted him to feek iheiter in' a poor man*B hut,' where • 
there was only one room, and that fcardc bi| eiidugh for a 
man to deep in;* Turning'^ therefore, to his friends, he 
(kid, '• Honours for the great, and necefiaries for the 
** iaficm,'^ and -immediatly g^vc up the room to Oppius-, 


.while himfelf and the reft of the company flcpt under a 
filed at the door. 

His firft expedition in Gaul was againft the Helvetians . 
and the Tigurini; who, after having burnt twelve of 
their own towns and four hundred villages, put themfelves 
under march, in order to penetrate into Italy, through that 
part of Gaul whica was ^ubjed to the Romans, as the 
Cimbri and Tentones would Jiave done before them. Not 
were thefc new adventurers xofcrior to the other in courage ; 
and in numbers they were equal; being in all three hun- 
dred thoufand, of which a hundred and ninety thoufand 
were fighting men. C<efar fent his lieutenant, Labienus> 
againft the Tigurini, who routed them near the river 
Arar. "But the Helvetians fuddenly attacked. Cajfar, as he 
was upon the march to a coijfedei^ate townf.. He gained^ 
however, a ftrong poft for his troops, notwithftanding the 
furprize ; and when he had drawn them up, his horfe waa 

. brought him. Upon which he faid,^* When I have won 
*' the battle I fhall want ray iiorfe;for the purfuit; at pre- 

. *' fcnt let us march, as we are, againft the enemy." Ac- 
cordingly he charged them with great vigour on footj. 
It coft him a long and fevere conflid to drive their army 

.out of the field; but he^found the greateft difiiculty whea 
he came to their 4-ampart of xaruiages ; ,ibr not only the 
men made a moft obftinate ftand there^ bjut the very wome^ 
and children fought tillthey were cut in pieces; infomucii 
that the battle did not end before midnight 

To this great; adion he added a ftill greater. He col- 

Jefted the- barbarians who had efcaped out of the battle, 

.to the number of an hundred thoufand, and upwards, and 
obliged them to refettle the country they had reliqui{he4, 
and to rebuild the cities they had burnt. This he did, ift 

.fear that if the country were left without inhabitants^ tbe 

..Germans would pafs the Rhine^ and feize it. 


* Casfar fays himfelf, that' be left L^bienus to guar<l the works he 
had raifed from the Lake of Geneva to Mount Jura, and that he marcb- 
. id in peifon, at the head of three legions, to attack the Tiguml in their 
.paflfage over the Arar, , now tl^e S^one, ^nd ^^kd great number&Qf 
•f* Bibraflc, now Aohin. 

X He fent back his horfe, and the reft followed his exannple. This 
he did to prevent all hopes of a retreat, as well as to ihew his troQ^^L 
jja^X he would take his Oxare in all the danger. V'vd^^U, Oi^.>Vv 

238 plutakch's lives. 

His fecond war was in defence of the Gaola againft ths |bi 
Germans, though he had before honoured their kine 
Arioviftus with the title of an ally of Rome. They proved 
infupportable neighbours to thofe he had fubdued, and it 
was eafy to fee, that inflead of being fatisfied with their 
prefent acquifitions, if opportunity offered, they woidd 
extend their conqucfls over all Gaul. lie found, however, 
hb ofHcers, particularly thofe of the youn? nobility, afraid 
of this expedition; for they had entered into Caefar's fer- 
vice only in hopes of living luxurioufly, and making their 
fortunes. He therefore called them together, aud told 
them, before the whole army, " That they were at liberty 
** to retire, and needed not hazard their perfons as^infl 
•* their inclination, fmce they were fo unmanly and fpirit- 
" lefs. For his part, he would march with the tenth 
•* legion only againft thofe barbarians j for they were nei- 
** ther better men than the Cimbrians, nor was he a worfe 
** general than Marius.'* Upon this the tenth legion de- 
puted fome of their corps to thank him. The other legions 
laid the whole blame upon their ofHcers, and all followed 
him with great fpirit and alacrity. After a march of fe- 
veral days, they encamped within two hundred furlongs 
of the enemy. 

Caefar's arrival broke the confidence of Arioviftus. 
Inftead of expeding that the Romans would come and 
attack him, he had fuppofed they would not dare to ftand 
the Germans, when they went in queft of them. He was 
much furprized, therefore, at this bold attempt of Caefar, 
and, what was w^orfe, he faw his own troops were dif- 
heartened. They were difpirited flill more by the prophe- 
cies of their matrons who had the care of divining, and 
ufed to do it by the eddies of rivers, the windings, the 
murmurs, or other ncife made by the llream. On this oc- 
cafion they charged the army not to give battle before the 
new moon appeared. 

Caefar having got information of thefe matters,, and 
feeing the Germans lie clofe in their camp, thought it 


♦ The JE6\ii Implored his protcflion agalnA Arioviftus, kinj; of the 
GermanS) who, taking advantage of the differences which had lonj; 
fubfiHed between them and the Arvemi, had joined the latter, made 
himfelf maAcr cf great part of the country of tne Sequani, and obliged 
the /Edul to give him tieir children as hoftage*. The /Sdoi were the 
pcop)e of Autun; the Avemi of Awergoci and Uie Sequani of 
FrancliG Comtc. Cau BcH. GalU Ub. 1. 

CJESAR, 139 

>etter*to engage them while thus deje£led, than to fit ftill 
md wait their time. For this reafon he attacked their en- 
:renchments and the hills upon which they were poftcd ; 
ivhich provoked them to fuch a degree, that they defcended 
in great fury to the plain. They fought, and were entirely 
routed. Caefar purfued them to the Rhine, which was 
three hundred furlongs from the field of battle*, covering 
all the way with dead bodies and fpoils. Arioiiftus reached 
the river time enough to get over with a few troops. The 
number of killed is faid to have amounted to eighty thou- 

After he had thus terminated the war, he left his army 
in winter-quarters in the country of the Sequani, and 
repaired to Gaul, on this fide the Po, which was part of 
his province, in order to have an eye upon the tranfac- 
tions in Rome. For the river Rubicon parts the reft of 
Italy from Cilalpine Gaul. During his ftay there, he 
carried on a variety of ftate-intrigues. Great number* 
came from Rome to pay their refpeds to him, and he fent 
them all away fatistied ; fome laden, with prefents, and 
others happy in hope. In the fame manner throughout all 
his wars, without Pompey's obferving it, he was con- 
quering his enemies by the arms of the Roman citizens, 
and gaining the citizens by the money of his enemies. 

As foon as he had intelligence that the Belgae, wh« 
were the moft powerful people in Gaul, and whole terri- 
tories made up a third part of the whole country, had 
revolted and aiTembled a great army, he marched to that 
quarter with incredible expedition. He found them ra- 
vaging the lands of thofe Gauls who were allies of Rome, 
defeated the main body, which made but a feeble refill- 
ance, and killed fuch numbers, that lakes and rivers were 
£lled with the dead, and bridges were formed of their 
bodies. Such of the infurgents as dwelt upon the fea- 
coaft, furrender?d without oppofition. 

From thence he led his army againft the Nervii f , who 
live among thick woods. After they had fecurcd their 
families and moft valuable goods, in the beft manner the^ 
could, in the heart of a large foreft, at a great diftance 
from the enemy, they marched, to the number of fixty 


* Caelar fays, it was only five miles from the field of battle; there- 
fore, inftead of Tp««xe^*«?, we fiiould re^id Ttccra^xinifTCfc. 
f Their rownrr/ /« now called HainaoU and CattiVjt^^^% 

\ thoufand, ^nd fell upon Caefar, as he was fortifyine his 

^ camp« ^d had aot the leafl notioa q£ fo fuch an attack *• 

They firfl routed his cavalry, and then furrounded the 

. twelfth and feventh legions, and killed all the ofHcers. 

• Had not Cxfar fnatched a bucjder from one of his own 

, men, forced his way through the combatants before him* 

. and ruilied upon (he barbarian <^ ; or had not the tenth 

, legion t» .feeing his .danger, rui. ^rom the heights where 

they were pofted, and mowed do n the enemy's ranks, 

in all proMoility not one Roman ». ould have furvived 

. the battle* . But though encouraged by this bold a£l; of 

^Csefer, they fpught with a fpirit above their ilrength, 

■they were not able to make the Nervii turn their backy* 

Thofe brave men maintained their ground, and were 

hewed to pieces upon the fpot. It. is faid that out of fixty 

. thoufand not above five hundred were faved, and out of 

/^four hundred Neryian fenators not above three. 

Upon the news pf this great victory, the fenate of 

vRome decreed that facrihces fliould be ojFered, and all 

manner of feflivities Jcept up, for fifteen days together, 

which was a longer term of rejoicing than had ever been 

known before. Indeed, the danger appeared very great, 

.on account of fo many nations rifmg at once; and at 


* As this attack was un<nrpe£led,vCagfar 1»ad, in a manner, every 
thing to do at the fame inftant. The banner was to he erefVed, ih€ 

, charge founded, the foldiers ata didance recalled, the army drawn up, 
and the fi ^nal given. In this furprise he ran from f^ce to pUcCt 
exhorting his men to rcmemher their former valour j and having drawn 

.them up in the bcfl manner he could, caufcd the fignal to be given* 
The ltrf;tonaries made a vigorous refiAance ) but as the enemy feemed 
determined either to conquer or die, the fuccefs was different in dif- 
ferent places. In the left uing the ninth and the tenth legions did 
wonders, drove the A trebacts into a neighbouring river, and made a 
great flaughter of them. In another place the eight and eleventli 
legions repulfed the Vermandoi, and drove them before them. But in 
the right winjj the feventh and twelfth legions -fuffered extremely. 
They were entirely furrounded by theKervii, all the centurions of tlic 
fourth cohort being -ilain, and moii of the other officers wounded. In 
this extremity, Cicfar fnatdied a buckler from, one of the private ment 
put himftlf at the head of his broken wing, ^nd being. joined by t\}e 
two legions which he bad left to guard the baggage, fell u^n the 
Nervii, already fatigued, with freih vigour, .and m^e a dreadful havoc 

f In the original it Is the twelfth ; but it appears from the fecood 
book of Caefar's Commentaries, that we /hould read here ^Ketr^a 

^ot MiHurof* Indeed thc.Parls m^ufcript has hnarQif* 

CiESAR. 241 was tlie man who fur mounted it, the affeflion the. 
people had for him made the rejoicing more brilliant. After 
he had fettled the affairs of Gaul, on the other iide the 
Alps, he crolTed them again, and wintered near the Po, 
in order to maintain his interell in Rome; where the can- 
didates for the great offices of ftate were fuppUed with 
money out of hia funds to corrupt the people, and after 
they had carried their eledion, did everything to extend 
his power. Nay , the greatelt and moft illullrious perfonaget 
went to pay their court to him at Lacca, among whom 
were Pompey, CrafTus, Appius, governor of Sardinia, 
and Ncpos, proconful in Sp^in. So that there were « 
hundred and twenty liftors attending their mafters, and 
above two hundred fenr^tors honoured him with their affi- 
duities. After they had fixed upon a plan of bufincfs, 
they parted. Pompey and CrafTus were to be confuls the enfuing, and to get Cscfar's government prolonged 
•for five years more, with fupplies out of the treafury for 
his occafions. The laft particular appeared extremely 
abfard to all men of fenfe. The^ who received fo much 
of Cxfar's money, perfuaded the ienate to give him monejr, 
as if he was in want of it; or rather, they infilled it 
ihould be done, and every honeft man fighed inwardly 
while he fufFered the decree to pafs. Cato, indeed, wa» 
abfent, having been lent with a comfhiffion to Cyprus on 
purpofe that he might be out of the way. But Favonius, 
who trod in Cato's (Icps, vigoroufly oppofed thofe mea* 
fures; and when he found that his oppofition availed 
nothing, he left the houfe, and applied to the people, ex* 
claiming againfl fuch pernicious counfels. No one, how- 
ever, attended to him ; fome bein? over-awed by Pompey 
and Craffus, and others influenced by regard for Caifar, in 
whofe fmile alone they lived and all their hopes fiqurifhed. 
Cxfar, at his return to his army in Gaul, fbnnd another 
furious war lighted up in the country ; the Uiipetes and 
the Tcuchtcri*, two great German nations, having crofTed 


* Tiie people of the March aod of Weflphalia, and thofe of Mundsr 
and Ckves. 

•' This war happened under the confiiKhip of CrafTus and Pompey, 
which was in the year of RoiViC 6^3. But there were feveral inter- 
mediate tn«nfafti< ns of great importance, which Plut.irch has omitted^ 
vIe. The reduf^lon of the Advatici by Cacfar^ cf ttvctv ovVvtt vvMXotA 
by P. Ctaffus, tl)e fon of the Critimvir ^ offtr* ot tu>irft\ffvati Ixwa^c^t.- 

^4^ . Plutarch's lives. 

the Rhine to make conquefls. The account of the affalx 
with them we (hall take from Caefar's own Commenuries*. 
Thefe barbarians fent deputies to him to propofe a furpen^ 
fioh of arras, which was granted them. Neverthelefs 
they attacked him as he was makbg an excurfion. With 
only ei^ht handred horfe, however, who were not pre- 
pared for an engagement, hs beat their cavalry, which 
confiiled of five thoufand. Next day they fent other depu- 
ties to apologize for what had happened, but without 
any other intention than that of deceiving him again. 
Thefe agents of theirs he detained, and marched imme- 
diately againfl them; thinking it abfiird to (land upon 
lonour with fuch perfidious men, who had not fcrupled 
to violate the truce. Yet Canufms writes, that when the 
fenate were voting a public thankfgiving and proceilions 
on account of the vidory, Cato propofed that Csefar ihould 
be delivered up to the barbarians, to expiate that breach 
of faith, and make the divine vengeance fall upon its 
author, rather than upon Rome. 

Of the barbarians that had pafTed the Rhine, there were 
four hundred thoufand killed. The few who efcaped, 
repafied the river, and were iheltered by a people of Ger- 
many called Sicambri. Caelar laid hold on this pretence . 
againil that people, but his true motive was an avidity of 
fame> to be the firfl Roman that ever croffed the Rhine in 
an hoftile manner. In purfuance of his defign, he threw 
a bridge over it, though it was remarkably wide in that 
place, and at the fame time fo rough and rapid, that it 
carried down with it trunks of trees, and other timber, 
which much fhocked and weakened the pillars of his bridge. 
But he drove great piles of wood into the bottom of the 
river above the bridge, both to refifl the impreflion of 
fuch bodies, and to break the force of the torrent. By thefe 
means he exhibited a fpedacle aflonifhing to thought, fo 
immenfe a bridge finifhed in ten days. His army pafTed 
. over it without oppofition, the Suevi and the Sicambri, 
ih^ mofl warlike nations in Germany, having retired into 


. xal nations beyond the Rhine ; the attempt upon Galba in his winter 

/quarters at O^lodurus, and his brave defence and vi^ory ; the fevere 
chaftifement of the Veneti, who had revolted ; and the complete reduc- 
tion of Aquitaine. Thefe parifcujars are contained in part of the 

. fecond and the whole third book of the war in Gaul. 

* Unauld jofUy obfervet, ■ that Plutarch (hpuld not have called the 

-JQ^mmeotzriCi tfiiit(*hjf aih^Aow V^eu^V^vX i>«o^vnv.»'v«« \%, «(ua 

C1E.SKK. %4S 

Ih^he^rt df their (ordis, and concealed theidrelvef in ca- 
nities overhung with wood. He laid wafte the enemy's 
country with fire^ and confirmed the better dirpofed Ger- 
mans in the intereft of Rome*^ after which lie retomei 
into Gaul« having; fpent no more than eighteen days in 

But his expedition into Bfitain rdiicbvered the mo(l 
daring fpirit of enterprize. For he was the firft who 
entered the weflern ocean Avith a.£cetj and embarkine^his 
troops on the Atlantic, carried war into an ifland. whole 
very exiilence was doubted. Some writers had reprefented 
it fo incredibly large, . that others conteded its being, and 
coniidered 430th the -name and the thing as a fiction. Yft 
CstCsLT attempted to conquer it« and to extend the RonuA 
empire beyond the bounds of the habitable world.' He 
failjd. thither twice, from Uie oppofite coaftin Gaul, and 
fought m^y .battles, by which the Britons fuffered more 
than the RcHnans gained ; for there was nothing worth 
taking from a peojple who were fo poor, and lived in fo 
much wretchednelsf. He did not, however, terminate the manner he could have wiihed: he .only 
jreceived hoitages of the king, and appointed the tribute 
the iHand was to pay, and then returned to Gaul. 

There he received letters, which were going to be-leiil; 
4>ver to him, and by which his friends in Rome informed 
him, that iiis daughter, the wifis of Pompey, had latefy 
died in child-bed. This was a great amidion both. to 
Pompey and Caefar. Their friends; too, were very fenfibly* 
concerned to fee that aUiance difiblved whidi kept up the 
pettc^ and harmony of the Hate, otherwifein a very onlettled 
condition. For /the child furvivcd the ipother only aiby 
tiays. The. people took the body of Julia, and earned it* 
notwithfl^anding the prohibition of the tcibunes^.to .the 
CampHs Mariius, where it wasinterred. 

As Casfar*$ army was now ve^y large t, Jie was-ferccd 
.to divide it for. the. convenience of winter-quarters.; after 
:M.2 which • 

*• ThetJbii, the people of Cologne* 

^^ It docs not appqar that there was moch comin BrftaHi itt Csefar*« 
fShit} for the inhabitants^ he %f,« lived chiefly tm milk and fteft^ 
Lafh et eantt vlvtmt, ' 

^X This arrqy confifted of-elght'legiom^ and as there waa timaft a 
famine in tlie country, the confequence of exc^^ dto«%\i\^«lttHt«i^ ^ 
•bilged tof(^*at^iii9 troopk for (heir bctttr Cdhfiftef»e* H«^«li^^3tta^ 


which he took the road to Italy, according to cuHom. Bat- 
he had cot been long gone, before the Gauls riiing again« 
traverfed the country with confiderable armies, fell upon 
the Roman quarters with great fury, and infolted their en- 
trenchments. The moft numerous and the flrongeil body 
of the infurgents was that under Am biorix, who attacked 
Cotta and Titurius in their camp, and cut them off with 
their whole party. After which, he went and befiegcd the 
legion under the command of Q. Cicero, with fixty thoa- 
fand men ; and though the ipirit of thofe brave Romans 
made a refiftance above their ftrength, they were very 
near being taken, for they were all wounded. 

Caefar, who was at a great diftance, at laft getting in- 
telligence of their danger, returned with all expedition; 
and having colleded a body of men, which did not ex- 
ceed feven thoufand, hallened to the relief of Cicero. The 
Gauls, who were not ignorant of his motions, raifed 
the iiege, and went to meet him ; for they defpifed the 
fmallnefs of his force, and were confident of \i&ory, 
Csefar, to deceive them, made a feint as if he fled, till he 
came to a place convenient for a fmall army to engage a 
great one, and there he fortified his camp. He gave his 
men ftrift orders not to fight, but to throw up a ftroqg 
rampart, and to barricade their gates in the fecureft man- 
ner; contriving by- all thefe manccuvres to increafe the 
enemy's contempt of him. It fuccecded as he wifhed ; 
the Gauls came up with great infolence and difordcr to 
attack his trenches. Then Caefar making a fudden fally, 
defeated and deftroyed the greateft part of them. This 
fuccefs laid the fpirit pf revolt in thofe parts ; and for far- 
ther fecurity he remained all the winter in Gaul, vifiting 
all the quarters, and keeping a fharp eye upon every mo- 
tion towards war. Befides, he received a reinforcement 
of three legions in the room of thofe he had loft ; two of 
which were lent him by Pompey, and one lately raifed in 
Cifalpine Gaul. 

After this*, the feeds of hoftilities, which ha^'long 
before been privately fcattered in the m ore diftant parts of 
. the 

. fore nnder thencceflityof fixing the quarters atfuch a diftance, which 

would otherwife have been impolitic, , He tells us, (lib. v.) that all the 

legions, except one, which was in a quiet country, were polled within 

the compaf) of a hundred niiles. 

• Plutarch paiSn over the wbolefixth book of Caefar^s Commentaries, 

as be had done tiie third. Many con&dcTabk «vwvx% Vv«^^xit^V«\?wt^tv 

the country, by the chiefs of the more warlike nations, 
fhot up into one of the greatell and moft dangerous wArs 
that was ever feen in Gaul; whether we confider the num- 
ber of troops and ilore of arms, the treafures amafled for 
the war, or tlie rtrength of the towns and faflnefTes they 
occupied. Eefidcs, it was then the moll fevere feafon of 
the year; the rivers were cov'ercd with ice, the foreils with 
fnow, and the fields overflowed in luch a manner v zt they 
looked. liks fo many ponds;- the roads lay cujj ; k-.i in 
fnow; or in floods dilembogaed by the lakes ^ul ivcrs. 
So that it fcemed impoiGble for Ciefar to march, or topur- 
i'ue any other operations againft them. 

M.;ny nations hid entered into the league; the principal 
of which were the Arverni* and Carnutesf . The chitf 
diredUon of the war was given ta Vercingeioiix, whole 
father the Gauls had put to death, for atiempting at 
monarchy. Vercingetorix having divided his forces into 
feveral parts, and given them in charge to his lieutenants, 
had the country at command as far as the Arar. His in- , 
tention was to raife all Gaul againfl Cxfar, now when his 
eivemies were riling againft him at Pvome. But had hs- 
flayed a little longer till Csefar was actually engaged in ih-i 
civil war, the terrors of the Gauls would not have been lefi 
dreadful to Italy now, than thofc of the Cimbri were for- 

Cicfar, who knew pcrfedly'how to avail himfclf of every 
advantage ia war, particularly of time, was no foonei: 
informed of this great defeflion, than he fet out to'chaftilb 
ill authors; and by the fwiftnefs of his march, in fpite of 
all the difficulties of a fevere winter, he (hewed the bar- 
barians that his troops could neither be conquered nor re- 
fitted. For where a courier could fcarce have been fup- 
pofed to come in many days, Caefar was feen with his 
whole army, ravaging the country, deftroying the caill-js, 
llcrming the cities, and receiving the fubmiflion of fuchas 
repented. Thus he went on, till the Eduij alfo revolted, 
who had llyled themfelves brothers to the Romans, and had 
M 3 been 

the viflofy laft mentioned, and the affair with Vercingetorix; fuch as 
the defeat of th« Trcviri, C«far*s fecond paffage over the Rliine, and 
the pui fult of Ambiorix. 

* Thp people of Auvergnc, particularly thofc of Clermont and St. 

f The pecpk of Chartrcs and Orleans. 

i The people of Autun> LyonS) Macon^ CViAotA ^7^x1 ^wa% "^^^^ 

r24^ pxutaiwih's lAVtsi 

been treated with particular regard. Their joining d«* 
infurgents fpread uneaiinefs and difmay through Caefar'r 
army, He, therefore, decamped in all hafte, and traverfed • 
the country of the Lingones*, in order to come into that 
of the Sequanif , who were faft friends, and nearer to Italy- 
than- the reft of the Gauls. 

The enemy followed him thither in prodigious^ numbers,- 
and furrounded him. Cxfar, without being in the leail- 
tiifconcerted, fuftained the conflift, and after a long ani- 
bloody adion, in which the Germans were particularly 
ferviceable to him, eave them a total defeat J, But hi 
fcems to have received fome check at firft, for the Arverni • 
^ill Ihew a fword fufoended in one of their temples, which 
they declare was taken from Caefar. His friends pointed - 
it out to him afterwards^ but he only, laughed ; and when- 
they. were for having it taken down, he would not fuffer it, 
becaufehe confidered it as a thing confccrated to the gods ' 

Moft of thofe who efcaped out of the battle, retired irtto- 
AlefiaH with their king.. Caefar immediately invefted 
the town, thoujdi it appeared impregnable,' as well on ac- 
count of the height of the walls, as the number of troop? 
1 hero was to defend it. During the fiege he found bim- 
Jelf expofed to a danger from without, which makes ima- 
gination giddy to tliink on. All the bravcft men in Gaul 
affembled from every quarter, and came armed to the relief 
of the place, to the number of three hundred thoufand;^ 
*nd there were not lefs than feventy thoufand combatants 
vitliin the walls. Thus (hut up between two armies, he* 
was forced to draw two lines of circumvallation, tJie inte- 
rior one againft the town, and that without againft the 
troop-; that came to its fuccour; for, could the two armies 
Jiave joined, he had been abfolutely loft. This dangerous 
ailion at Alefia contributed to Cajfar's renown on many ac- 
counts. Indeed, he exerted a more adventurous couragj 
and greater generalftiip, tlian on any other, occafion. But 
what fcems very aftonifhing, is, tliat he could engage and 
conquer fo many myriads without, and keep the adHon a 


* The diftrift of Langrcg. 

f The difVrift of Bcfanjon. 

J This pafr^gc in the original Is corrupt or defc^Ive. Wehiavc cnddar- 
vourcd 10 fupply that cfefefl, by reading, with M. Dacier, Tt^f^ecvo^is 
inflcad of aXAov^ ; which U agreeable to Caefar's own account of the 
battle, in the feventh hook of his Commentaries. 

J) Caefar calls it Alexia^ now AUfC) near Flavi^nY* 

ibcret to tKs troops in the town». It is llill more wonder- 
ful that the Romans, who were left before the walls* 
ihould not know it, till the vidiory was announced by the 
cries of the men in Alefia and the lamentations of the wo- 
men, who faw the Romans on each fide of the town bnag* 
ing to their camp a number of (h'ields adorned with gold 
and filver, helmets (tained with blood, drbking veuelsy • 
and tents of the Gauliih fafhion. Thus did this vaft mul- 
titude vaniih and difappear like a phantom, or a dreamer « 
the greateft part being killed on the fpot. 

The befieged, after having given both themfelves and * 
Cajfar much trouble, at lafl furrendercd, ^ Their general* 
Vercingetorix, armed himfelf and equipped his horfe in "» 
the moft magnificent manner, and then (allied out at the ' 
gate. After he had taken fome circuits about Caefar as he - ' 
iat upon the tribunal, he difmounted, put off his armour, • 
Aud placed himfelf '«t Caefar's feet, where he remained in ^ 
profound iilencc, till Csefar i)rdered a guard to take him* ^ 
away, and keep him for his triumph. . 

C%iar had been fome time refolvedto ruin Pompey^and * 
Pompey to deftroy Caefar. For. Craffus'Vho alone could 
have taken up. the conqueror, being killed in the Parthian - 
war, there remained nothing for Ceefar to do^* to mal^ ' 
himfelf the greateft of marrfcind*, but to'annihilate hjim that 
was fo ; nor for Pompey to prevent it, but to take b#the " 
man he feared^ « It is true, it was no long time that Pofllr ' 
pey had entertained any fear of him ; he had rather 
looked upqn him with contempt*^ imagining he could as ^ 
eafily pull him down as he had fet him up : Whereas Cac- - 
far, from the firft, ^ ruin his rivals, had re- - 
tired at a, diftance, like a champion> for exercife. By long ; 
fervice and great achievements in. the wars of XJaul, he - 
had fo improved his... army, ^d his own Teputation toq> . 
that he was confideredas on a..foating with Pompey | and ^ 
he found :j>retences for carrying his entcrprize into execu- 
tion, in the. times of themifgovernment at Rome. Thcfe • 
were partly furnilheJ by Pompey himiblf : and indeed aill 
ranks of men were fo corrupted, that tables were publicl/ ' • 
fet out, upon which tlie candidates for offices were pro- 
feiledly. ready to pay the. people the price of their votes ; 
and the people came not oiily to give their voices for.the 
ma^ who had bought them, out with all manner of ofFen- 

M4 . \c^^ ; 

• C»Gw.fyys, that tbofc in the iowft h*d * e'AXfkecVvwH*^^^^^^'^^ 

248 Plutarch's lives, 

five weapons to fight for him. Hence it often happened, 
that they did not part without polluting the tribunal 
with blood and murder, and the city was a perpetual fcenc 
x)f anarchy. In this difmal lituation of things, in thefc 
^orrns of epidemic madnefs, wife men thought it would be 
happy if they ended in nothing worfe than monarchy. 
Nay, there were many who fcrupled not 10 declare pub- 
•licly, that monarchy was the only cure for the defperatc 
diforders of the (bt«, and that the phyfician ought to be 
pitched upon, who would apply that remedy with the 
gentlefl hand ; by which they hinted at Pompey. 

Pompey, in all his difcourfe, pretended to decline the 
honour of a diftatorfliip, though at the fame time every 
ilep he took was diredtcd that way. Cato, underllanding 
his drift, perfuaded the fenate to declare him fole conful ; 
that, fatisfied with a kind of monarchy more agreeable to 
law, he might not adopt any violent meafures to make 
himfelf dictator. The fcnSte not only agreed to this, 
but continued to him his governments of Spain and Africa, 
the admin iltrauon of which he committed to his lieu- 
tenants ; keeping armies there, for whofe maintenance 
he was £^lIowed a thoufand tdcnts a-year out of the pub- 
lic treafury. 

Upon this, Csefar applied, by his friends., for another 
confulfhip, and for the continuance of his commiflion in 
Gau!, anfweral)le to that of Pompey. As Pompey was at 
firftfilent, Mucellos and Lentulus, who hated Caefar on 
other accounts, oppofed it with great violence, omitting; 
nothing, whether right or wrong, that might refledl dif- 
honour upou him. For they disfranchifcd the inhabitants 
of Novocomum in Gaul, which had lately been ere«5led 
into a colony hy Cxfar ; and Maicellus then conful, 
C*ufed one of their fenators, who was come with foms 
complaints to Rome, to be beaten with rods, and tellinfi: 
him, " The marks on his back were fb many additional 
«' proofs that he was not a Roman citizen," bade him go 
fhew them to Caefar. 

But, aftcf the confulfhip of Marcellus, Ca:far opened 
the treafures he had amafled in Gaul, to all that were con- 
cerned in the adminiftration» and fatkfied their utmoll 
wifhes ; he paid ofF the vaft debts of Curio the tribune ; 
heprefented the conful Paulus with fifteen hundred talents, 
which he employed in building the celebrated public hall 
near the forum, in the place vfYitTe \.Vax ^i \^>a\NW Wd 

CJ£SAR. 149 

ftood. Pompey now alarmed at the iacrea(e of CxraHs 
fadtioD, openly exerted his own interefl, and that of his* 
friends, to procure an order for a fuccefibr to Cxfar ia 
Gaui. lie alio fent to demand the troops he had lent 
him, for his wars in that country, and Csefar returned 
them with a gratuity of two hundred and £fty drachmas 
to each man. 

I'hofe who condudled thefe troops back, fpread reports 
among the people which were neither favourable nor fair 
with refpeft to Caefar, and which ruined Pompey With 
vain hopes. They afibrted that Pompey had the hearts 
of all Caefar's arm/, and that if envy and a corrupt ad- 
miniflration hindered him from gaining what he defired at 
Rome, the forces in Gaul were at his lervice, and would 
declare for him immediately upon their entering Italy ; 
fo obnoxious was Csefar become, by hurrying them per- 
petnally from one expedition to another, and by the fuf- 
picions they had of his aiming at abfolute power. 

Pompey waa {o much elated with thefe affurances, that 
he negle<fled to levy troops, as if he had nothing to fear,' 
and oppofed his enemy only with fpeeches and decrees, 
which Casfar made no account of. Nay, we are toli,\ 
that a centurion whom Caefar had fent to Rome, waiting 
at the door of the Tenate-houfe for the refult of the deli- 
berations, and being informed that the fenate would hot 
give Caefar a longer term in his commiflion, laid his hand 
upon his fword, and faid, •' But this (hall give it." . 

Indeed, Csefar's requifitions had a great appearance of" 
juftice and honour. lie propofed to lay do^^n his arms, on 
condition Pompey would do the fame, and that they fhould 
both, as private citizens, leave it to their country to re- * 
ward their fervices. For to deprive him of his commifliori 
and troops, and continue Pompey's was to give abfolute 
power to the ons, to which the other was unjuftly ac- 
cufed of afpiring. Curio, who made thefe proportions to 
the people in behalf of Caefar, was received with the loud- 
eft plaudits ; and there were fome who even threw chaplets 
of flowers upon him, as they would upon a champion vic- 
torious in the ring. 

Antony, one of the tribunes of the people, then produced 
a letter from Caefar to the fame purport, and caufed it 
to be read, notwithftanding the oppofition it met with , 
from the confuls*. Hereupon, Scipio, Pompey '& fatlv^t. 
M 5 '\sv' 

♦ luHeadofi'tx rap vvar^*f omc MSS. ^\xo.\i% ^vxtsu W*^ •«• 

2^0 plutrch's lives. 

in-laWj proppfed in the fenate, that if Csefar did not lay 
down his arms by fuch a day, he fhould be declared an- the ilate; and the confuls putting it to- the 
queflion* ** Whether Pompey fhould difmifs his forces ?, 
and again» •' Whether Cajfar fhould dilband his r" few of 
the members were for the firfl, and almoil all for the fe- 
cond*. . After which Antony put the queflion, ** Whe- 
" ther bfoth fhould lay down their commiifions ?" and all 
with one voice anfwered in the afiirmaiivc. But the vio-* 
lent rage of Scipio, and tlie clamours of the conful Len^. 
tulus^ who cried out, that *' Not decrees but arms fhould 
*' be employed againft a public robber," made the fenate, 
break np ; and on account of the unhappy difTenfion, all 
ranks of people put on blacky as in a time of public mourn-:. 

. Soon after this» other letters arrived from Caefar with^ 
more moderate propofals. He offered to abandon all the«. 
reft, provided they would continue to him the government, 
of Cifalpine Gaul and Illyricum, with two legions,, till he ' : 
could apply for a fecond confulfhip. And Cicero, whm 
was lately returned from Cilicia, and very ^defirons of 
effecting a reconciliaftion, ufed all pofTible means to foftea 
Pompey. Pompey agreed to all but the article of the two^ . 
legions ; and Cicero endeavoured to accomodate the mat- , 
ter, by perfuadiog Ca^Tar's friends to be fatisfied with the 
two provinces and fix thoufand foldiers. only.^ Pompey . 
was on the point of accepting the compromife, when Len- , 
rdlus the conful rejecting it with difdain, treated Antony 
and Curio wita great indignity, and drove thera out of: 
the fenate- houfe. Thus he furnifhed Cxfar with the mofl . 
plaufible argument -imaginable, and he failed not to make 
life of it to cxafpcrate his troops, by (hewing them per-, 
fons of dillindion, and magiftrates, obliged to fly in hired, 
carriages, and in the habit of llavcsf^ fox their fears had 
made them leave Rome in tliat difguile. 

Cagfar had not then with him above three hundred horfe, 
and five thoufand foot. The refl of his forces were left, 
•on the other fide of the Alps, and he had fent them orders . 
te join him. But he faw the beginning, of his enterprize, 


• Dio fays, there was rot a man for the firfl queflion, wl.creas the 
tvbch lioufe was for the fecond, excrpt Ca;!ius and Curio. Nor is 
this to be vrondcred at ; Pompey was then at the gates of Rome with 
Us sr/ny. 
f CalTms LonginMi went with litem \n the iixsx ^\^yf^i^^^ 

a?hd the attack he meditated did not require any great 
numbers : His -enemies were rather to be ftruck with 
confternation by the boldnefs and expedition with' which' 
he began his operations j for an unexpefted movement' 
would be more likely to make an impreffion upon them 
then, than great preparations afterwards. He, therefore, 
ordered liis lieutenants, and other officers to take their 
fwords without any other armour, and make themfelves 
mafters of j\riminum, a great city in Gaul, but to take 
all poflible care that no blood fhould be (bed or difturbance 
railed. . Hortenfius was at the head of this party. As for 
himfelf, he fpent the day at a public fbew of gladiators ; 
and a little before evening bathed, and then went into the 
apartment where he entertained compary. When it vrc.s 
growing dark, he left the company, afcer having defircd ' 
them to make merry till his return, which they would not 
hav!e long to wait for. To fome of his friends he had 
given previous notice to follow him, not all together, but 
by different ways. Then taking a hired- carriage, jie fet 
out a different way from that which led to Ariminum, and . 
turned into that road afterwards. . 

When he arrived at the banks of the Rubicon, which ' 
divides Cifalpine. Gaul from.the reft of Italy, his reflec- 
tions became more interefting in proportion as the danger 
drew near. -Staggered by the greatnef&of his attempt, 
he flopped/ to weigli- with himfelf its inconveniences; 
and, as he flood revolving in frlence^he arguments on 
both fides, he many times changed his opinion. After 
which, he deliberated upon it with fuch of his friends as 
were by, among whom was ^Afmius Pollio ; enumerating, 
the calamities which the pafFage of that river would bring 
upon the ^'orld, and .th« reflexions that might be made 
upon it by pofterity;. -At lafl, upon fome fudden impulfe, 
bidding adieu to his reafonings, and plunging into the 
abyfs of ifuturity, in the words of thofe who embark in 
doubtful and arduous enterprizes,''he cried out, *' The 
*' die is cafl 1" and immediately pafled the river. He 
travelled fo faflthe reft of the way, that he reached Ari- 
minum befbre day-light, and took it. It is faid, that the 
preceding night he had a moft abominable dream; he 
thought he lay with his mother. 

After the taking of Ariminum j as if war had opened 
w^ide its gates both by fea and knd^ and GxGiti b^ ^'^vcv'?, 
\}Qyond th^ homh of hoi -provmc^, \i2L<i V(x^t*\sv%^^ ^^^* 

2^2 Plutarch's lives. 

laws of his country ; not individuals were feen, as on other 
occafions^ wandering in diilradtion about Italy, but whole 
cities broken up, and feeking refuge by flight. Moll of 
the tumultuous tide flowed into Rome, and it was (o filled 
with the hafty conflux of the circling people, that amidit 
the violent agitation it would hardly either obey the magi- 
ilrate, or liften to the voice of reafon, but was in the ut- 
inoft danger of falling by its own violence. For the whole 
was a prey to contrary paflions, and the moft violent con- 
vulfions : Thofe who favoured thefe diforders were not fa- 
tisfied with enjoying them in private, but reproached the 
other party, amidft their fears and forrows, and infulted 
them with menaces of what was to come,; which is the ne- 
ceflfary confequence of fuch troubles in a great city. 

Pompey himfclf, who was already confounded at the 
turn things lud taken, was llill more diflurbed by a va- 
riety of cenfures on his condu£i. Some faid, he juflly 
fufi^ered for exalting Cxfar againft himfelf and his country ; 
others, for permitting Lentulus to over-rule him, when 

• Cxfar departed from his firft demands, and offered equit- 
able terms of peace. Fayonius went fo far as to bid him, 
** Stamp with his foot ;" alluding to a vaunting fpeech he 
had made in the fenate, in which he bade them take no 
thought about preparations for the war ; for, as foon as 
he marched out of Rome, if he did but flamp with his, 
foot, he fliould fill Italy with his, legions. 

Pompey, however, at tliat time was not inferior in 
numbers to Caefar, but his partizans would not fufler him 
to proceed according to his own opinion. By falfe re- 
ports and groundlefs terrors, as if the enemy was at the 
gates, and had carried all before him, they forced him 
along with the general torrent. He had it decreed, 
therefore, that things were in a tumultuous Hate, and no- 
thing to be iCxpefted but hoftiiiues, and then left Rome, 
having firft ordered the fenate, and every man to follow, 
who preferred, his country and liberty to the rod of a 
tyrant. The confuls too fled with him, without offering 
the facrifices which .cuftom required before they took 
their departure from Rome. Moft of the fenators fnatched 
up thofe things in their houfes that were next at hand, as 
if the whole was not their own, and joined in the flight. 
Nay, there were fome, who before were well affedted to 
Cxfar, that in the prefcnt terror ^changed fides, and fuf- 

^rffd themf^lvcs without neceffviV lo b^ cw\^\ v^^vj Vs^f 

the torrent. What a miferable fpeflacle was the city ' 
then ! In fo dreadful a tempeil, like a (hip abandoned by 
its pilots, toil about at all adventures, and at the mercy of 
the winds and feas. But though Eight was fo unpromifing 
an alternative, fuch was the love the Romans had for 
Pompey, that thev confidered the place he retired to as 
their country, ana Rome as the camp of Caefar. For 
even Labienus, one of Caefar's principal friends, who, in 
quality of his lieutenant, had fervecl under him with the . 

freateil alacrity in the wars of Gaul, now went over to 
ompey. Neverthelefs, Cselar feut him his monpy and 
his equipage. 

After tliis, Csfar invefled Corfinium, where Domi- 
tius with thirfy cohorts commanded for Pompey. Do* 
mitius * in defpair ordered a fervant of his, who was his 
phyfician, to give him poifon. He took the draught pre- 
pared for him, as a fure means of death -, but, foon after, 
hearing of Caefar's extraordinary clemency to his prifonersj^ 
he laipented his own cafe and the hally refolution he had 
taken. Upon which the phyfician removed his fears, by * 
affuring him that what he had drank was a ileeping potion, 
not a deadly one. This gave him fuch fpirits, that he 
rofe up and went to Caefar. £ut though Csefar pardoned 
him, and eave him his hand, he foon revolted, and re-^ 
paired again to Pompey. 

The news of this tranfaflion being brought to Rome, 
gave great relief to the minds of the people, and many 
who had fled came back again. In the mean time Caefar, 
having added to his own army the troops of Domitius^ 
and all others that Pompey had left in garrifon, was flrong 
enough to march againil Pompey himfelf. The latter, 
however, did not wait for him ; but retired to 6runduiium> 
from whence he fent the confuU with part of the forces 
to Dyrrhachium, and a little after, upon the approach of 
Caifar, failed thither himfelf, as we have related at large 
in his life. Cxfar would have fullowedhim immediately* 
but he wanted (hips. He therefore returned to Rome> 
with the glory of having reduced Italy in fixty days with- 
out fpillitig a drop of blood. 


* Lucius Doanitjus Ahenobarbus was nominated to fucceed Cm&ri 
purfuant to the decree of the fenate, in the gOTemment of tt%sD^* 
j>ine<3ai/},' bat he improdcnthf ihut\aimWiti^\ti^«^^tiv'WBvV&«» 
k» left Italy. 

254 plutarch's-lives. 

Finding the city in a more fettled condition than he 
cxpeded> and many fenators there, he addrefled them in 
a mild and gracious manner, and defired them to fendl 
deputies to Pomjpey to ofFer honourable terms of peace. 
But not one of them would take upon him the commiflion : 
Whether it was that they were afaid of Pompey whom they 
had defcrted, or whether they thought Ca^'lar not in ear- 
nefl in the propofal, and that he only made it to fave ap- 
pearances. As Mitellus the tribune bppofed his taking 
money out of the public treafury, and alleged fome lawa 
againfl it, Caifarfaid,. " Arms and l4ws do not floufilh- 
" together. If you are not pleafed at what I am about,^. 
" you have nothing to do butio withdraw : indeed, war 
** will not bear much liberty of fpeech.. When I fay this,. 
*' I am departing from my own right : For you and all/ 
** whom I have found exciting a fpirit of fadliori againft" 
^* me, are. at my difpofal." Saying this, he approached 
the doors of the treafury, and as the keys were not pro- 
duced, he fent for workmen lo break them open. Me- . 
tellus oppofed him again, and fome praifed his firmnefs ; 
but Csefar, raifing his voice, threatened to put him to 
death, if hd' gave him any farther trouble;. '* And, young, 
" man," faid he, " you are not ignorant that this is 
" harder for me to fay than to do." Metellus, terrified with 
his menace, retired, and afterwards Cxfar was eafily and' 
readily fupplicd with every thing neceflary for the war. 

His firft movement was to Spain, from whence he was 
refolved to drive Afranius and Varro, Pompey's lieute-* 
nants, and after having made himfelf mailer of their 
troops and provinces, to march againft Pompey, without 
leaving any enemy behind him. In the courfe of this' 
expedition, his life was often in danger from ambufcades, 
and his army had to combat with famine ;, yet he conti- 
nued his operations againft the enemy, either by purfuit, 
or offering them battle, or forming lines of circumvalla- 
tion about them, till he forced their camp, and added 
their troops to his own. The officers made their efcape,, 
and retired to Pompey. 

Upon his return to Rome, his father- in-law Pifo prefled' 
him to fend deputies to Pompey to treat of an accommo- 
dation ; but Ifauricus, to make his court to Cacfar, op- 
pofed it. The fenate declared him didlator, and while he 
held that office, he recalled the exiles ; he reftored to their 
honours the children of thofe who had fuffered under Sylla ; 

and rdieved debtors by canoelling • part of the ufury. 
Thefe, and a few more, were his^a^Qs diuijig his didlator- 
Qnp, which he laid down in eleven days. After this, he 
caufed himfelf to be.decUred. capful with Servilius Ifau- 
rku8« and thea went tOrprofecutQ the war^. He inarched 
fofaft to Brundufium, .tha.t all his troops coujd not keep 
up with him. ., However^.he embarked with only fix hun- 
dred feledhorfe and five legions* It .was at the time of 
the. winter fblftice, the beginning of January, which an- 
fwters to the Athenian monxYL Pojeideou., that h^ .{d fail. 
Hfc.crofi'ed the. Ionian, -made himlelf mailer of Oricumand 
Apollonia, and.fent back * his fhips to Brundufium to 
bring .over the forces that were left .behind^ But thofe 
troops, exhapfled with fatigue, and. tired out with the 
multitude.jof enemies they had to engage with, broke out 
into complaints, again ft Cafar, as they were up.on their 
march: to their port. . " Whither wiU.this man lead us," 
faid they, */ and wher& will he, the end of our labours ? 
"Will he Ixxx^b us fpr ever, as if we had limbs of ftonc, 
•' or bodies of iron iput iron itfelf yields to repeated 
** blows ; pur very Ihields and cui^faflesi call out for reft. 
*• Will not Ca^far l^rn from our wounds, that we are mor- 
'' tal, that we have, the fame feelings, and are liable to 
** the, fame imprefilons witli other men ?,.The gods them- 
" -felves cannot force the feafons, or clear the winter feas 
" of ftorms and tempefts. .And it is in this, feafon that 
•' he would expofe us„ as if Ke .was flying from his enc- 
*' mies, rather than purfuing them." 

Araidft fuch difcourfe as this> they moved on ilowly to 
Brvindufium. .But wiien.they arrived there, and found 
that Cafar was gone, they changed their language, and 
reproached themfelves as traitors to their general. They 
vented'their anger upon their officers, too, for nothaften- 
ing their jpiarch.. Aid fitting upon the clifts, they kept 
their eyes upon the fea towards Epirus, to fee if they could 
difcQver^thetranfpqrts that were to fetch them. 

MeAntime Csefar, not having a fufficient force at Apol- 
lonia to make head agaipft the enemy, and feeing the 
troops at Brundufium delayed to join him* to relieve him-* 
felf from the^inxiety and perplexity he was in, undertook 

a moft 

* Ke fent them 'back under the condo^ of Calenns. That officer 
lofing the cpportunitjT of the wind, fell in with Bibulos, who took 
thirty of his (hips, and burnt them all, to^e\\sct H(VCEv^<6x ^j^WvA, in order to intimidAte the Kft* 



PLUTARC h's lives. 

a nnoft aJloiiiilang ent^rprj^e. Though the Tea was c3* 
vered with the enemy's fleets* he refolved to embark in a 
veflcl of twelve oars, without acquainting any peribn with 
his intention, and fail to Brundufium** In the nighty there^ 
forCj he took the habit of a flavEj and thromng himfelf 
into th^ veflel Hke a man of no account, fat there in filence. 
They fell doxn the river ^- Anias for th<i fca, where the 
entrance is generally eafy^ becaufe the J and -wind rifing in 
a morning, ufed to beat off the waves of the fea ;md 
faooth the mouth o/the river. But unluckily thsit night 
a ftrong fea->^ ind fprung up which over ^powered that from 
the Untf ; fo thai by the rage of the fea artd the counter- 
action of the itream, the river became evtrt-mely rotigh ; 
the waves dallied againtt each other with a tumultuous 
aoife, ^nd formed fuch dangerous eddies, that the pilot 
drfpaired of making good hi.=t pafljgej ^nd ordered the 
mariners to turn back. Cstfar perceiving this, rofe up, 
and fhe^^ing himfelf to the pilot, who was greatly afJo- 
niQied at the fight of him, faid, " Go forward, my friend, 
*' and fear nothing ; thou cirrieft Catfar and his fortune/" 
The mariners then forgot the ftorm, and plying thcii- 
oars with the ntmoll vigour and alacrity, endeavoured to 
overcome the refiftance of the waves* Butfuch was their 
violertce at the mouth of the river, and the water flowed 
fo fail into the veflel, that Cafar at laft, though with 

freat reluftance, permitted the pilot to turn back. Upon 
is return to his camp, the foldicrs met him in crowds, 
pouring out their complaints, and exprefllng the greatefl 
concern that he did not affure himfelf of conquering with 
them only, but, in dJftrUft of their fupport, gave himfelf 
fo miich uneafmefs and expofed his perfon to fo much dan- 
ger on account of the abfcnt. 

Soon after, Antony arrived from Brundufium with 
the troops t, C^far, then in the highcH fpirits, offered 


* Moft hiftcrians blame this a& a ra(h aflion j and Cafar himfelf, in 
his Commentaries, makes no mc-niion of this, or of another lefs dan- 
gerous attempt, which is related by Suetonius. V/hikhe was making 
war in Gaul, upon advice that the Gaujs had furroundcd his £rmy in 
l)is abfcnce, he di eiTed himfe'f Itkc a native of the country, and ia that 
difguiie pa (Ted through the enemy's centinels and troops to his own camp 
•f Sirabo, in his feventh book, (Ed. Par. p. 316. BC.) calls this ri- 
ver jicui. In Polybius it is called Lous i but that is a corruption, the 
A being changed, by tbe fault of the trapfcriber, into a A. 
/ Antony and Calenus embatkcd on board .the veiiels which had 
p/csfcd BibvluSf eight hundred boife smdio>K\ev^tv%^^\v^^.V-^^^^^t^^\^ 

CJESAR. 257 

battle to Pompey, who was encamped in an advantageous^ 
manner, and abundantly fupplied with proTifions both 
from fca and land; whereas Capfar at fim.had no great 
plenty, and afterwards was in extreme want. The fol- 
diers, however, found great relief from a root • in the 
adjoining fields, which they prepared in milk. Some- 
times they made it into bread, and going up to the enemy's 
advanced guards, threw it among them^ and declared^ 
** That as long as the earth produced fuch roots> they 
*' would certainly befiege Pompey." 

Pompey would not fufFer either fuch bread to be pro- 
duced, or fach fpeeches to be reported in his camp; for 
his men were already difcouraged, and ready to Ihudder at 
the thought of the impenetrable hardnefs of Caefar's troops, 
who could bear as much as fo many wild beafts. There 
were frequent ikirmifhes about Pompey's entrenchments j-* 
and Csefar had the advantage in them all, except one, m 
which his party was forced to fly with fuch precipitation, 
that he was in danger of having nis camp taken. Pompey 
headed the attack in perfon, and not a man could Hand 
before him. H6 drove them upon their own lines in the 
utmoft confalion, and filled their trenches with the dead. 

Caefar ran to meet them, and would have rallied the 
fugitives, but it was not in his power. He laid hold on 
the enfign-ftaves to flop them, and fome left them in his 
hands> and others threw thefm upon the ground, infomuch 
that no lefs than thirty-two ftandards were taken. 'Caifar 
himfelf was very near ftyfing his life; for having laid hold 
of a tall and flrong man, to flop him and make him face 
about, the foldier in his terror and confufion lifted up his 
fword to ftrike him ; but Caefar 's armour-bearer prevented 
it by a blow which cut off his arm. C^ar 

ones, and one that had been newly ralfcd ; and when they were landedy 
Antony fent back the (hips for the red of the forces. 

■P This root was called Cl^ra, Some of Cvfar^s foldiers, who bad 
ferved in Sardinia, had there learned to make bread of it. 

•f- Csefar obfervtd an old camp which he had occupied in the place 
where Pompev was inclofed, and afterwards abandoned. Upon bis 
quieting it, Pompey had taken poiTeflion of it, and left a I^ion to 
guard it. This pofl Cxfar attempted to reduce, and it was in this 
attempt that he fuffercd fo much lofs. He loft nine huudred and fixty 
foot, four hundred horic, among whom were feveral Roman knights, 
five tribunes, and thirty^wo centurions. We aieutlotvtd \^^ t«f«« 
that Pompey was inclofed, as in fa£t he vvas on \b& \%ad-&<^^^^ x 
iipc of clrcumraUstthtt drawn by CxfuT. 

258 Plutarch's lives. 

Cxfar faw his affairs that day in fo bad a pofiure^ tha:^ 
after Pompey, either through too much caution, or the 
caprice of fortune, inftead of giving the finiihing flroke 
to fo great an a£iion> flopped as foon as he had fhut up 
the enemy within their entrenchments,, and founded a re- 
treat, he faid to his friends as he withdrew, " This day 
" vidory would have declared for the enemy, if they had 
•* had a general who knew how to cenquer." He fought 
repofe in his tent, but it proved the moil melancholy night 
of^ his life. For he gave himfelf up to endlefs refiedlions 
on his own mifcondud in the war. He confidered how 
wrong it was, when the wide countries and rich cities 
of Macedonia and Theifaly were before him, to confine 
himfelf to fo narrow a fcene of adion, and fit flill by the 
fea, while the enemy's fleets had the fuperiority, and in 9 
place where he fuffered the inconvcniencies of a fiege from 
the want of provifions, rather than befiege the enemy by 
his arms. Thus agitated and diflrefTed by the perplexities 
ai\d difficulties of his fituation, he refolved to decamp, 
and march againfl Scipio in Macedonia ; conclading, that 
he fhould either draw Pompey after him, and force him 
to fight where he could not receive fupplies, as he had 
done, from the fea ; or elfe that he fhould eafily crufh 
Scipio, if he foimd him unfnpported. 

Pompey 's troops and officers were greatly elated at thift 
retreat of Caefar ; they confidered it as a flight and an 
acknowledgment that he was beaten, and therefore wanted 
to purfue. But Pompey himfelf wiis unwilling to hazard a 
battle of fuch ccnfequence. He was well provided with 
every thing requifite for waiting the advantages of. time, 
and for that reafon chofe, by protra^ing the war, to wear 
out the little vigour the enemy had left. The moft var 
luable of Cacfar's troops had, indeed, an experience and 
courage which were irrefiHible in the field ; h\it age had 
made them unfit for long marches, for throwing up en- 
trenchments, for attacking walls, and pafling whole nights 
under arms. They were too unwieldy to endure muck 
fatigue, and their inclination for labour lefTened with 
their flrength. Befides, there was faid to be a contagious 
diAcmper among them, which arofe from their flrange and 
bad diet: And, what was flill. a more important circum- 
fiance, Csefar wanted bpth money and provifions, fo that it 
feemid as if he mufl fjiortly fall of himfelf. 

^ thefo were Pompcy's reafons for decliniiag a battle i 
Isat Bot a man, except Cato, was of his opinion ; and he* 
only, becanie he w^ willing to fpare the blood of his 
countrymen : For when he £iw the bodies of the enemy^ 
who fell in the late zCdon, to thcr number of a thoufand* 
lie dead upon the field, he covered his face, and retired, 
weeping. All the reft cenfured Pompey for not deciding 
the a£rair immediately with the fword, calling him J^m^»i- 
non, and King of Kings ^ as if he was anwilling ta .be de* 
prived of the monarchy he -was in poflefiion of, and de* 
lighted to fee fo many generals waiting his orders, and 
attending to pay their court. Favonius, who afFeded to 
imitate Cato's bold manner of fpeaking, but carried it 
inuch too far, lamented that Pompey's wanting to keep 
the kingly ftate he had got, would prevent their eating 
figs that year at Tufculum. And Afranius, lately come 
from Spain, where he had fucceeded fo ill in his command^ 
that he was accu(ed of having been bribed to betray his 
army, afked Pomjpey, " Why he did not fight that mer- 
•* chant who tramcked in provinces ?" 

Piqued at thefe reproaches, Pompey, againfl his. own 
judgment, marched after Cxfar, viiho proceeded on his 
route with great difficulty ; for, on accoont of his ]ate lofs, 
all looked upon him with contempt, and refufed to fapply 
him with provifions. However, upon his taking Gom- 
phi ♦, a town in Theflaly, his troops not only found fuf- 
iicient refrefliments, but recovered furprifingly of the dif- 
temper. For, drinking plentifully of the wme they found 
there, and afterwards marching on in a Bacchanalian man- 
ner, the new turn their blood took, threw off the diibrder, 
and gave them another habit of body. . 

When the two armies were encamped oppofite each 
other on the plains of Pharfalia, Pompey returned to his 
old opinion ; in which he was confirmed by fome unlucky 
omens, and an alarming dream. He dreamed that the 
people of Rome received him in the theatre with loud 
plaudits, and that he adorned the chapel of Venus Nice- 
fhara, from whom Casfar derived his pedigree. But if 
Pompey was alarmed, thofe about him were fo abfurdly 

fang nine 

• Caefar, perceiving of how much importance it was to liis fervicc 
to make himfeJf mafter of the place, before Pompey or Scipio coull 
come up, gave a genfral aflault, about three in xV\t a^V^\tv<^<^\ ^^^<^ 
ihop^h rhe ytmHb u ere veiy higb] carri^ \\ \>clo(t t\x\\4^V 

26o ^Plutarch's lives. 

fangaine in their cxpeftations of vi£lory, that Domitius, 
Spinther, and Scipio, quarrelled about Cajfar's pontificate ; 
and numbers fent to Rome, to engage houfes convenient 
for confuls and praetors, making themfelves fure of being 
foon raifed to thofe high offices after the war. But the 
cavalry teftified the greateft impatience for a battle ; fo 
proud vfrere they of their Bnc arms, of the condition of 
their horfes, and the beauty and vigour of their perfons ; 
bcfides, they were much more numerous than Cisfar's, be- 
ing feven thoufand to one thoufand. Nor w ere the num- 
bers of infantry equal ; for Pompey had forty-five thoufand, 
and Caefar only twenty-two thoufand. 

Csefar called his foldiers together, and told them,. 
" That Cornificius was well advanced on his way witJi 
" two mors legions^ and that he had fifteen cohorts under 
•' the command of Calenus, in the environs of Megara 
•' and Athens." He tl^en aUced them, " Whether they 
•' chofe to wait for thofe troops, or to rilk a battle with- 
•• out them ?'* They anfw^red aloud, " Let us not wait j 
*f but do you find out fome ilratagem to bring the enemy, 
" as fodn as poflible, to an aftion." 

He began with offering facrificcs orpurification for his 
army, and upon opening the firft vidlim, the foothfayer 
cried out, «' You will fight within three days." Caefar 
then afked him, if there appeared in the entrails any au- 
fpicious prcfage ? He anfwered, '* It is you who can bell 
«' refolve that queflion^ The gods amiounce a great 
" change and revolution in afi^airs. Jf you are happy at 
'' prefent, the alteration will be for the worfe ; if othcr- 
•' wife, expe£t better fortune." The night before the 
battle, as he walked the rounds about midnight, there ap- 
peared a luminous phenomenon in the air, like a torch, 
which, as it pafied over his camp, flamed out with great 
brightnefs, and feemed to fall in that of Pompey. And, 
in the morning, when the guards were relieved, a tumult 
was obferved in the enemy's camp, not unlike a panic 
terror. Cxfar, however, fo little expeded an adion that 
day, that he had ordered his troops to decamp, and march 
to Scotufa*. 

But as they were flriking their tents, his fcouts rode up, 
and told him, the enemy were coming down to give him 


* Cxfar hoped, by his frequent decaTt^m^^^ to ^tciVv^^W^tlcx 
his troops, and perhaps gain a favourable ov>^ctx.utvv\.^ ol tv^xvvvv 

C^SAR. * 261 

battle. Happy in the news, he made hb prayer to the 
gods, and then drew up his army, which he divided into 
three bodies. Domitius Calvinus was to command the 
centre, Antony the left wing, and himfelf the right, 
where he intended to change at the head of the tenth le- 
gion. Struck with the number and magnificent appear- 
.4nce of the enemy's cavalry, who were polled over againft 
him, he ordered fix cohorts privately to advance from the 
rear. Thefe he placed behind the right wing, and gave 
them inftruftions what to do when the enemy's horfc 
tame to charge *. Pompey's difpofition was this : He 
commanded the right wing himfelf,- Domitius the left, 
^nd his father-in-law, Scipio, the main body. The whole 
weight of the cavalry was in the left wing ; for ihcy de- 
figned to furround the right of the enemy, and to make a 
.fucccfsful effort where Cafar fought in perfon; thinking 
no body of foot could be deep enongh to bear fuch a 
fhock, but they mull neceffarily be broken in pieces upon 
thrfiril imnreffion. 

When the fignal was ready to be given, Pompey ordered 
his infantry to (land in clofe Order, and wait the enemy's 
attack, till they were near enough to be reached by the 
javelin. Caefar blamed this condudl. He faid Pompey 
was not aware what weight the fwift and fierce advance to 
the firll charge, gives to every blow, nor how the courage 
of each foldier is ^inflamed by the japid motion of the 
ivholef . 

He was now going to put his troops iu motion, when 
he faw a trnlly and experienced centurion encouraging his 
men to diflinguilh themfelves ^hat day. Caefar called him 
by his name, and faid, •' What cheer, Caius CralHnus ? 
*' How, think you, do we ftapd ?" " Caefar," faid the 
veteran, in a bold accent, and ilretching out his hand, 

'* the 

* Caefar and Appian agree, that Pompey poAed himfelf in bis left 
V7ing, not in the right. Jt is alfo highly probable that Afranios, not 
Lucius Demitius Ahenobarbus, -eermmanded Pompey's rijht wing.— ^ 
Cafar does not, indeed, exprefsly fay who commanded there, but iie"* 
fays, « On the right was pofled the legion of Cilicia, with the q^litrts 
*^ brought bv Afranius out of Spain, which Pompey eHeemed the 
** flower of hj$ army." Sec the notes on the Life of Pompey. 

t Caefar was-fo confident of fuccefs,1 that he ordered his entrench- 
ments to be filled up, aiTuring his troops that they would be inaders of 
the enemy's camp before night. 

/Plutarch, in the Life of PomptTt c^kVU Um Craj^iiuv* ^i«S« 
bim Crafl^us. 


'' the vi£tory is ours. It will be a glorious one ; and tM* 
** day I (hall have your praife either alive or dead.'* So 
iaying he ran in upon the enemv, at the head of his com- 
pany, which confifted of an hundred and twenty men. He 
did great execution among the firfl ranks, and was pre/ling 
on with equal fierccnefs, when one of his antagonifts pafhea 
his fword with fuch force in his mouthy that the point 
came out at the nape of his neck. 

While the infontry were thus warmly engaged in the 
ceutre, the cavalry advanced from Pomj)ey*s left wing 
with great confidence, and extended they fquadrons, to 
fnrround Caefar's right wing. But before they could be- 
ein the attack*, the fix cohorts which Caefar had placed 
behind, came up boldly, to receive them. They did not;, 
according to cudom, attempt to annoy the enemy with 
their javelins at a diftance, nor ftrike at the legs and thighs 
when they came nearer, but aimed at their >eyes, and 
wounded them in the face, agreeably to the orders they 
had received . For Caefar hoped that thefe young cavaliers 
who had not been ufed to wars and wounds, and who fet 
a ^reat value upon their beauty, would avoid, above a)t 
things, a flroke m that part, and immediately giyfi way, as 
well on account of the prefent danger, as the future de- 
formity. The event anfwered his expeftation. They 
could not bear the fpears pointed againft their faces, or the 
fteel gleaming upon their eyes, but turned away their face?, 
and covered them with their hands. This caufed fuch 
confufion, that at lafl they fled in the mod infamous man- 
ner, and ruined the whole caufe. For the cohorts which 
had beaten them off, furrounded their infantrv, and charg- 
ing them in the rear, as well as in front, ioon cut the^ 
to pieces. 

Pompey, when from the other wing he faw his cavalry 
put to the rout, was no longer himfelf, nor did he remem- 
ber that he was Pompey the Great; but like a man depriv- 
ed of his fcnfcs by fome fuperior power, or ft ruck with 
conftcrnation at his defeat as the confequence of the divine 
decree, Jie retired to his camp without fpeaking a wor(]l> 
and fat down in his tent to wait the ifTue. At laft, after 
his whole army was broken and difperfed, and the enemy 
had got upon his ramparts, and were engaged with the 


* Cxfarfays^ they did engage his n^H v\t\^> Mi^o\i\\^^^\^^ sw*^;! 
io give p-oand. ^^//, Crv;/. lib.iiu 

CiESAR. 26^ 

troops appointed to defend them, he Teemed to come to 
iiimfelf, and cried out, " What ! into my camp too ?** 
Without uttering one word more, he laid aiide the cnfigns 
of his dignity as general, and taking a habit that might 
favour his flight, he made his efcape privately. What 
misfortunes befel him afterwards, how he put himfelf in 
the hands of the Egyptians, and was aflaflinated by the 
traitors, we have related at large in his life. 

When Ca^far entered the camp, and faw what numbers 
of the enemy lay dead, and thofe they were then defpatch- 
ing, he faid with a figh, '' This they would have ; to this 
*• cruel neceility they reduced me : For had Casfar difmif- 
•* fed his troops, after fo many great and fuccefsful wars, 
" he would have been condemned as a criminal." Afmius 
Pollio tells us, Cacfar fpoke thofe words in Latin, and that 
he afterwards exprefll*J the fenfe of them in Greek. He 
adds, that moll of thofe who were killed at the taking of 
the camp, were flaves, and that there fell not in the battle 
above fix thoufand foldiers ♦. Caefar incorporated with 
his own legions moft of the infantry that were taken pri- 
foners ; and pardoned many perfons of diftin£>ion. Brutus, 
who afterwards killed him, was of the number. It is faid, 
that when he did not make his appearance after the battle, 
Ciiefar was very uneafy, and that upon his prefenting him- 
felf unhurt, he exprefled great joy. 

Among the many figns that announced this vidory, 
that at Tralles was the moil remarkable. -There was a 
ftatue of Cajfar in the temple of Vidory ; and though the 
ground about it was naturally hard, and paved with hard 
flonc befides, it is (aid that a palm tree fprung up at the 
pedeilal of the flatue. At Padua, Caius Cornelius, a 
countryman and acquaintance of Livy, and a celebrated 
diviner, was obferving the flight^f birds the day the bat- 
tle of PharfalLa was fought. By this obfervation, accord- 
ing, to Livy's account, he firll difcerned the time of aclion, 
and faid to thofe that were by, *' The great aiFair now 
^* draws to a decifion ; the two generals are eggaged." 
Then he made another obfervation, and the figns appear- 
ed fo clear to him, that he leaped up in the moil enthufiaf- 


* Cxfar fays, there fell about fifteen thoufand of the enemy, and 
that he took above twenty.four thoufand prifoners | and that on his 
fide, the lofs amounted only to about two hundte^ ^u'l^Xc ^q\i^\«c%^^tA 


tic. maQner^ and cried out* " Caefar« thou art the con- 
" qveror.'^ As the company ftood in great aftoniihmeht, 
be took the facred fillet from his head, and fwore «« He 
*' would never pat it on again, till the event had pot his 
•♦ art beyond queftion.*' Livy afiirms this for a truth. 

Caefar granted the whole nation of Theffaly their liberty, 
for the fake of the vidlory he had gained there, and then 
went in purfuit of Pompey. He bellowed the fame privilege 
on the Chidians, in compliment to Theopompus, to whom 
we are indebted for a colledlion of fables, and he dif- 
charged the inhabitants of Aiia from a third part of their 

Upon his arrival at Alexandria, he found Pompey aflaf- 
finated, and when ^heodotas prefcnted the head to him, 
he turned from the fight with great abhorrence. The fig- 
net of that general was the only thing he took, and on 
taking it, he wept. As often as any of Pompey's friends 
and companions were taken by Ptolemy, wandering about 
the country, and brought to Casfar ht loaded them with 
favours, and took them into his own fervice. He wrote 
to his friends at Rome, " That the chief enjoyment he 
" had of his viftcfry was, in faving every day one or other 
" of his fellow-citizens, who had borne arms againft 
*' him." 

As for his Egyptian war, fome aflert that it was un- 
dertaken without necefnty, and that his paifion for Cleo- 
patra engaged him in a quarreU which proved both 
prejudicial to hio reputation, and dangerous to his per- 
fon. Others accuie the king's minifters, particularly 
the eunuch Photinus, who had the greateft influence 
at court, and who, having taken oifF Pompey, and re- 
moved Cleopatra, privately meditated an attempt againft 
Caefar. Hence it is {tii, that Csefar began to pafs the 
night in entertainments amon^ his friends, for the greater 
facurity of his perfon. The behaviour, indeed, of xhis 
eunuch in public, all he faid and did with refpe^ to Cae« 
far, was intolerably infolent and invidious. The corn he 
fupplied his foldiers with was old and muily,. and he told 
them, " They ought to be fatisfied with it, fmce they lived 
" at other people's coH." He caufed only wooden and 
earthen veffels to be ferved up at the king's table, on pre- 
tence that Caefar had taken all the gold and filver ones for 
debt. For the father of the reign'uig prince owed Caeiar 
feventeen miiiion five hundred thoufand drachmas. Qeiar 

(if0 D, 1794.) ^Kadj 


CJESAR. 7:6^ 

Kad formerly remitted to his children the reft, but thought 
iit to demand the ten millions at this time, for the main* 
tetiance of his army. Photinus, inftead of paying the mo- 
ney, advifed him to go and iiniih the great affairs he had 
upon his hands, after which he fhould have his money wit^ 
thanks. But Cafar told him, " He had no need of 
*' Egyptian counfellors," and privately fent for Cleopatra 
out of the country. 

This princefs, taking only one friend, Apollodorus the 
Sicilian, with heis got into a fmall boat, and in the doik 
of the evening made for the palace. As (he faw it difficult 
to enter it undifcovered, ihe rolled herfelf up in a carpet ; 
Apollodorus tied her up at full length, like a bale of goods» 
and carried her in at the gates to Caefar. This ftratagem 
of hers, which was a ftrong proof of her wit and ingenuity, 
is faid to have iirft opened her the way to Caefar's heart ; 
and the conqaeft advanced fo fail, by the charms of her 
converfation, that he took upon him to reconcile her bro- 
ther to her, and infided that fhe fhould reign with him. 

An entertainment was given on account of .this recon« 
ciliaiion, and all met to rejoice on the occafion ; when a. 
fervaut of Csfar's, who was his barber, a timorous and 
fufpicious man, led by his natural caution to inquire into 
every thing, and to lilten every where about the palace* 
found that Achillas the general, and Photirius the eunuch, 
were plotting againft Cselar's life. Caefar being informed 
of their defign, planted his guards about the hall and killed 
Photinus. But Achillas efcaped to the army, and involved 
C.-efar in a very difficult and dangerous war; for witha 
few troops he had to make head againll a great city, and 
a powerful army. 

The firft difficulty he met with*, was, the want of 
water, the Egyptians haying flopped up the aquedu«3s 
that fupplied his quarterf. The fecond was, the lofs of his 
fhips in harbour, which he was forced to burn himfelf, to 
prevent their falling into the enemy's hands ; when the 
£ames unfortunately fpreading from the dock to the palact*« 


* He was in great danger before, when attacked in the palace by 
Achilla*, who had made himfelf mailer of Alexandria. Cms, Bell. 
Civil. Lib. iii. fub finem. 

f They alfo contrived to raife the fea-water by engines, and pour 
U into Caefar^s refervoirs and ciftems; but Caelar ordered wells to be 
dug, and, in a nlght*s'time, got a iufficient quantity of frelh water. 
Vide Cms. fiell. Alex. 

Volumiy. N , . 

^66 plutarch'*s lives. 

burnt the great Alexandrian library. The third * was in 
the fea-fi^ht near the ifle of Pharos, when, feeing his men 
Jhard prefled, he leaped from the mole into a little fkifF, to 
vo to their afliflance. The Egyptians making up on all 
iides, he threw himfelf into the fea, and with much difH- 
culty reached his galleys by fwimming^f . Having feveral 
valuable papers, which he was not willing either to lofe or 
to we£, it is faid he held them above water with one hand, 
and fwam.with tlie other. The fkifF funk foon after he 
lefbit; . Atlaft the king joining the infurgents, C.xfarat- 
,tac]ced and defeated him. Great numbers of the Egyp- 
,lians were flain> and the king was heard of no. more. This 

tave Caefar opportunity to eilablifli Cleopatra qu':en of 
gypt. Soon after fhte had ii ion by him, whom the Alex- 
^.ndnans called Cacfario. 

He then departed for Syria, and from thence marched 
into Aila Minor, where hie had intelligence that Domitiu^ 
whom he had left g'overnor, was defeated by Pharnaccs, 
fon of Mithridates, and forced to fly out of Pontus with the 
few troops that he had left ; and that Pharnaces, purfultig 
his advantage with great ardour, had made himfelf mafter 
of Bithynia and Cappadocia, and was attempting Armenia 
the Lefs, having flirred up all the kings and tetrarchs of 
.,Afia againft the Romans. Cxfar immediately marched 
againll him with three legions, a*nd defeated him in a great 
battle near Zela, which deprived him of the kingdom of 
Pontus, as well as ruined his whole army. In the account 
^he gave Amintius, one of his friends in Rome, of the ra- 
pidity and defpatch with which he gained his viftory, he 
made ufe only of three words J, <* I came, J faw, I con- 
** quered.'*' Their having all the fame form and termi- 
nation in the Roman language, add^ ja;race Jto their .cop- 

After this extraordinary fuccefs he returned to Italy, aad 
arrived at Rome, as the year of his fecond didlatorfnip, an 
office that had never been annual before, was on the point 
of expiring. He was declared conful fof the year cnuiing. 

* Firft there was a general nj|ya].$oga^cjncnt ; after wliich Cxfar 
attacked the iHand, and, lafl of all, the moie. It was in this lad at- 
tack l)« vvas under the difficult/ mentioned by Plutarch. 

•|* His firA intention was to gain Che Admiral galley ; but finding it 
very hard preffed, he made for the others. And it was fortunatt for 
hira th. t he did, for his own galley foon went to the bottom. 
i yiu'tf *vldii vkU 

JBut it was a blot in his charafter that he did not punlfh his 
;troops, who^ in a tumult, had killed Coiconius and Galba, 
men of Praetorian dignity, in any fcvcrer manner than by 
jcalling them citizens ♦, inftead of fellow-foldiers. Nay, 
•he gave each of them a thoufand drachmas notwithilanding, 
and affigfied them large portions of land in Italy. Other 
complaints againft him arofc from the madnefs of Dola- 
bella, the avarice of Amintius, the drunken^efs of Antony, 
and the infolence of Cornificius f, who, having got poC- 
jfelTion of Pompey's houfe, pulled it down, and rebuilt k, 
becaufe he thought it not large enough for him. Thcfc 
things were very difagreeable to the Romans. Cxfar knew 
it, and difapproved fuch behaviour, but was obliged, 
through political views, to make ufe of fuch minifters. 

Cato and Scipio, after the battle of Pharfalia, had 
4efcaped into Africa, where they raifed a refpeftable army 
with the afliiiance of king Juba. Caefar now xefolved to' 
xarry war into ihci^ quarters, and in order to it, £rft 
icroifed over to Sicily, though it was about the time of tht 
tkvinter folftice. To preveat his officers from entertaining 
.anyliopes of having the expedition delayed, he pitched 
Jiis own tent almoft within the wa(h of the fea ; and a fa- 
vourable wind fpringing up, he re-embarked with three 
ihoufand foot arid a fmall body of horfe J. After he had 
landed them fafely and privately on the African coaft, he 
fet fail again in queft of the remaining part of his troaps, 
whofe numbers weve more confiderable, and for whom he 
was under great concern. He found them, however, on 
jtheir way at fea, and conducted them all to his African 

He was there informed, that the enemy had great de- 

_pendence on an ancient oracle, the purport of which was, 

N 2 ''That 

* But by ttU appellation they were cafliiercd. It was the tenth le- 
: i;,ion which had mutinied at Capua, and aftervi-ards marched with great 
infolence to Rome. Caefar readily gave them the difcharge tlicy de- 
manded, which fo humbled ihcm, that they begged to be taken agiun 
into his fervice \ and he did not admit of it without much feeming re- 
ludance, nor till after much intreaty, 

^ It was Antony, not Comificius, who got the forfeiture of Pom- 
ipey's houfe; as appears from the life of Antony, and Cicero*s fecond 
Philippic. Therefore there is, probably, a tranfpofuion in this pUce, 
oWaig to the carelcflhefs of fome tranfcriber. 

t ^* embarked fix legions, and two thoufand horfc; but tbt xc^oxti- 
. bcr mentioned by Platarch was all that he landed ^N\\\\ w. tkx^\ tcvw^^ 
of tht fiijps bavins been feparaud by a ftornu 


<* That the race of Scipio would be always Ti£torioua la 
" Africa." And, as he happened to have in his army one 
of the family of Africanus, named Scipio Sallution, though 
in other reipedls a contemptible fellow, either in ridicSe 
of Sclpio> the enemy's general, or to turn the oracle on 
his fide, in all engagements he gave this Sallution the 
command, as if he had been really general. There were 
frequent occafions of this kind ; for lie was often forced to 
fight for provifions, having neither a fuiHciency of bread 
for his men, nor of forage for his horfes. He was obliged 
to give his horfes the very fea-weed, only walhing out the 
.fait, and mixing a little grafs with it to make it go down. 
The thing that laid him under a neceffity of having rc- 
courfe to this expedient, was the number of Numidian ca- 
valry, who were extremely well mounted, and by fwift 
and fudden imprefOons commanded the whole coaH. 

One day when Caefar's cavalry had nothing clfe to do, 
they diverted themfelvcs with an African who danced, and 
played upon the flute with great perfedion. They had 
left their horfes to the care of boys, and fat attending to 
the entertainment with great delight, -when the enemy 
coming upon them at once, killed part, and entered the 
camp with others, who fled with great precipitation. Had 
not Caefar himfelf, and Aflnius PoUio come to their aflift- 
ance, and flopped their flight, the war would have been at 
an end that hour. In another engagement the enemy iiad 
the advantage again ; on which occafion it was that Cxfar 
took an enfign, who was running away, by the neck, and 
making him face about, faid, •• Look on this fide for the 
" enemy.'* 

Scipio, flulhed with thefe fuccefsful preludes, was de^ 
{irous to come to a decilive a<flion. Therefore, leaving 
Afranius and Juba in their refpe^live camps, which were at 
no great diilance, he went in perfon to the camp above the 
lake, in the neighbourhood otThapfus, to raife a fortifica- 
tion for a place of arms and an occafional retreat. While 
Scipio was c<. nilrudting his walls and ramparts, Cxfar, 
with incredible deipatch, made his way through a country 
almoft impradicabie, by reafoii of its woods and difficult 
partes, and coming iuddenly upon him, attacked one part 
of his army in the rear, another in the front, and put the 
whole to Might. Then making the bell ufe of his oppor- 
tunity, and of the favour of fortune, with one tide of fuc- 
ccis he took the camp of Afranius, and deftroyed that of 
^s, D.1794.) -^« 

CiElSAK. 269 

the Numidians ; Juba, their kitig, bdng glad to fave him- 
felf by flight. Thus, in a fmall part of one day, he made 
himfelf mafler of three camps, and killed fifty thoufand of 
the enemy, with the lofs only of fifty men. 

Such is the account fome give us of the aftion: Others 
fay, that as Cxfar was drawing up his army, and giving . 
his orders, he had an attack of his old diftemper ; and that 
upon its approach, before it had overpowered and deprived 
him of his fenfes, as he felt the firft agitations, he diredtcd 
his people to carry him to a neighbouring tower, where he 
lay in quiet till the fit was over. 

Many perfons of confular and prajtorian dignity efcaped" 
out of the battle. Some of them being afterwards taken, 
defpatched themfelves, and a number were put to death by 
Cxfar. Having a llrong defire to take Cato alive, the 
conqueror hallened to Utica *, which Cato had the charge ' 
of, and for that reafon was not in the battle. But by the 
way he was informed that he had killed himfelT", and his 
uneafinefs at the news was very vifible. As his officer$ 
were wondering what might be the caufe of that uneafinefs, 
he cried out, " Cato, I envjr thee thy death, iince thou 
*' enviedft me the glory of giving thee thy life.'* Never- 
thelefs, by the book which he wrote againfl Cato after hi« • 
death, it does not feem as if he had any intentions of fa- 
vour to him before. For how^an it be thought he would 
have fpared the living enemy> wJien he poured fo much 
venom afterwards upon his grave ? Yet, from hb clemency 
to Cicero, to Brutus, and othcr« without number j who had 
borne* arms againfl him, it is conjeftured, that the book* 
was not written with a fpirit of rancour, but of political 
ambition; for it was compofed on fuch an occafion. Ci- 
cero had written an encomium upon Cato, and he gave 
the name oi Cato to the book. It was highly elleemed by 
many of the i^oman?, as might be expected, as well from 
the fuperior eloquence of the author, as the dignity of the 
fubjed.-Caefar was' piqued at the fuccefs of a work, which, 
in praiiinga man who had killed himfelf to avoid falling 
into his lunds-, he thought infinuated fomething to the diu 
N 3 advantage 

* Before Csefar left UtIca, he gave orders for the.rebulldiog of Car* 
thige, as he did, foon after his return to Italy, for the rebuilding of 
Porinth ; fa that thefe two cities were deilroyed in the fame year, and 
in the fame year raifed out of their ruins, in which they had laid about 
9 hundred years. Two jcars after, they "wctt \Mi\.\\ t^^vj'^Ve^ ^">!^ 
Konun colonies. 

2J0 Plutarch's liyzs. 

advantage of his charadler. He therefore wrote art aniw ei^ 
tp itj which he called Jniicato, and which contained a* 
variety of charges againlt that great man. Both books 
have flill their friends* as a regard to the memory of Csefai*" 
or of Cato predominates. 

Csfar, after his return from Africa to Rome, fpoke irt 
high terms of his victory to the people. He told them> he 
had fubdued a country fo extenfive, that it would bring- 
yearly into the piiblic florcs two hundred thoufand Attic • 
jneafures of wheat, and three million of pounds of oil. 
After this, he led up his feveral triumphs, over Egypt, 
Pontus, a/id Africa f. In the title of the latter, mentionf 
was not made of Scipio, but of Juba only. Juba,the foiv 
of that prince, then very young, walked in the proceflion. 
It proved a happy captivity for him ; for of a barbarous 
and unlettered Numiaian, he'became an hiftorian worthy 
to be numbered among the moft learned of Greece. The 
trium[Vi was followed by large donations to the foldiers, 
and feafts and public diverfionB for the people. He enter- 
tained them at twenty-two thoufand tables, and prefented 
theni* with a numerous (hew of gladiators and naval fights,, 
in honour of his daughter Julia, who had been'Ionjj..dead, 
. When thofe exhibitions were over J, t«i--a€c6unt was 
taken of the citizens, who, from three hundred and twenty 


♦ Medimtih See the tabic of weip.hts and meafures. 

\ Piunrch either jEwgot to make menticn of the triumph ovw 
Gaul, which was the mo(\ confiderabJc, or cifc to» KiTvriv.ov has dropr 
out of the text. 

X Ruauld lakes notice cf three great iDiHaket in this p»(r3;»c. The 
firft is, where it is iM that Caefar took a ctnjus of the peopif. Sue- 
tonius does not mention it, and Auguftus hjmfcif, in the Marmora 
Ancyrana, fays, that in Uis fixth cocfulate, that is, in the year of Rome 
725, h3 nunr.bercd the perple, which had not been done for forty-two 
years before. TIic ftcond is, that, before the civil wars broke oat be- 
tween Caefar;snd Pompey, the number of the people in Rf me amounted, 
to no moie than thiee hundred and twenty thoufand 5 for long before 
that it was much greater, and had continued upon tlie incrcafe. The 
1^(1 is, wliere it is afferred, that, in lef^. than three years, thofe three 
hundied and twenty thoufand were reduced, by that war, to a hundred 
and fifty thoufand j the faJfity of which affertion is evident from iliis,. 
thit a little while after, Caefar made a draught of cighry thoufand, to 
le fcnt to foreign colonies. But, what is ft ill ftrongcr, eighteen year* 
after, Auguftus took an account of the people, and found the number 
amount \xj four milJions and fixty-three.thoufand, as Suetonius affurcs 
.«s. From a pa/Tage in the fame author (Life of Carfar, chap, iv.) thefs 
jwi^^ih €5 ©f Plutarch took their fife. Suttonius there ff^ys, Raenfun 

I ^} till 

ttioafiind, were reduced to a hundred and fifty thoufand* 
So Eital a calamity was the civil war, and fuch a, number, 
of the people did it take off, to fay nothing of the mif- 
fortunes it brought upon the reft of Italy, and all the pro- 
vinces of the empire: 

This bufmefs done. He was ele€led conful the fourth- 
time ; ami the firft thing he undercook, was to march inta 
Spain againft the fons of Pompey, whoj though young, 
had afl'embled a numerous army, and (hewed a courage 
worthy the command they had undertaken. The great- 
battle which put a period to that war, was fought under 
the walls of Munda. Ca;far at firll faw his men fo hard- 
prefled, and making fo feeble a refiftance, that he ran thro^ 
the ranks, amidft the fwords' ar^l fpears, crying, " Are 
•* you not alhamed to deliver your general into the hands 
•* of boys r" The great and vigorous efforts this reproficlv- 
produced, at lait made the enemy turn their backs, and 
there were more than thirty thoufand of them flain, wJicrea» 
Caifar loll only a thoufand, but thctfc were fome of tha" he had.- As he retired after the battle, he told" 
his friends, '* He had often fought for vidory, but that- 
*• was the firft time he had l\;ught for his. life." 

He won this battle on the day of the Liheralia*, which 
was the fame day that Pompey the Great marched out, 
four years before. The younger of Pompey 's fons made hb 
efcape; the other was taken by Didius> a few days aAcr, 
who brought his head to Czefar. 

This was the laft of his wars'; and his triumph on ac- 
count of it gave the Romans more pain than any other 
ftep he had taken. He did not now mount the car for 
having conquered foreign generals, or barbarian kings, 
but for ruining the children, and deftroying the race of 
am of the greateft men Rome had ever produced, though 
he proved at laft unfortunate. All the u'orld condemned 
his triumphing in the calamities of his countiy, and re- 
N 4 joicing 

ftp'jVi nee nfi^-i ntc loco folito^ fed 'vlcatim tsr d'imhios htfularum eg'it: atfuetX 
\Lig:nt\ trectnt'ij^ue muJibui acdpient'iUin ft uinentum ejfih/ico^ ad centum ^uiv 
fuaginta reiraxtt. Suetonius fpeak* there of the cirizcns, wlio fhared" 
in the public corn, whom he found to announi to three hjndred and 
twenty thoufand, and, probably, be^aufe he pcrce.vcd thit tliflnbution 
anfweTed in many only the purpofcs of idUincfs, he reduced the n»m- 
ber ro a hundred and twenty thoufand. Plutarch miUook receifum for- 
^(Ttfum^ and this error led him into the other Uiiftakes* 
♦ Tbs fevcnt«enth cf March. 

272 p.Lur arch's lives. 

joicing in things which nothing could cxcufe, either before 
the gods or men, but extreme neceifitv. And it was the 
more ebvious to condemn it, becaufe^ before this, he had 
never fent any mcflenger or letter to acquaint the public 
with any viftory he had gained in the civil wars, but was 
rather aihamed of fuch advantages. The Romans, how- 
ever, bowing to his power, and fubmitting to the bridle> 
bccaufe they faw no other rcfpite frofn intcftine wars and 
miferies, but the taking one man for their mailer, created 
him dictator for life. This was a complete tyranny ; for 
to abfolute power they added perpetuity. 

Cicero was the firft who propoled that the fenatc fhonld 
confer great honours upon Ca><ar, but honours within the 
meafure of humanity. Thofc who followed, contended 
with each other which fhould make him the moft extraor- 
dinary compliments, and by the abfurdity and extravagance 
of their decrees, rendered him odious and infupporuble 
even to perfons of candour. His enemies are iuppofed 
to vie with his flatterers in thcfe facrificcs, that they 
might have the better pretence, and the more caufe, to 
lift up their hands againil him. This is probable enough^ 
becaufe in other refpe^is, after the civil wars were brought 
to an end, his condufl was irreproachable. It feems as 
if there was nothing unreafonable in their ordering a tem- 
ple to be built to Clemency, in gratitude for the mercy 
they had experienced in Cajfar. For he not only par- 
doned moll of thofe who had appeared againil him in the 
field, but on fome of them he bellowed honours and pre- 
ferments; on Brutus and Cafllus for inllance; for they 
were both praetors. The ftatues of Pompey had been 
thrown down, but he did not fufFer them to lie in that 
poilure; he erefted them again. On which occafion Ci- 
cero faid, " That Caefar, by rearing Pompey *s flatues, 
*' had eflabliihed his own.'* 

His friends prefled him to have a guard, and many 
offered to ferve in tJiat capacity, but he would not fufFer 
it. For, he faid, " It was better to die once, than to 
•' live always in fear of death." He efteemed the affec- 
tion of the people the moft honourable and the fa fell 
guard, and therefore endeavoured to gain them by fealU 
and diflributionsof corn, as he did theioldiers, by placing 
them in agreeable colonies. The mofl noted places that 
he colonized, were Carthage and Corinth; of which it is 


CiESAR. 273 

remarkable, that as they were both uken and demolifhed 
at the fame time, fo they were at the (ame time rcftorcd. 

The nobility he gained by proraifing them confalates 
and praetorfhips, or, if they were engaged, by giving 
them other places of honour and profit. To all he opened 
the profpefts of hope; for he was defirous to reign ever 
a willing people. For this reafon he was fo ftudious to 
oblige, tliat when Fabius Maximus died fuddenly towards 
the clofe of his confulfhip, he appointed Caninus Rebi- 
lius * conful for the day that remained. Numbers went 
to pay their rcfpedls to him, according to cuflom, and to 
condu(ft him to the fenate-houfe ; on • which occafion 
Cicero faid, " Let us make hafle and pay our compli* - 
*• ment to the conful, before his office is expired." 

Ca:far had fuch talents for great attempts, and fo vaft 
an ambition, that the many a6iions he had performed, by 
no means induced him to lit down and enjoy the glory ' 
he had acquired ; they rather whetted his appetite for other 
conquells, produced new* defigns equally great, together 
with equal confidence of fuccefs, and infpired him with 
a paflion for frelh renown, as if he had exhaufted all the 
pleal'ures of the old.^ This pafiion was nothing but a 
jealoufv of himfelf, a conteft with himfelf (as eager as if 
it had been with another man) to make his future achieve- 
ments outfhine the paft. . In this fpirit he had formed a 
defign, and v^ras making preparations for war againfl the- 
Parthians. After he had fubdued them, he intended to ' 
traverfe Hyrcania,'and marching alone by the Cafpian 
fea and Mount Caucafus, to enter Scythia ; to carry his 
conquering arms through the countries adjoining to Ger- 
many, and through Germany itfelf; and then to return 
by Gaul to Rome; thus finifhing the circle of the Roman • 
empire, as well as extending . its bounds to the ocean on • 
every fide. 

During the preparations for' this expedition, he at- 
tempted to dig through the lilhmus of Corinth, and - 
committed the care of that work to Anienusf . He de- 
iigned alfo to convey the Tiber by a deep channel diredly 
N 5 , from . 

* Macrobius ctlls hitn-ReBUui, 

•J- Arnjifoir in Thro «rpo;^i»p0'a^syo(. The Latin and French tran- 
slators join this with f h^ fcntenee that follows, and render it. ^ He de* - 
*' figned alfo to unite the Anio and the Tiber^ and convey them by a > 
'u4eep channel dlre^ly from R0016 to CircsU) 4cc* E«i m^"^^^^ 

274 Plutarch's lives. 

from Rome to Circ«i» and £o into the Tea near TarracinSr 
for the convenicince as well as fecurity of merchants' wha- 
traded to Rome. Another public fpirited work that he 
medicated, was to drain all the marfhes by Nomentum * 
and Setia, by which ground enough would be gained from 
the water to employ many thoufands ofhands in tillage. He 
propofed farther to raife banks on the fhore neareit Rome, 
to prevent the fea from breaking in upon the land ; to clear 
the Oflian fliore of its fecret and dangerous objl rudions, and 
to build harbours fit to receive the many veiTels tliat came in: 
there. Thefc things were defigned, but did not take eifed. 
He completed, however, the regulation of the calen- 
dar^ and corre^ed the erroneous computation of timef>. 
agreeably to a plan which he had ingenioufly contrived, 
and which proved of the grcatcft utility. For it was not 
only in ancient times that the Roman months fo ill agreed, 
with the revolution of the year, that the feiliyals' aud^days 
of facrifice, by little and little, fell backiifto fcafons quite ^ 
oppofite to thofe of their inftitution; but even in the time- 
of Carfar, when the folar year was made ufe of, the gene-- 
lality lived in perfed ignorance of the matter; and the 
priefts, who were the only perfons that knew any thing 
about it, ufed to add all at once, and when nobody ex- 
pected it, an intercalary month, called Mercecfonius, of. 
which Numa was the inventor. That remedy, however, 
proved much too weak, and was far from operating extcn- 
• lively enough, to corredl the great mifconiputations of; 
time ; as we have obfcrved in that prince's life. 


conftruftlon there Is tlils ftrorg objcftlon, that the Anio f-lls into the 
Tiber above Rome In Greek, too, tliat ilvcr woulJ be /.vicjt^ not. 
Afitj^o^. And if we admiucd of that conrtrufllon, what cculd be made c£ 
AnJivov evi Taro W|*o;^6»pta'a/^iw?, which woviltl literally be, laving 
ftrevioujly fitted the to (hut purfofe. 

On tlij other hand ft may be illeged, tbat poffibly. Plutarch fnlght 
not know where the conflux of the Anio and. the Tiber was, though, . 
with rt^jiva to a man who had Hved (oifc time at Rone, it is fcarce 
an adniiifible fuppvfuion. And wc muft acknowJedre, that wc have 
not any wheie elfe met with jSnlenm as a Roman name. 

Suet; n. us takes no notice oi Csefrir's inieniion to make this cot. 

• It appears, fronj a paflTage in Stietonios,. Vit. C«f. c. 44. Skcart 
Pcmptinas.f>aludes, as well as from another in Sirabo, Ed. Par. J. v. p. 23 1. 
C D. thi' for Ntmentum we (hould here read Pomtr.tiuvu 

•f Through means of that erroneous computation, the Roman c^- 
Undar had gained near three months in the time of Ca:far. Btf'orft. 
this, ffBdeavours had been "fed to corre^ the irregularity, but it n^jvcr. 
could jbf dene with exaOatfe. See i^e Wtt oi "^vima. 

CJESAR. 275 

Cx{jit having propofed the queftion to the 910ft able phi- 
lofophers and mathematiciatis,. pubtiihed, upon priuciple9 
already verified, a new and more cxa6i regulation, whicH 
the Romans Hill go by, and by that means are nearer the 
truth than other nations with refpeft to the difference be- 
tween, the fun's revolution and that of the twelve months. - 
Yet this ufeful invention furnifhed matter of ridicule to 
the envipiis^ and to thofe who could but ill brook his 
power. For Cicero (if I miftake not) when fonie one hap- 
pened to fay, " Lyra will rife to-morrow," anfwered^ 
" Undoubtedly ; there is an edift for it :*' As if the ca-- 
lendar was forced upon them, as well as other things. 

But the principal thing that excited the public hatred,., 
aad at laft caufcd his death, was his paflion for the title of 
king. It was the firft thing that gave offence to the mul- 
titude, and it afforded his inveterate enemies a very plau- 
fible plea. Thofe who wanted to procure him that honour* 

fave it out among the people, that it appeared from the - 
ibylline books, '^ The Romans could never conquer tho 
*' Parthians, except they went to war tinder the conduft of 
'* a king." And one day, when Caifar returned from Alba^ 
to Rome, fome of his retainers ventured to falutc him by 
that title. Obferving that the people were troubled at., 
this flrange compliment, he put on an air of refentment, . 
and faid, " He was not called king, but Cxfar.'* Upon = 
this, -a deep filence enfued, and he pafled on in no good r 
humour. . 

Another time the fenate having decreed hini fome ex- 
tra vagaht honours, the confuls and praetors, attended by 
the wnole body of patricians, went to inform him of^ ; 
what they had done. When they came, he did not rife to - 
receive them, but kept his feat, as if-they had been per* 
fons in a private flation, and his anfwer to their addrefs, . 
was, " That tliere was more need to retrench his honours, 
*' than to enlarg-c them." This haughtinefs gave pain . 
not only to the fenate, but the people, who thought th<>«*; 
contempt of that botly reflcded dilhonour upon the whole . 
commonwealth ; foe all who could decently withdraw^ 
went off greatly dejeded*> 

Perceiving the falfe Hep he had taken, he retired imme- 
jdiately to his own houfe ; and laying his neck bare, told ; 
ius friends, *' He was ready for the firft hand that would 
'' ftrikc." He then bethought himfclf of alleging his 
diftemper as an excuf? i ,and aiferted^ that thofe v.'ho atV . 

Q.'jS Plutarch's lives. 

vnder its influence, are apt to find their faculties fail 
thenw when they fpeak Handing ; a trembling and giddi- 
Jiefs coming upon them, which bereaves them of their 
fenfes. This, nowever, was not really the cafe ; for it is 
faid, he was defirous to rife to the fenate ; but Cornelius 
BaJbus, one of his fiends, or rather flatterers, held him, 
and had fervility enough to fay, " Will you not remember 
•' that you are Caefar, and fuffer them to pay their court 
•♦ to you as their fuperior." 

Thefedifcon tents were greatly increafed by the indignity 
with which he treated the tribunes of the people. In the 
Lapercalia, which, according to moil writers, is an ancient 
pailoral feafl, and which anfwers in many refpeds to the 
tycaa amongil the Arcadians, young men of noble fami- 
lies, and indeed many of the maeiftrates^ run about the 
ftreets naked, and, by way of diverfion, llrike all they 
meet with leathern thongs with the hair upon them. 
Numbers of women of the firll quality put themfelves in 
their way, and prefent their hands for flripes, (as fcholars 
do to a mailer) being perfuaded that the pregnant gain an 
eafy delivery by it, and that the barren are enabled to 
conceive. Csefar wore a triumphal robe that day, and 
feated himfelf in a golden chair upon the rojira, to fee 
the ceremony. 

Antony ran among the rt^, in compliance with the 
rules of the feilival, for he was conful. When he came 
into \\iQ forum, and the crowd had made way for him, he 
approaclied Caefar, and offered him a diadem wreathed 
with laurel. Upon this fome plaudits were heard, but 
very feeble, becaufe they proceeded only from pcrfons 
placed there on purpofe. Caifar refufcd it, and then the 
plaudits were loud and general. Antony prefented it 
once more, and few applauded his oiHcioufnefs ; but when 
Caefar rcjefted it again, the applaufe again was general. 
Caefar, undeceived by his fecond trial, role up, and ordered 
the diadem to be confecrated in the capitol. 

A few days after, his ilatues were feen adorned with 
royal diadems; and Flavins and Marullus, two of the 
tribunes, went and tore them off. They alfo found out 
the perfons who fixk fainted Caefar king, and committed 
them to prifon. The people followed with cheerful ac- 
clamations, and* called them Brutujes, becaufe Brutus 
'was the man who' expelled the kings, and put the govern- 
ment in the hands of the Icnate and people. C^far, highly 


CJESAR, ^77 

incenfed at their behaviour^ depofed the tribunes ; and by 
Vay of reprimand to theni> as well as infult to the people* 
called them feveral times Brutes and Cum^ans*. 

Upon this, many applied to Marcus Brutus, who, by 
the father's fide, was fuppofed to be a defcendant of that 
ancient Brutus, and whole mother was of the illuflrious 
houfe of the Servilii. He was alfp nephew and fon-in-law 
to Cato. No man was more inclined than he to lift his 
hand againft monarchy, but he was withheld by the ho^ 
nours and favours he had received from Ca;far, who had 
not only given him his life after the defeat of Pompey at 
Pharfalia, and pardoned many of his friends at his requeil, 
but continued to honour him with his confidence. That 
very year he had procured him the niofl honourable prae- 
torihip, and he had named him for the confulihip four 
years after, in preference to Cafllus, who was his compe- 
titor. On whicn occafion Csefar is reported to have fa id, 
•' Caflius affigns the flrongefl reafons, but I cannot refufe 
*' Brutus." 

Some impeached Brutus, after the confpiracy was 
formed ; but, inflead of liilening to them, he laid his hand 
on his body, and faid, " Brutus will wait for this fkin :'* 
intimating, that, though the virtue of Brutus rendered 
him worthy of empire, he would not be guilty of any in- 
gratitude or bafenefs to obtain it. Thofe, however, who 
were defirous of a change, kept their eyes upon him only, 
or principally at leaft ; and as they durll not fpeak out 
plain, they put billets night after night in the tribunal 
and feat which he ufed as praetor, moflly in thefe terms, 
" Thou fleepefl, Brutus ;" or, " Thou art not Brutus." 

Caflius perceiving his friend's ambition a little flimulated 
by thefe papers, began to ply him clofer than before, and 
fpur him on to the great enterprise ; for he had a particu- 

* One thing which Strabo mentions as an in(^ance of the Aupiditjr 
cf the Cumaeans, namely their not laying any daiy upon merchandize 
imported into their harbour, feems to be a very equivocal proof of it { 
for their leaving the port free, might bring them trade, and make them 
a flouriihing people. Another thing which he mentions (though it is 
fcarce worth repeating) is, that they had mortgaged their porricos, and, 
vpon failure of payment of the rhoney, were prohibited e y their credi- 
tors from walking under them ; but at lait, when fonie heavy rains came 
on, public notice was given by the crcditorsy that iheir debtors would 
be indulged that favour. Hence, he tells us, that faying, ** The. e\x.. 
^ means have not fenfe to gee under (hdtec vii\[k«a \x. im.'&<k>^2CL >^^ vl^ 
tt put iii mind of it by die cryer*** 

af8 plutarchV l4ves, 

lar enmity againll Cstfar, for the reafons which we have 
mentioned in the life of Brutus. Cxfar, too, had fome 
fafpicion of him, and he even iaid one day to his friends, 
•' What think yon of Caffius ? I do not like his pale 
'* looks J' Another time, when Antony and Dolabell^. 
were accufed of fome defigns againft his. p^rfoa> and go^ . 
vernment, he faid, '^ I have no ^appreheauons from thoiib 
*' fat and fleek men; I rathen fear, the pale and lean 
" ones ;" meaning Caflius and Brutus. . 

Itfeems, from this inilance, that fate is not fo fecret, as - 
it is inevitable. For we are told, there were ftrong iign? . 
and.prefages of the deathof Caifar. As to the lights iji^-. 
the heavens, the grange noifes * heard in<various quatterf . 
by night, and the appearance of folitary birds in thc/or^m, 
perhaps they defcrve not our notice in fo great an event sls 
this. But fome attention iho.uld be given to Strabo the 
philofppher. According to.hioi, there were feen in the aic, 
men of fire encountering e^b other ; fuch a flame appeared . 
to iifue/rom the hand of a foldicr's fcrvant, that all the . 
fpeftators thought it mull be burnt, yet, wheiLit.wasover, . 
he found no harm; and one of ithe.vidims which Caefar . 
oiFered, was found without ajieart. The latter was cer- 
tainly a moll alarming prodigy ; for, according to the : 
rules of nature, no creature can cxifl without a heart* 
What is dill more extraordinary, many report, that a cer- 
tain foothfayer forewarj)ed him of a great danger which , 
threatened him on the ides of March, and that, when the 
day wa5 come, as he was going to thsfenate-houfe, he . 
called to the foothfayer, and faid laughing, *' The ides 
*' of March are come.;" to which he anivvered, foftly, . 
" Yes : but they are not gpne." 

The evening befpre, he fupped with Marcus Lepidus, .. 
and figned, according to cultom, a number of letters, as 
he fat at table. While he was fo employed, there arofe a 
queftioBy " What kind of death was the bell r" and Caefar 
anfwering before them all* cried out, " A fudden one." 
The fame night, as he was in bed witlvhis wife, the doors . 
and windows of the room flew open at once. , Diflurbed . 
both with the.noife and the light, he obfervcd, by moon- 
fliine, Calpurniain a deep lleep, uttering; broken words ■ 


• With fome of the manufcrJpts, \rc read KTYnOYS vvulcf^ voJi- 
X«;^« hx^tfofjiiyaq* If the common reading, TTIIOTX x. t. ^, 
be preferred^ the fcnfe will be, tbt J'^'iJres feen fivmaiirg about in tU 

CJESAR, 2y^ 

fttid ruarticjalate groan^j. She. dreamed tliat (he was weep- 
ing over him^ as (he held, h'na, murdered, in her arms. 
Others fay, (he. dreamed that the •■ pinnacle was falleni 
>vhiclu a» I^vy tdjs us, the fenate had ordered to be 
ereded upon Caeflir'js houfe, by way. of ornament and di- 
ilinfUon i, and. that it was the fall of it which^ihe lamented 
and wept for. Be that as it may, next morning ihe con- 
jured Caefar not to go out. that day, if he could poifibly 
avoid it, but to adjourn the fenate ; and, if he paid no 
riagard to her dream*, to have recourfe to fome other fpe- 
cles of divination, or to facrifices, for information as to his 
fate^ This gave him fome fufpicion and alarm j i'os^ he 
had never known before, in Calpui*nia, any thing of the 
weaknefs or fuperftition of her fex,, though ihe was now 
fo much afteded. 

He therefore offered a number of facrifices, and, as the 
diviners found no aufpicious tokens in any of them, he 
fent Antony to difmii's the fenate. In the mean time, 
Decius Brutusf , furaamed Albious, came in. He was a 
perfon in whom Caefar placed fuch confidence, that he 
had appointed him his fecond heir, yet he was engaged 
in the confpiracy with the other Brutus and Caffius. This 
man, fearing that if Caifar adjourned the fenate to another 
day the affair might bedifcoiysered, laughed at the diviners, 
and told Caefar he would be highly to blame, if, by fuch 
a flight, he gave the fenate an occaiion ofcompkint againft 
him* •' For they were met,*' he faid, *' at his fummons, 
•* and came prepared with. one voice to honour him with 
" the title of king in the provinces, and to grant that 
«' he fhould wear the diadem both by land and fea every 
" where out of Italv. But if any one go and telLthem, 
•*■ now they have taken their places, they mufl go home 
'* again, and return when Calpurnia, happens to have 
" better dreams, what room will your enemies have to 
•* launch out againft you ? Or who will hear your friends 
•' when they attempt to fliew, that this is not an open fervi . 
•' tude on the one nand, and tyranny on the other? — If 
** you are abfolutely perfuaded that this is an unlucky day, 
'* it is certainly better to go yourfelf, and ^ell them you 

•* have 

f The pinnacle was an orhamf nt nfually placed npon the top of their 
trmpks, snd was commonly adorned uith fome ftdtbes of th/ir $odty 
j&gatvs of vidory, or oth^r fymbolical device. 

:|* Plutarch Anding a D prefixed to Brutuv^odkr vi (ot Dccm%\ VcX 
'his naaii^ Wfis PMmui Brutuu See App'itn and Su(igii.>Jk«% 

28o flutarch's! lives. 

•' have llrong reafon of putting 6ff bufinefs till another 
** time." So faying, he took Casfar by the hand, and led 
him out. 

He was not gone far from the door, when a flave, who 
belonged to feme other perfon, attempted to get up to 
fpeak to him, but finding it impoflible, by reaion of the 
crowd that was about him, he made his way into the 
houfe, and putting himfelf intb the hands of Calpurnia, 
defired her to keep him fafc till Csefar's return, becaufe he : 
httd matters of great importance to communicate. 

■A*rtemidorus the Cnidian, who, by teaching the Greek 
eloquence, became acquainted with Ibme of Brutus 's 
ftiends, and had got intelligence of moil of the tranfac- 
tions, approached Caifar with a paper, explaining what . 
he had to difcover. Obferving that he gave the papers, 
as fall as he received them, to his officers, he got up as 
clofe as poifible, and faid, *' Cajfar, read this to yourfelf, 
*' and quickly ; for it contains matters of great confe- 
'* quence, and of the lall concern to you." He took it and 
attempted feveral times to read it, but was always pre- 
vented by one application or other. He therefore kept 
that paper, and that only in his hand, when he entered 
the houle. Some fay, it was delivered to him by another • 
man, Artemidorus being kept from approaching him all . 
the way by the crowd. 

Thefe things might, indeed, fall out by chance ; but as 
in the place where the fenate was that day afiembled, and 
which proved the fcene of that tragedy, there was a ftatue 
of Pompey, and it was an edifice which Pompey had con- 
fecrated for an ornament to his theatre, nothing can be 
clearer than that fome deity conduced the whole bufinefs, 
and direded the execution of it to that very fpot. Even 
Caflius himfelf, though inclined to the doftrines of Epi- 
curus, turned his eye to the ftatue of Pompey, and fecretly 
invoked his aid, before the great attempt. The arduous 
occafion, it feems, over-ruled his former fentiments, and 
laid him open to all the influence of enthufiafm. Antony, 
who was a faithful friend to Ca:far, and a man of great • 
ilrength, was held in difcourfe without by Brutus Albi- • 
nus, who had contrived a long ftory to detain him. 

When Cjefar entered the houfe, the fenate rofe to do 
him honour. Some of Brutus's accomplices came up be* 


* By Caius Trebonlus. So Vlurarch fiys, in the Life of Brutuij. 
A/>pha fayt the fame J and Cvccro ioo^mYi\*&^wAV\aft^\f\s;; 

CiESAR. 7%l 

hind his chair, and others before it, pretending to inter- 
cede, along withMetilliusCimber*, for the recal of his bro- 
ther from exile. They continued their inftances till he 
came to his feat. When he was feated he gave them a 
pofitive denial ; and as they continued their importunities 
with an air of compuliion, he grew angry. Cimber f , 
then, with both hands, pulled his gown off his neck, which 
was the fignal for the attack. Cafca gave him the firfl 
blow. It was a llroke upon the neck with his^fword, 
but the wound was not dangerous ; for in the beginning 
of fo tremendous an cnterprize he was probably in forac 
diforder. C^far therefore turned upon him, and laid hold 
of his fword. At the fame time, they both cried out, the 
one in Latin, *' Villain! Cafca ! what doft thou mean ?'* 
and the other in Greek, to his brother, " Brother, help I" 

After fuch a beginning, thofe who knew nothing of the 
confpiracy, were feized with confternation and horror, in- 
fomuch that they durft neither fly, nor afTill, nor even utter 
a word. All the confpirators now drew their fwords, and 
furrounded him in fuch a manner, that whatever way he 
turned, he faw nothing but ileel gleaming in his face, and 
met nothing but wounds. Like fome favage beail attacked 
by the hunters, he found every hand lifted againft him, 
for they all agreed to have a Ihare in the facnfice and a 
tafte of his blood. Therefore Brutus himfelf gave him a 
ftroke in the groin. Some fay, he oppofed the reft, and 
continued ftruggling and crying out, till he perceived the 
fword of Brutus ; then he drew his robe over his face, and 
yielded to his fate. Either by accident, or puihed thither 
by the confpirators, he expired on the pedeftal of Pompey 's 
ftatue, and dyed it with his blood : fo thj^t Pompey feemed 
to prefide over the work of vengeance, to trcaclhis enemy 
under his feet and to enjoy his agonies. Thofe agonies 
were great, for he received no lefs than three and twenty 
wounds. And many of the confpirators wounded each 
other, as they were aiming their blows at him. 

Caefar thus defpatched, Brutus advanced to fpeak to the 
fenate, and to afiign his reafons for what he had done, but 


* Metiliius Is plainly a corruption. Suetonius calls liim Chnier TuU 
tius. In Appiaa he is named Jitillui CUnbery and thtre is a medal which 
bears that name ; but that medal is believed to be fpurious. Some call 
him Metellus Cimber ; and others fuppofe wc (hould read M. Tu1Uul% 

f Here in. the original it is Metiliius ajaln* 

aSz riufARCH's lives;. 

they cotild not bear to hear him ; they fled out of the hdlil^ 
anci filled the people with incxpreflible horror auddifmay. 
Some fhut up their houTcs 5 others left their (hops andT 
counters. All were in motion : One was running to fee 
the fpcftacle ; another running back. Antony and Lc- 
pidus, Gaifar's principal friends, withdrew, and hid them- 
Jelves in other people's houfcs. Meantime Brutus and his 
confederates, yet warm fVom the flaughter, marched in a 
body with their bloody fwords in their hands, from the fe- 
nate-hcH]fe to the capitol, not like men that fled, but with- 
an air of gaifty ana confidence, calling the people to li- 
berty, and flopping to talk with every man of confequencc 
whom they met. Thers were fome who even joined them, 
and mingled with their train; defiroas of appearing to- 
have had a fhare in the action, and hoping for one in the 
glory. Of this namhor were Caius Odavius ajid Lentu* 
lus Spinthcr, who afccrvrards paid dear for their vanity ; 
being put to dc^th by Antony and young Csfar. So that 
they gained nd even the honour for which they lort their 
lives j for no body believed that they had any part in the 
enterprize ; und they were puniHied, not for the deed, bat 
for the will. 

Next day Brutus, and the reft of the confpirators came 
down fiOin the capitol, and addrefled the people, who at- 
tended to their difcourfe, without expreffing either diflikcr 
or approbation of what was done. liat by their filence it 
appeared that they pitied Caifar, at the fame time that 
they revered Brutus. The fcnate pafled a general amnelly ; 
and to reconcile all parties, they decreed Ca^Hir divine 
honours, and confirmed all the a<^s of his diclatorfhip ; 
while on Brutus and his friends they bellowed govern- 
ments, and fuch Jlonours as were fuitable: So that it was 
generally imagined the corr.rnonwcalth was firmly ella-- 
blifhed again, and all brought into the bell order. 

But when, upon the opening of Cafar's will, it was 
found that he had left every Roman citizen a confiderable 
legacy, and they beheld the body, as it was carried 
through the /oru/n, all mangled with wounds, the multi- 
tude could no longer be kept within bouruds. They ftopt 
the proccffion, and tearing up the benches, with the doors - 
and tables, heaped them into a pile, and burnt the corpfe 
there. Then fnatching fiaming bninds from the pile, fome 
ran to burn the houfes oftheaflafiins, while others ranged 
yie city, to find the confpirators thcmfelves, and tear tlicm 


111 pieces ; but they had taken fuch care to fcfeure them* 
felves that they could not meet with one of them. 

One Cinna, a friend of Csefar's, had a ftrange dream the 
preceding night. He dreamed (as they teH us) thut'Crefar 
invited him to fnpper, and, upon his refafai to go, caught 
him by the hand, and drew him after him, in fpite of all 
the refinance he could make. Hearing, however, that the 
body of Citfar was to be burnt in the forums he went to 
affirt in doing him the lall honours, though he had a fever 
npon him, the confequencc o-f his uneafirtefs about his 
dream.. On his coming up, one of the populace afked, 
'* Who that was ?" and having learned his name, told it 
his next neighbour. A report immediately fpread through 
the whole company, that it was one of Giefar's murderers ; 
and, indeed, one of the con-lpirators was named Cinua. 
The multitude taking tiiis for tlie man, fell upon him, and 
tore him to pieces upon the Ipot. Brutus and Cafiius 
were io terrified at this rage of the populace, that, a few 
days after tiiey left the city. An account of their fub- 
fequent aiftions, fufierings, and death, may be found in the 
Life of Brutus. 

Csefar died at the age of fifty-ffx, aii^ did not furvive 
Pompey above four years. His objeil was fovereign 
power and authority, which he purfued through innumer- 
able dangers, and by prodigious efforts he gained it at 
laft. But he reaped no other fruit from it than an empty 
and an invidious ticre. It t& true the Divine Power which 
conduded him through life^ attended him after his death 
as his avenger, purfued and hunted out the aflaffins over 
iea and land, and reifed not till there was not a man lefc>. 
either ofthofe who dipt their hands in his blood, or of 
thofe who gave their fanftion to the deed. 

The moS rfcmarkable of ^ natural events relative to this 
alFair was, that Caifiua, after he had loll the battle of 
Philippi, killed him felf with the feme dagger which he 
had made ufe of againit Cxfar ; and the molt iignal phas« 
iLomenon in thd heavens, was that of a great comet *» 


• <• A comet made Its appearance in the north, while we were ccle- 
•» brating thei^ames in honour of Caefar, and flione bright for fcvendays, 
** Jt arofe about theelcvtnth hour of ihe day, and was (ten by all na- 
«» tions. It was commonly believed to be a fign that the foul of Caefar 
*» was admitted among the godsj for which reafon we added a ftar to 
•* the head of his flatue confecrated foon after in the foruna." 

Fragm. Aug, C#;3. a^, V^xx% V u^^-T-Vx 

a84 Plutarch's lives. 

which (hone very bright for feven nights after Cacfar $ 
death, and then difappeared. To which we mav add the 
fiding of the fun's luftrc ; for his orb looked pale all that 
year ; he rofe not with a fparkling radiance^ nor had the 
iieat he afforded its ufual ftrength. The air, of -courfe, 
was dark and heavy, for want of that vigorous heat which 
clears and rarefies it ; and the fruits were fo crude and 
unconcofted, that they pined away and decayed, through 
the chillnefs of the atmofpherc. 

We have a proof Hill more ftriking that the affaflination 
of Csefar was difpleafing to the gods, in the phantom 
that appeared to Brutus. The ftory of it is this : Brutus 
was on the point of tranfporting his army from Abydos 
to the oppofitc continent ; and the night before he lay in 
his tent, awake, according to cuftom, and in deep thought 
about whst might be the event of the war ; for it was na- 
tural to him to watch great part of the night, and na 
general ever required fo little lleep. With all his fenfe» 
about him, he heard a noife at the door of his tent, and 
looking towards the light, which was now burnt very low, 
he faw a terrible appearance in the human fbrrn, oot of 
prodigious ftaturc and the txibik hideous afpeft. At firft 
he was flruck with aftoniihment ; but when he faw it nei- 
ther did nor fpoke any thing to him, but flood in (ilencc 
by his bed, he aflced it, *' Who it was ?'* The fpeftse an- 
fwered, '' I am thy evil genius, Brutus; thou (halt fee 
" me at Philippi." Brutus anfwered boldly, *' I'll meet 
'' thee there ;" and the fpeftre immediately vanifhed. 

Some time after, he engaged Antony and OftaviusCaefar 
at Philippi, and the firil day was vi^orious, carrying all 
before him where he fought in perfon, and even pillaging 
Caifar's camp. The night before he was to fight the fe- 
cond battle, the fame fpeftre appeared to him again, but 
(poke not a word. Brutus, however, underftood that his 
laft hour was near, and courted danger with all the vio« 
lence of defpair. Yet he did not fall in the aftion ; but 
feeing all loft, he retired to the top of a rock, where he pre* 
iented his naked fword to his breaft, and a friend, as they 
tell us, afiifting the thruft, he died upon the fpot*. 


• Whatever Plutarch's motive may have been, it Is certain that he 
has given us a vtrj inadequate and \mperfe€t idea of the chara6lcr of 
C«far. The life he has written is a confuftd junr.bic of {afts, fnatchtd 
from different hiftorians, without order, confiilency, icgularity, or accu- 



■EMADES the orator, by ftudying in his whole admi- 
niftration to pleafe the Macedonians and Antipater, liad 
^reat authority in Athens. When he found himfcif by 
that complaifancc often obliged to propofe laws and make 
fpeeches injurious to the dignity and virtue of his country, 
he ufed to fay, *' He was excufable, becaufe he came to 
** the helm when the commonwealth was no more than a 
*' wreck." This affertion, which in him was unwarrant- 
able, was true enough when applied to the adminiftration 
of Phocion. Dcmades was the very man who wrecked 
his country. He purfued fuch a vicious plan both in his 
private and public conduct, that Antipater fcrupled not 
to fay of him when he was grown old, " That he was- 
^' like a facrificed beaft, all confumed except his tongue 
" and his paunch*.'* But the virtue of Phocion found a 
ilrong and powerful adverfary in the times, and its glory 
was obfcured in the gloomy period of Greece's misfor- 
tunes. For Virtue is not fo weak as Sophocles would make 
her, nor is the fentiment juft which he puts in the mouth 
of one of the perfons of his drama. 

—The firmeft mind will fail 

Beneath misfortune^s Aroke, and, {hinn^d, depart 

iProin us I'age plan of adion +. 


racy. He has left us none of thofe finer and minuter traits, which, as 
toe clfcwhcrc juftly obfenrcs, di^ingoifh and chara^erife the man more 
thaii his mod popular amd fplendid operations. He has written the life 
of Casfarlikea man under reftraint; has flcimmed over his anions, and 
Chewn a manifeft fatisfaftion when he could draw the attention of the 
reader to otlicr charad^ers and circumft mces, however Inngnificant, or 
■ how often foever repeated by himfcif, in the oarrarive of ether lives. 
Vet from tbe fit^le light he has afforded us, and from the better accounts 
of other hifioriaos, we may eafily difcovef, that Caefar was a man of 
ereat and dillihgui(hed virtues. Had he been as able in his political as 
lie was in his military capacity, had he been capable of hiding, or even 
-of managing that opennefs of mind, which was the connate attendant 
. df his iiberalicy and ambiiion, the laft prevailing pailion would not have 
blinded him fo for, as to put Co early a period to his race of gl^^ry. 

• The iong«c and the paunch were not burnt with the reft of the 
vi^rm.' Tlic vf*d to be fttrtTed and fcrved up at, table, and the 
tongue was burnt on tbe altar at tha end of the entertatnmebt in ho* 
. !kiofir of Mtrcury, and -had l/bations. pcured upon it. . Of Uiis <.h«x« v^ 
.inapy ejcapiples in Homer's Odyflcy. ^ 

; f SoFHoc, Ar.tig. J. 56^, arid 57«r, ' ~ 


All the advantage that Fortune can truly be afHrmed to 

fain In her combats with the ^ood and virtuous is, the 
ringing upon them unjull reproach and cenfure, inAead 
of the honour and efteem whicii are their due, and by 
that means lefTcning the confideace the world would have 
in their virtue. 

It is imagined^ indeed, that when affairs profper, the 
people, elated with their ilrength and fuccefs, behave 
with greater infolence to good miniHers ; but it is the very 
reverie. Misfortunes always four their temper; the leaft 
thing will then diilurb them; . they take fire at trifles; and 
they are impatient of the leaft fevcrity of expreffion. He 
who reproves their faults, feems to reproach them with 
their misfortunes, and every bold and free addrefs is con- 
sidered as an infult. As honey makes a wounded or ul- 
cerated member fmart, fo it often happens, .that a remon- 
ftrancc, though pregnant with truth and fenfe, hurts and 
irritates the diftrefied, if it is not gentle and mild in the 
application. Hence Homer often exprefies fuch things ts 
are pleafant, by the word menoikes, which fignifies what 
is fympbonious io the mind, what foothes its weaknefs, and 
bears not hard upon its inclinations. Inflamed eyes love 
to dwell upon dark brown colours, and avoid fuch as are 
bright and glaring. So it is with a ftate, in any feries of 
ilI-condu6led and unprofperous meafures; fuch is the feeble 
and relaxed condition of its nerves, that it cannot bear the 
the leall alarm ; the voice of truth, which brings its faults 
to its remembcrance, gives it inexpreffible pain, though 
not only fdutary, but neceifary ; and it will not be heard, 
except its harihnefs is modified. It is a diflicult tafk to 
govern fuch a people ; for, if the man who tells them the 
truth, falls the firfl facrifice, he who flatters them, at laft 
periflies with them. 

The mathematicians fay, the fun does net move in the 
fame dircdlion with the heavens, nor yet in a diredlion 
quite oppofite, but circulating with a gentle and almofl in- 
tenfible obliq'uity, gives the whole fyflem fuch a tempera- 
ture as tends to its prefervation. So in a fyilem of govern- 
ment, if a ftatefman is determined to defcribe a ftraight 
line, and in all things to go againft the inclinations of the 
people, fuch rigour mull make his adminiflration odious ; 
and, on the other hand, if he fufFers himfelf to be carried 
along with their mofl erroneous motions, the government 
will ioon be in a tottering ?Li^d iMmoua ftate. The latter 
3 *^^ 


•IS the inore>common error. of the two. But the -politics 
which keep a middle courfe, ibmctixnes flackening the 
reins, and fometimes keeping a tighter hand, indulging 

Ahe people in one point to gain another that is more im- 
portant, are the only meafures that are formed upon ra- 
tional principles : for a well-timed condefcenfion and mo- 
derate treatment will -bring men to concur in many ufeful 
fchemes, which they could not be brought into by def- 
potilm and violence. It muil be acknowledged, that this 
medium is difficult to hit upon, becaufe it requires a mix- 

.ture of dignity with gentlenefs ; but whqn the juft tempe- 

-.rature is gained, it prefents.the happieft and moft perfeft 

Jiarmony that can be conceived. It is by this fublime har- 
mony the Supreme Being governs the world ; for nature 
is not dragged into obedience to his commands, and tho* 

.his influence is irrefiftible» it is. rational and mild. 

The effects of auilcrky were feen in the younger Cato 
There was nothing engaging or popular in his behaviour; 

,he never lludicd to oblige tjie people, and therefore his 
weight in the adminiftration was not great. Cicero fays, 
'* He adled asif he had lived in the commonwealth of 
*' Plato, not in the dregs of Romulus, and by that means 

-•' fell (hort of the confuLate*.*' His cafe appears to mc 
to have been the fame with that of frjiit which comes out 
of feafon : people look upon it with pleafure and admira- 

.tion, but they make no ufe of it. Thus the old-faHiioned vir- 
tue of Cato, making its appearance a^nidlt the luxury and 

.corruption which time had introduced, had all the iplen- 
dor of reputation which f«ch a phenomenon could claim, 
but it did not anfwer the exigencies of the ftate ; it was 
difproportioned to the times, and too ponderous and un- 
wieldy for ufe. Indeed his circumftances were not alto- 
gether like thofe of Phocion, who came not into the admi- 
niftration till the ftate was fmkingf ; whereas Cato had 
only to fave the (hip beating about in the ftorm. Ac 
the Cime time we muft allow that he had not the principal 
direction of her ; he fat not at the helm ; he could do no 


• The paflTagc here referred to is in the firft cpiAle of Cicero's fecond 
book 10 Atticus. But we And nothinf; there of the repuife Cito met 
j with in his application for the confulfhip. That repuife, indeed, did 
u not happtn till eight ycari after the date of that epiAle. 
It f Our author means, that uncommon and extraotdvcAri *ttox\\ 

,j were more neccflary to fave the poor remam& oi l^vtt«&^)^2GA.Ik^A>&^^%^ 
^ a /hip, ytt whole nod catkCf from finkit^g• 

a88 ' Plutarch's lives. 

more than help to hand the fails and the tackle. Yet he 
maintained a noble conflJA with Fortune, who having de- 
termined to ruin the commonwealth, efFeSed it by a variety 
of hands, but with great difficulty, by flowfteps and gra- 
dual advances. So near was Rome being faved by Cato, 
and Cato's virtue ! With it we would compare that of Pho- 
cion : not in a general manner, fo as to fay, they were both 
perfons of integrity, and able ftatefmen ; for there is a 
difference between valour and valour, for inltance, between 
that of Alcibiades and that of Epaminondas ; the prudence 
of Themillocles and that of Ariftides were not the fame; 
juftice was of one kind in Numa, and in Agefilaus of aho- 
^ ther : but the virtues of Phocion and Cato were the fame in 
'the mod minute particular ; their impreffion, form and co- 
lour, are perfeftly fimilar. Thus their feverity of manners 
was equally tempered with humanity and their valour with 
caution ; they had the fame folicitude for others, and dif- 
regard for themfelves ; the fame ^rbhorrence of every thing 
bafe and difhonourable, and the fame firm attachment to 
juflice on all occafions: fo xhat it requires a very delicate 
exprellion, like the finely difcriminated founds of the or- 
gan*, to mark the difference in their charafters. 

It is univerfally agreed, that Cato was of an illuflrious 
pedigree, which we mall give fome account of in his Life ; 


The organ here mentioned was probably that invented by Ctefibius, 
who, accoiding to Atiienaeut, p.-^ccd in the temple cf Zepbyrus, at 
Alexandria, a tube, which, coUe^ing itir by the appulfive n>ocion of 
water, etnltted niufical founds, either by their Arength ad^ipted to war, 
or by their lightncfs to ftftivity. Hedyius, in his elegies, mentions 
this organ i.nder the title of Ki^aq. 

'Zu^oTroTUk xoci TtfTo ^Acy fs^t^y fxtrot ytjci', 

Da>.7r»iJoy ?.vyiaq ra x^cva Tr^&q fveriv h^J^q 

Thus we fee this inftrument was capable of great variety and difcrf- 
min^ition of harmony. Claudian has left us -the following dtfcriptlon 
ot this water organ : 

El qi:i magna levi detrarfsnsmarmura ta^u, 

fnnameras voces feed's mcderatur ahenae, 

latonat errai-te di|Uo, peniiuiquc tri.bali 

Ve£ic Jabcrantes in carmina c jndtat undos. 
Cornelius Sevcros f&ys, Ejus fu It gcnerh qui aqvarum ojfuhu auram 
(onctperct. Cut its cnnumera t'c-cSf as calis them, its variety of 
expicffioDf is undoubtedly tl.e rcafon wliy i'lutarch mentions it here* ^ 


tod we conjedarei that Phocion's was not mean or obfcure: 
for Jud he been the fon of a turner^ it would certainly have 
been mentioned by Glaucippos, the fon of Hyper ides, 
among a thoufand other things, in the treatife which he 
wrote on -purpofe to difparage him. Nor> if his birth had 
been fo low, would he have had fo good an education, or 
fttch a liberal mind and manners. It is certain, that, whea 
very young, he was in tuition with Plato, and afterwards 
witA Xenocrates in the academy ; and from the ytry HrQ: 
he diilinguifhed himfelf by his ftrong application to the . 
moil valuable fludies. Duris tells us, the Athenians never 
iaw him either laugh or cry, or make ufe of a public .bath, 
or put his hand from undcf his cloak when he was drefled 
to appear in public. If he made an excuriion into the 
country, or marched out to war, he went always bare- footed, 
and without his upper garment too, except it happened to 
be intolerably cold : and then his foldiers ufed to laugh« 
and fay, *' It is a fign of a iharp winter ; Phocion has got 
*' his clothes on." 

He was one of the moil humane and beil-tempered men 
^n the world, and yet he had fo ill-natured and forbidding 
a look, that ilranjg;ers were afraid to addrefs him withouc 
company. Thcrc£o|-e, when Chares, the orator, obfervcd to 
the Athenians, what terrible brows Phocion had, and they 
could not help making themfelves merry, he (aid, *' This 
«' brow of nune never a^ve one of you an hour of forrow ; 
" but the laughter of tnefe fheerers has coft their country 
*< many a tear.'* In like manner, though the meafures he 
propofed were happy ones, and his councils of the moil 
lalutary l^ind, yet he ufed no flowers of rhetoric ; his 
Speeches w^re concife, commanding, and kvcre. For, 
as Zeno fay's, that a philofopher ihould never let a word 
come out of his mouth that is not ftrongly tinctured witk 
fenfe; fo Phocion's oratory contained the moft fenie 
in the feweil words. And it feems that Polyeu^lus the 
Sphettian had this in view when he faid, *' Demof- 
'* thenes was the better orator, and Phocion the more 
•' perfuafive fpeaker." His fpeeches were to be eflimated 
like coins, not for the fize« but for the intriniic value. 
Agreeably to which, we are told, that one day when the 
theatre .wajs full of people, Phocion was obferved behind 
the fcenes wrapt up in thought, when one of his friends 
took occafion to fay, '* What ! at your meditations^ PViia- 
*' cion ?" " Yes," faid he, " 1 ajpa coi^d^xuis, ^VoDtv^x 

' ^ t ttmndt Ik&ttcn what IMre 10 fiy ta die Atheniaiis.'' 
Attd Banoftheacv, who ddptied the other oratof i« when 
Phocioik got ap, ukd to fty foftly to lus frieiidt» '^ Here 
** comes the primer of my periods.'' But perhsps this is 
to be aferibed to the exceUcDce of his cha.nMfter> fince a 
word or a nod from a perfoa revered for his virtue^ is of 
. more weight than the inoft eUborate fpeeches ofother men. 
r In his yoath he (erved under Chabrias> then commander. 
* <4>f the* Athenian armies; and, as he paid him all proper 
- rnttentionji he gained much military knowledge by him.^ 
In ibme degree too he helped to corred the temper of Cha- 
' i Inrias* whidi was impetaous and uneven*. For that gene* 
rTid, thou^ at other times fcarce any thing could movb 
. Im, in Umeoi nMonwas violentj and expofed his'per- 
■• ' 4oxL with a boldnefs jong^vemed by difc'retion. At l«ft it 
coft him his li&« whea he made it a pmnt to get in 
. .ibefbro the pther galleys to the iile of Chios j and attein^ted 
tOBiake good' bu -landing by dint of fword. PImoios* 
. -whofe prudence mcas e^ualto bis courage* animatedMiim 
.*when be was too ilow in his operationsj and endeavwred 
V wlo Jbrin^him to ad coolr.when he was mifeafonably viiAent. 
^This gained him the affedion of Chabrias« who was a inan 
. -t)f candour and prolnty ; and he affigned him commiffions 
- and enterprizes of great importance, which raifed him to 
'the notice of the Greeks* Particularly in the fea-fight off 
.Vhxosp Phocion being appointed to head the fquadron on 
^ahe le^» where the aouon was hotteft, had a fine opportu- 
. ;&ity to diiHugniih himfelf, and he xnade fuch uie of it, 
•that vidory loon declared for the Athenian ^ and as this 
was the UrA vidory they had gained at fea, in a difpute 
; with Greeks, fince the taking of their city, they expreffed 
' the iugheft regard for 'Chabrias, and began to confider 
Phocion as a perfon in whom they Ihould one day~£hd an 
/able commander. This battle was won daring; the cele- 
bration of the great myfteries ; and Chabrias, inxomme- 
moration of it, annualhr treated the Athenians with wine 
to the fixteenth dav of Sentember. 

Sometime after this, Chabrias fent Phocion to the iihnds, 
to demand th^ir contributions, and offered him a guard of 
-twenty fail.^ But Phocion fiud, *• If you ffcnd iric againft 
^' enemies, Yuch a fleet is too fmall ; if to friends, one 
«• (hip is fufeient." He therefore wcntin his own galley, 
.and by addreffing himfelf to the cities and magiihrates in 
^n open and hamanemanxier« hefucceeded fo well, as to 

2 J \«<»x^ 

PHOCIOK. "tyi 

return with a number of (hips which the allies fitted o\xU 
and at the fame time put their refpe^ire quotas of moneys 
on board. 

Phocion not only honoured and paid his court to Cha- 
brias as long as he lived, but after his death, continued 
his attentions to all that belon^^ed to him. With his fon 
Ctefippus he took peculiar pains to form him to virtue ; 
and though he found him very ilupid and untradlable, yet 
he ilill laooured to corred his errors, as well as to conceal 
them. Once^ indeed, his patience failed him. In one of 
his expeditions the youne man was fo troublefome withun- 
feafonable queflions, and attempts to give advjce, as if he 
knew how to diredt the operations better than the general, 
that at lad he cried out, *' O Chabrias, Chabrias ! what a 
'* return do I make thee for thy favours^ in bearing with 
" the impertinencies of thy fon.** 

He obferved, that thofe who took upon them the 
management of public affairs, made two departments of 
them, the civil and the military, which they (hared as it 
were by lot. Purfuant to this divifion, Eubulus, Arifto- 
phon, Demofthenes, Lycurgus, and Hyperides, addreiTed 
the people from the rollrum, and propofed new edidis i 
while Diophites, Meneftheus^ Leollhenes, and Chares, 
raifed themfelves by the honours and employments of the 
camp. But Phocion chofe rather to move in the walk of 
Pericles, Ariftides, and Solon, who excelled not only as 
orators, but as generals ; for he thought their fame more 
complete ; each of thefe great men (to ofe the words of 
Archilochus) appearing juflly to claim 

The palms of Mars, and laurels of the mufet. 

and he knew that the tutelar goddefs of Athens was equally 
the patronefs of arts and arms. 

Formed uj)on thefe models, peace and tranquillity were 
the great objefts he had a,^ays in view ; yet he was en- 
gaged in more wars than any perfon, either of his own,^ 
or of the preceding times. Not that he courted, or evea 
applied for the command ; but he did not decline it, whea 
called to that honour by his coimtry. It is certain, he was 
elected general no lefs than five and forty times, without 
once attending to the eledion ; being always appointed in 
his abfence, at the free motion of his countrymen. Men 
of (hallow underftanding were furprifed that the ^«!cy^\A. 
fhould fet fuch a value on Phoc\ou> "wYio ^titwtx^^ ^'^- 
O 2 ^vA. 

7/^1 Plutarch's lives. 

pofed their inclinations, and never faid or did any thin^ 
with a view to recommend hirofelf. For, as princes di- 
vert themfelves at their meals with buffoons and jefters, 
fo the Athenians attended co the polite and agreeable ad- 
drcfs of their orators by way of entertainment only ; but 
when the queflion was concerning fo important a buiinefs 
fts the command of their forces, they returned to fbber and 
ierious thinking, and feledted the wifeft citizen, and the 
man of the feverefl manners, who had combated their ca- 
pricious humours and deiires the moil. This he fcrupled 
not to avow ; for one day, when an oracle from Delphi 
was read in the aiTembly, importing, " That the reft of the 
*' Athenians were unanimous in their opinions, and that 
" there was only one man who diflented from them," 
Phocion ftepped up and told them, ** They need not give 
•* themfelves any trouble in inquiring for this rcfradtory 
" citizen, for he was the man who lilced not any thing 
" they did." And another time in a public debate, when 
his opinion happened to . be received with universal a}>- 
plauie, he turned to his friends, and ^id, *' Have I inad- 
** vcrtently let fome bad thing flip from me?" 

The Athenians were one day making a eolle£lion> to 
defray the charge of a public facrifice, and numbers gave 
liberally. Phocion was importuned to contribute among 
the reft : but he bade them apply to the rich : " I fhould 
** be afhamed," faid he, ** to give you any thing, and not 
*' to pay this man what I owe him ;" pointing to the ufurer 
Callicles. And as they continued very clamorous and 
teazing, he told them this tale : "A cowardly fellow 
*' once refolved to make a campaign ; but when he was 
*' .fet out, the ravens began to croak, and he laid down 
** his arms and ftopped. When the firft alarm was a little 
*' over, he marched again. The ravens renewed their 
*' croaking, and then he made a full ftop, and* faid. You 
*' may croak your hearts out if you pleafe, but you ftiall 
*' not tafte my carcafe.** . 
" The Athenians once infifted on his leading them againft 
the enemy, and when he refufcd, they told him, nothing 
could be more daftardly and fpiritlefs than his behaviour. 
JTe anfwered, '«' You can neither make me valiant, nor can 
*' I make you cowards: however, we know one another 
*' very well." 

■ Public affairs happening to be in a dangerous fituation, 
^the people were greatly cxafpcratcd againft him, and de- 


flrtancled an immediate account of his conduft. Upon 
M'hich, he only faid, " My good friends, firft get out of 
*• your difficulties." 

During a war, however, they were generally humble 
and fubmiffive, and it was not till after peace v/as made* 
that they began to ulk in a vaunting manner, and to find 
fault with their general. As they were one time telling 
Phocion, he had robbed them of th« vidory which was in 
their hands, he faid, «* It is happy for you that you have 
" a general who knows you ; otherwiie yoii would have 
** been ruined long ago.** 

Having a difference with the Boeotians, which they re- 
Aifed to fettle by treaty, and propofed to decide by the 
fword, Phocion faid, ** Good people, keep to the method 
** in which you have the advantage ; and that is talking* 
•* not fightbg.'* 

One day, determined not to follow his advice, they re- » 
fufed to give him the hearing. But he faid, " Though 
'^ you can make me ad agamft my judgment, you Hull 
" never make me fpeak fo.'* 

Dcmofthenes, one of the orators of the advcrfe party, 
happening to fay, '* The Athenians'will certainly kill thee, 
**• Phocion, fome time or other :** he anfwered, •* They 
" may kill me, if they are mad ; but it will h^ycu, if they 
** are in their fenfes.** 

When Poi/euftus, the Sphettian, advifed the Athenians • 
to make war upon Philip, the weather being hot, and the 
orator a corpulent man, he ran himfdf out of breath, and 
perfpired fo violently, that he was forced to take feveral 
draughts of Cold water, before he could finifh his fpeech. 
Phocion, feeing him in fuch a condition> thus addrefled 
the a/Terably — ** You have great reafon to pafs an edidl for 
*' the war, upon this man's recommendation. For what 
'^ are you not to exped from him, when loaded with a fuiC 
*' of armour, he marches againfl the enemy, if in deli- 
" vering to you (peaceable folks) a fpeech which he had 
*' compofed at his leifure^ he is ready to- be fuffbcated.'* 

Lycurgus, the orator, one day (aid manv disparaging 

things of him in the general aflembly, ana, among the 

reft, obferve^ that when iilexander demanded ten of 

their orator8% Phocion gave it as his opinion, that they 

O 3 ( fliould . 

* For v«Xirtfi' wc fliofild here re»d frc!>atiiujv»i&^iiVn&ft'32Qcr«^v«^ 
Jhoald rend «roAiTixa^» inftead of hoXatuv. T\i»\ \V«k»j ni vc* w*wc%^ 


ihould be delivered to him. " It is truc,''faid Phocion, 
** I have given the people of Athens much good counfel, 
but they do not follow it.** 

There was then in Athens one Archibiades> who got 
the name qf Laconifles« by letting his beard grow long, 
in the Lacedaemonian manner, wearing a thread-bare 
cloak, and keeping a very grave countenance. Phocion 
finding one of his afTertions much contradided in the af- 
fembly, called upon this man to fupport the truth and rec- 
titude of what lie had {aid. Archibiades, however, ranged 
himfelf on the people's fide, and advifed what he thought 
agreeable to tnem. Then Phocion, taking him by the 
beard, faid, '' What is all this heap of hair for ? Cut ic» 
•« cut it off." 

Ariftogiton, a public informer, paraded with his pre* 
tended valour before the people, and prefTed them much 
to declare war. But when the lifts came to be made oat, 
of thofe that were to ferve, this fwaggerer had got his leg 
bound up, and a crutch under his arm. Phocion, as he 
fat upon the bufinefs, feeing him at fome diftance in this 
form, called out to his fecretary, " to put down Aridoghon 
*' a cripple and a coward.'* 

All thefe fayings have fomcthing fo feverc in them, that 
it feems flrange that a man of fuch audere and unpopular 
manners, (hould ever get the furname of the Gooi/, It is, 
indeed, difficult, but, I believe, not impoflible, for the 
fame man to be both rough and gentle, as fome wines are 
both fwect and four: and on the other hand, fome men 
who have a gre^t appearance of gentlenefs in their tem- 
per, are very harfii and vexatious to thofe who have to do 
with them. In thib cafe, the faying of Hyperides, to the 
people of Athens, deferves notice : " Examine not whe- 
■•* ther I am fevere upon you, but whether I am fo for my 
*' own fake." As if it were avarice only that makes a 
xniniiler odious to the people, and the abufe of power to 
4he purpofes of pride, envy, anger, or revenge, did not 
make a m^n equally obnoxious. 

As to Phocion, he never exerted himfelf againft any 
man in his private capacity, or confidered him as an 
enemy ; but ne was inflexibly fevere againfl every man 
who oppofed his motions and defigns for the public good. 
His behaviour, in other refpedls, was liberal, benevolent, 
.and humane ; the unfortunate he was always ready to afhil, 


, FHOCIO.N. 255 

and he pleaded even for his enemy, if he happened to be 
in danger. His friends, one day, finding fault with him 
for appearing in behalf of a man whofe conduct did not 
defer ve it ; he faid, •* The good have no need of an ad- 
*' vocate." Ariftogiton, the informer, being condemned, 
and committed to prifon, begged the favour of Phocion 
to go and fpeak to him, and he hearkened to his ap|Ji- 
cation. His friends difluaded . him from it, but he faid, . 
** Let me alone, good people. Where can one rather wifh 
** to fpeak to Ariftogiton than in a prifon ?** 

When the Athenians fent out their Heets under any other 
commander, the maritime towns and iflands in alliance 
with that people, looked upon every fuch commander as an 
enemy ; they ftrengthened, their walls, (hut up their har- 
bours,, and conveyed the cattle, the ilaves, the women, 
and children, out of the country into the cities. But 
when Phocion had the command, the fame people went 
out to meet him in their own (hips, with chaplets on their 
heads and every expreilion of joy, and in that manner 
conduded him into their cities. 

Philip endeavoured privately to get footing in Euboea, . 
and for that purpofe fent in forces from Maccdon, as well 
a&pradtifed uppn.the towns b;^ means of the petty princet. - 
Hereupon^ Plutarch of Eretria called in the Athenians, 
and intreated them to refcue the ifland out of the hands of - 
the Macedonians : in confequence of which, they fent 
PJiocion at firft with a fmall body of troops, expeding 
that the Euboeans would immediately rife and join him. 
But when he came, he found nothing among them but 
treafonabie defigns and difaftedion to their own country, 
for they were corrupted by Philip's money. For this rea- 
fon he feized an eminence ♦ feparated from the plains of 
Tamyna by a deep defile, and in that poft he fecured the 
bell of his troops. As for the diforderly, the talkative, 
and cowardly part of the foldiers, if they attempted to 
defert and lUal out of the camp, he ordered the officers 
to let them go. *' For," faid hi, *' if they ftay liere, 
*' fuch is their want of difcipline, that, inftead of beiny ; 
" ferviceable> they will be prejudicial in time of action j . 
** and, as they will be confclous to thcmfelves of flying . 
O 4 , •* from , 

^ IniUadctf avH^yvnfAitui here in the text> we (ho^dt«.%A: a<<tM.v- ~ 

nt^*fAiPO¥, So (AyM DuSoul : bat we tkunVi eMKA»vrt^v»*^^» J«vfvns.^ 

y^ whiGh h nearer the text, h jqaore V\V»\| XQ bt \\« tx^^xe^XvT^- 

2^6 Plutarch's lives. 

*' from their colours, we fhall not have fo much noife and 
•* calumny from them in Athens." 

Upon the approach of the enemy, he ordered his men 
to ftand to their arms, but not attempt any thing, till he 
had made an end of his facrifice : and, whether it was 
that he wanted to gain lime, or could not eafily find the 
aufpicious tokens, or was defirous of drawing the enemy 
nearer to him, he was long about it. Mean while Plu- 
tarch, imagining that this delay was owing to his fear and 
irrefolution, charged at the head of the mercenaries; aed 
the cavalry feeing him in motion, could wait no longer, but 
advanced againft the enemy, though in a fcattered and dif- 
orderly manner, as they happened to i£ue out of the camp. 
The firft line being foon broken, all the reft difperfed, aw 
Plutarch himfelf Hed. A deuchment from the enemy thai 
attacked the entrenchments, and endeavoured to make a 
breach in them, fuppofing that the fate of the day was de- 
cided. But at that inflantPhocion had finifhed his facrifice, 
and the Athenians (allying out of the camp, fell upon the 
aiTailants, routed them, and cut moft of them in pieces in 
the trenches. Phocion then gave the main body diredions 
to keep their ground, in order to receive and cover fiich as 
were difperfed in the firft attack, while he, with a felcft 
party, went and charged the enemy. A (harp conflid en- 
fued, both fides behaving with great (pirit and intrepidity. 
Among the Athenians, Thalius the fon of Cineas, and 
Glaucus the fon of Polymedes, who fought near the gene- 
ral's perfon, diftinguifhed themfelves the molt. Cleo- 
phanes, too, did great fervice in the aftion ; for he ral- 
lied the cavalry, and brought them up again, by callino; 
after them, and infilling that they fhould come to the al- 
iiftance of their general, who was in danger. They re- 
turned, therefore, to the charge; and by the afiillancc 
-which they gave the infantry, fecured the vidlory. 

Phocion, after the battle, drove Plutarch out of Eretria, 
and made himfelf inaficr of Zaretra, a fort, advantageoufly 
fituated where theilland draws to a point, and the neck of 
land is defended on each fide by the fea. He did not 
choofe, in purfuance of Ins viAory, to take the Greeks 
prifoners, lell the Athenians, influenced by their orators, 
mould, in the firft motions of refentment, pafs fome un- 
equitable fentence upon them. 
After this great fuccefr, he failed back to Athens. The 
allies foon found tht want of his eooiiLtt^ ^xA. ya^Sii^^* ^•'^^dL 

P HOC ION. 297 

-tlte Atlienians faw his capacity and courage in a clear light- - 
Por Moloflus, who fucceeded him, conduced the war fo 
ill, as to fall himfelf into the enemy's hands. Philip, novr 
rifing in his deiigns and hopes, marched to the Hellefpont 
with all his forces, in order to feize at once on the Ciier- 
fonefus, Perinthus, and Byzantium. 

The Athenians determining to fend faccours to tha^ - 
quarter, the orators prevailed upon them to give that com- 
miffion to Chares. Accordingly he failed to thofe parts, but 
did nothing worthy of fuch a force as he was intrufted with. 
The cities would not receive his fleet into their harbours ; 
but, fufpe£led by all, he beat about, raifmg contributions 
where he could upon the allies, and, at the Tame time, was 
defpifed by the enemy. The orators, now taking the other 
fide, exafperated the people to fuch a degree, that they 
repented of having fent any fuccours to the Byzantians. 
ThenPhocion rofe up, and told them, '* They fliould not 
'* be angry at the fufpicions of the allies, but at their own 
*' generals, who defervcd not to have any confidence placed 
" in them. For on their account," faidhe, ''you are looked 
*' upon with an eye of jealoufy, \y the very people who ■ 
" cannot be faved without your affiftance.'* This argu- 
ment had fuch an elFed on them, that they changed their 
minds again, and bade Phocion go himfelf with another 
armament to the fuccourof the allies upon the Hellefpont. 

This <:ontributed more -than any thing to the faving of 
Byzantium. Phocion's reputation was already great : bc- 
fides, Cleon, a man of eminence in 'Byzantium, who had - 
formerly been well acquainted with him at the academy, . 
pledged his, honour to the city in his behalf. The By- - 
zantians would then no longer let him encamp without^ 
Jbut opening their gates received him into their city, and 
mixed familiarly with the Athenians ; who, charmed with 
this confidence, were not only eafy with refpedl to provi- - 
fions, and regular in their behaviour, but exerted them- 
felves with great fpirit in every a^ion. By thefe means 
Philip was rorced to netiire from the Hellefpont, and het 
fufFered not a little in his military reputation; for till thiett 
he had been deemed invinjcible. Phocion took fome of his -■ 
fhips and recovered feveral cities which he had garrifoned;. 
and making defcents in various parts of his territories, he 
harafled and ravaged the flat country. But at laft, hap- 
pening to be wounded by a party that made heal ^^vs&. > 
iiii, ie. weighed anchor, and reluTn^i \voxwi% 



Some time after this» the Megarenfians applied to him pri^ 
vateljr for affiftance ; and as he was afraid the matter would 
get air> and the Boeotians would prevent him, he afTembled 
the people early in the morning, and gave them an alccouat 
of the application. They had no fooner given their fandion 
to the propofal, than he ordered the trumpets to found as a 
£gnal for them to arm ; after which he marched immedi- 
ately to Megara, where he was received with great joy. 
The firft thing he did was to fortify Nifaea, and to build 
two good walls between the city and the port ; by which 
jneans the town had a fafe communication with the fea, 
«nd having now little to fear from the enemy on the land- 
Ude, was lecured in the Athenian intereft. 

The Athenians being now clearly in a ftate of hoftility 
with Philip, the condud of the war was committed to other 
. "generals m the abfence of Phocion. But, on his return 
S-om the iflands, he r^prefented to the people, that as Phi- 
lip was peaceably diipofed, and apprehenfive of the iflue 
m the war, it was beu to accept the conditions he had of^ 
fered. And when one of thofe pablic barreters, whaipend 
their whole time in theicourt of Heliaca, and make it their 
bufinefs to form impeachments, oppofed him, and faid, 
•' Dare you, Phocion, pretend to difTuade the Athenians 
'* from war, now the fword is drawn ?'* '^ Yes," faid he, 
*' I dare ; though I know thou wouldeft be in my power 
"•' in time of war, and I fhall be in thine in time of peace." 
Demofthenes, however, carried it againft him for war ; 
which he advifed the Athenians to make at the greateft 
diftance they could from Attica. This gave Phocion oc- 
caiion to fay, " My good friend, confider not fo much 
•* where we ihall fight, as bow we Ihall conquer. For 
*' vidlory is the only thing tliat can keep the war at a diil- 
«' tance : If we are beaten, eyery danger will foon be at 
*' our gates." 

The Athenians did lofe the day ; after which, the moft 
factious and troublcfome part of the citizens drew Chari- 
demus to the huitings, aud infifted that he fkould have the 
command. This alarmed the real well-wi(hers to their 
country fo much, that they called in the members of the 
Areopagus to their affiftance ; and it was not without niaaf 
tear»> and the mod earneft intreaties, that they prevailed 
•upon the afiembly to put their concerns in the hands of 


PHOCION* . * ^99 

He' was of opinion^ that the other propofals of Philip 
Ihbuld be readily accepted, becaufc they feemed to be die- ^ 
tated by humaniiy ; but when JDemades moved that Athens 
ihould be comprehended in the general peace* and^ as one 
of the ftates of Greece, ihould have the fame terms with 
the other cities, Phocion faid, " It ought not to be agreed 
** to, till it was known what conditions Philip required.** 
The times were^agaiiiil him, however, and he was over- ruled. . 
And when he law the Atheniuns relented afterwards, be- 
caufe they found themfelves obliged to fumilh Philip both 
with Ihips of war, and cavalry, he faid, " This was the 
" thing I feared; and my oppoiition was founded upon it. 
'• But fmce you have figned the treaty, you mull bear it« 
^'inconveniences without jnurmuring or defpond^nce; . 
''remembering that your anceilors fometimes gave Taw to - 
*' their neighbours, and fometimes were forced to fubmit* . 
" but did both with honour ; and by that means faved / 
"■themlcives and all Greece*" 

When the news of Philip's.death was brought to Athens^ .. 
he would not fuffer any facrifices or rejoicings to be made - 
on that account.. ^* Nothbg"faid he, •• could Ihcw greater 
*' meannefs of fpirit,.than expreflions of joy on the death > 
•^<)f an enemy., . What great reafon, indeed, is there for . - 
'* it, when the army you fought with at Cheronxa, is leCu - 
** fened only by one man." 

Demofthenes gave, into inve^ives againft AltJCander r 
when he was marching againU Thebes; the ill. poUcy of / 
which Phocion eafily perceived, and faid, 

<< What boots the god likegiant to provoke, 
^ Whofe arm may £nk us at a fingle ftn>kc • r* 

PoPB» Odytf. 9* 

^' 'When you fee -Aich a dreadfiil &re near yoa, would yea '. 
" plunge Athens > into it? For my part, I will not futtcr ' 
'' you to ruin yoorfelves, though your iadinations lie that 
''' 'ways and to prevent every ftep of that kind is the end . 
^< I propofed «n takine the commands" 

When Alexander had deilroyed Thebes, he fent the 
Athenians^ aad .denuuided that they, ihould deliver up ta > 
iiini Qcjinofthenes^ Lycnrgus^ Hyperides^ andCharidemus. . 

The ^ 
' * Theft WM-dt are addreffed to Ulyfles by hit companiont, to reftraUi i 
iiim from provoking tkc giant, Polypbemus, after (bey ti[CCC.^$»Hg«\ . . 
«n( of blixaiG^ and fot cci boatdthsi)^ ihi|ift . 


The whole aflembly ciaft thck eyet upon Pbocion, and 
called ttpon him often by name. At Ud he rofe up ; and 
placing Aim by one of his friends, who had the greateft 
flUuw in Jus confidence and affedion, he exprefled himfelf 
us follows : ^* The perfons whom A][exander demands, 
^Vhave brought^ the commonwealth into fuch miierablt 
*' circomftances. that if he demanded even my friend Ni- 
"•' coclesj I ihoold vote for delivering him up. For my 
^' own part> I (hould think it the greatefl happinefs to die 
" for you all. At the fame time, I am not without com- 
'^ paffion for the poor Thebans who have taken refuge 
'" here ; but it is enough for Greece to weep for Thebes, 
^f without weeping for Athens too. The befl meafure, 
"*' th^, we can t^e is, to intercede with the conqueror 
^' for both, and by no means to think of fightine.'* 

The firft decree drawn np in confequence of tnefe deli- 
'berations, Alexander is faid to have rgeded, and to have 
turned his back upon the deputies: but the fecond he re- 

' «feived, becaufe it was brought by Phocton, who, as his 
old cOunfellors informed him, ftood high in the efteem of 
jbfti hthtf Philip. He^ th^reforcs not only gave him a fit- 
Vootable audience^ and granted his re^neil, iMt even liten- 
ed to his^ouniel. Phocion adviied hmi, '* If tranquillity 
^* was his objed, to put an «nd to his wars ; if glory, to 
/' leave the Greeks in quiet, and turn his arms again^ the 
*« barbarians.'* In the conrfe of their conference he 
made many obfervations fb agreeable to Alexander's difpo* 
iition and fentiments, tiiat-his reientment againflthe Ati&e- 
mans was perk&ly appeafed> and he was pleafed to fay« 
^' The people of Athens mull be very attentive to the af- 
«* feiw of Greece ; for, if any thing happens to me, the 
«* fiipreme dire^on will devolve upon them.*' With 
Phocion in particular he entered intoobligationrof friend- 
ihip and hofpitaUty, and did him greater honours than 
iBoft of his -own courtiers were indulged with. Nay» 
Dmria tell» ui, that after that prince was riien to fuperior 
gteatnefs, by the conqueftof Darim, andhad left out the 
word €ifat^€k^9 the comsaou form of ^aloution in his ad- 
^Irsfs to others^ he>ftiU -detained it in writing to Phocion^ 
<ind to nobody befidet^ except Antipater. Chares aflbi^te 
r . Affjto his munificence to Phocion, all agree that he fent 

Aiitt a, hundted ulei^ts. When the money was brought xm 
jitheDs, Phocion aikcd the jtrfont ^tn]^o^^i&^vtLQnr> 


iriiflroti, *' Why, among all the citizens of Athens, he 
•*' fhould be fingled out as the objeft of fuch bounty ?** 
■•' Bccaufe,** faid they, '* Alexander looks upon yon as the 
** only honeft and good man." *' Then >'* faid Phocion, *' let 
*' him permit me always to retain that charafter, as well as 
*' really to be that man.'* The convoys then went home with 
hiui, and when they faw the frugality that reigned there, 
his wife baking bread, himfelf drawing water, and after- 
wards walhing his own feet, they urged him the more to 
receive theprefent. They told him, " It gave them real 
** uneafmefe, and was indeed an intolerable thing, that the 
•" friend of fo great a prince (hould live in fuch a wretch- 
'* ed manner." At that inftant, a poor old man happen- 
ing to pafs by, in a mean garment, Phocion aflicd the en- 
voys, *' Whether they thought worfe of him, than of that 
^* man?" As they begged of him not to make fuch a 
comparifon, he rejoined. ** Yet that man lives upon lefs 
" than I do, and is contented. In one word, it will be 
** to no purpofe ftxr me to have fo much money, if { do 
'* not ufe it ; and if I was to live up to it, I fhould bring 
^* both myfclf, atul the king, your mailer, under the cenfurc 
** of the Athenians." Thus the money was carried back 
from Athens, and the whole tranfadtion was a good lefToa 
to the Greeks, That the man <who did not nitumt fuch a fum^ 
ef Tftoneys ivas richer than he njjho could hefio^w it, 

Diipieafed at therefufal ofhisprefent, Alexander wrote 
to Phocion, *• That he could not number thofe amon^ his 
*'* friends, who would not receive his favours." Yet Pho- 
icion even then would not take <he money. However, 
he defired the king to fet at liberty Echecratides the fo- 
phift, and Athenodorus the Iberian, as alfo Demaratus 
and Sparto, two Rhodians, who were taken up for certain 
crimes, and kept in cuftody at Sardis. Alexander granted 
■his requefl immediately; and afterwards, when he feht 
Craterus into Macedonia, ordered him to give Phocion his 
xhoice of one of thefe four cities in Afia, Cios, Gcrgi- 
thus, MylafTa, or Elasa. At tbl^ fame time he was to afiulr 
him, that the king would be much more difobliged, if he 
refafed this fecond offer* But Phocion was not to lie pre- 
^trailed upon, and Alexander died foon after. 

Phocion's houfe is (hewn to this day in the borough of 
Melita, adorned with feme jplates of copj)er, butotherwife 
plain and homely^ 

Of .liis firft wife we iuve «o abcouat^ except t&at ibe ^ 
«ras fifter to Cephilbdociis the fl^iuiry. The other was a 
matron, noieit celebrated among the Athenians for her 
jnodelly, prudence, and fiaipiicity of manners^ jthan Pho* 
cioa hiiQfeif was for Jiis probity. It happened one da]f» . 
when fome new tragedians Mere tioadl before a fiUi audSU 
^cncc, onexif the playera, wiio was to perfonate the queen» 
demanded a faitable maik i(and attire), together with a ^ 
large train of attendanu, J*ichly dneiTed ; and, as ail thefe 
things were not granted. him, Le was out of humour, and 
(Tcfmed to make iiis appearance; by which means the 
whole bufinels of the theatre was at. a daiid. But Melan- 
thius, who was at the charge of the exhibition, puihed him - 
in, and {aid, '' Thou feeit xhe wife of i'hocion appear in . 
^' public maid-fervant only, and doH thou come - 
'*«-Iiefe toihew.thy pride, and to fnoil our women?'/ As . 
l\AcIanthitts fpoke loud .enough to be heard» the audience .-, 
jieceived . what .he Jbad iaid with a . thnnder jof appliatttTe. ^ 
When this fecond wife of Phocion entertained, in her - 
JiQttfe an Ionian lady, one of her friends, the lady il^ewed ^ 
Jier her braceleu and necklaces, which had all. the maonifi* 
4;enQS that gold and jewels conld give them^, .Upon which,. , 
ihe good matron faixi, " Phociojuis mu ornameni* who V9 . 
V now called the twentieth time to the command of the. : 
^' Athenian armies." 

TJie ion of Pixocion was ambitious of trying his Jkill in ^ 
4he games of the panathen^a*, and his father permitted . 
Ikim to make the trial, on condition that it was in the foot . 
races: not that iie Tetany value upon the vidtoryt, out he did . 
it that the preparations and previons execcife mtthi be of ■ 
&rvice to him ; for the yovu^.man was of a (uforderly 
turn, and addL^ed lo dnnking. Phocus.^that was his . 
aiame) gained the vi^ory, and a nufiiber of jiis acquaint- . 
.aace defired to jcelebrate it by entertainments at their 
Jioofe5 ; but that &vour was granted only to one* When 
JPhocion came to th^ houfet he law every, thing prepared . 
in the moft extravagant manner, and, among the reft,, thwt 
wine mingled with iaiai& wa^ provided h>x wafhing th« . 
:ftet of the gueils. He therefore called his fan to him, saA 
iaid, ''PhQcu$,wh/doyoufu£erycttr/riendthastofiill|r - 
<* Jthc honour of yxmr viftory j-i" 

'^ Stc the Lift of Thefeat. . 
'f The ri&ory was obrsined hj mtixv« «t tMfticStoQ£MC%«id^i]bKW.. k- 

Mi,jcxc&:ifej to .whichincb indttl9Knfifi& wec« Siji:).!* c«dS4»v . 


In order to corre£b in his Ton entirely that inclination to 
luxury, ' he, carried him to Lacedaemon« and put him 
-among the younj^ men who were brought up in all the ri- 
gour of the ancient difcipline. This gave the Athenians 
iio little offence, becaufe it (hewed in what contempt he 
held the manners and cuftoms of his own country. Demaw 
des, one day, faid to him, ** Why do not we, Phocion, per- 
••' fuade the people to adopt the Spartan form of govern- 
•^' ment? If you choofe it, I will propofe a decree for it, 
" and fupport it in the bed manner 1 am able." " Yes 
^' indeed," faid Phocion, ** It would become you muck 
*' with all thofe perfjines about you, and that pride of 
** drefs, to launch out in praii'e of Lycurgus and the La- 
** cedsmonian frugality." 

Alexander wrote to the Athenians for a fupply of diips, 
^nd the orators oppoiing it, the feaate aiked Phocion his 
•opinion. ** I am of opinion," faid he, " that youfhould 
-" either have the iharpeft fword, or keep upon good terms 
^' with thofe who have." 

Pytheas the orator, when he £r(l began to fpeak in pub- 
lic, had a torrent of words and the moft confummate aflur* 
ance. Upon which, Phocion faid, << Is it for thee to prate^ 
*' fo, who art but a novice amongfl os ?" 

When Harpalus had traitoroufly carried off Alexander^ 
treafures from Babylon, and came with them from Aiia 
to Attica, a number of the mercenary orators flocked to 
him, in hopes of fharing in the fpoil. He gave thefe fome 
foiall taHe of his wealth, but to Phocion he fent no left 
than feven hundred talents ; afluring him at the fame tim«» 
^at he might command his whole fortune, if he would 
take him into his prote^on. But his mefl*engecs found ^ 
.difagreeable reception : Phocton told them, that ** Har- 
*^ palus fhould repent it, if he continued thus to corrupt 
** the city," And the traitor, deje6led at his difappoinu 
ment, flopped his hand. A few days after a general a£- 
iembly bein^ held on this affair, he found that t]& men who 
Jiad taken his money. In order to exculpate themfelves, 
accnfed him to the people ;' while Phocion, wJio would ac^ 
icept of nothing, was inclined to ferve him, as ^r as might 
.be confiflent with the public good. Harpalus, therefore^ 
.paid his court to him a^ain, and took every method to 
.ihake his integrity, but he found the fortrefs on all fides 
impregnable. Afterwards he applied to Chaivd!^) "^Vkw 
'Siosls foD-JDrlaWj and his facceU Yf\\]bL Yam jpcy t ya^. ^'SNSfc 


of offence ; for all the world faw how intimate he was - 
^ith him, and that all his buiinefh went through his hands. 
Upon the death of his miftrefs Py thionice, who had brought 
him a daughter, he even employed Charicks to get a fu- 
perb monument bnilt for her, and for that purpofe furnifh- 
ed him with vaft fums. This commifTion, diihonourable 
enough in itfelf, became more fo by the manner in which 
he acquitted himfelf of it. For the monument is ftill to be 
feen at Hermos, on the road between Athens and Eleuiis ; 
and there appears nothing in it anfwerable to the charge of 
thirty talents, which was the account thatCharicles brought 
in ♦. After the death of Harpalus, Charicles and Phocion 
took his daughter under their guardianfhip, and educated 
h^r with great care. At laft, Charicles was called to ac- 
•count by the public for the money he had received of Har- 
pi^lus; and he defired Phecion to fupport him with his in- 
tereily and to appear with him in the court. Bat Phocion . 
anfwered, *' I made you my fon- in-law only for juft and < 
•» honourable purpofes.*' 

The firft perfon that brought the news of Alexander's ; 
death, was Afclepiades the ion of Hipparchus. Denudes . 
defired the pfeople to give nocredit to it; ** For,''faid he, . 
•' if Alexander were dead, the whole world would fmdl \ 
-" the carcafe.*' And Phocion feeing the Athenians elatedy . 
and inclined to raife new commotions, endeavoured to keep . 
them quiet. Many of the orators, however afcended the 
roilrum, and aiTured the people, that the tidings of 
Afclepiades were true : ** Well then,'* faid Phocion, " if 
f* Alexander is dead to-day, he will be fo to morrow and . 
'* the day following.; (o that we may deliberate on that 
»* event at our leifure, and take our meafures with fafety .*• 

When Leofthenes, by his intrigues, had involved Ather^ 
in the Lamian war, and faw how much Phocion was difl - 
.pleafed at it, he a(ked him in a fcofHng manner, ** What . 
*' good he had done his xountry^ during the many years . 

"that . 

^ Vat 'Patifinios fary«, k was one ef the comptorefl and mo A cerieuT > 
pcHbrmancet of all the ancient works in Greece. According to hii% . 
it (lood GA ths other (id« of the river Ct^hifus* 

•f In tlie original it is the Grecian war; and it might, indeed, htto 
f called, ' f>ecaufe it was carried on by the Grecian contederates agahfl > 
-the Macedonians. But it was comnnonly called the Lamian war, fx>na 
Antipater*a being defeated, and (hot up in Lamia. The Boeotians vere 
/the only nation which jdid not join xhe £?cBciaaieagac« i>iax>oaJSji;«. . 


** tliat he was general?" ** And doftjthou think it nothing, 
•' then," faid rhocion, '* for the Athenians to be buried in 
•* the fepulchres of their anteftorsl" As Leofthenes con- 
tinued to harangue the people in the moil arrogant and 
pompous manner, Phocion faid, ** Young man, your 
•* fpeeches are like cyprefs trees, large and lofty, but 
" without fruit." Hyperides rofe up and faid, " Tell us 
•* then, what will be the proper time for the Athenians to 
*« go to war?" Phocion anfwered, " 1 do not think it 
" advifeable, till the young men keep within the bounds 
" of order and propriety, the rich become liberal in their 
*' contributions, and the orators forbear robbing the 
" public." 

MoA people admired the forces raifed by Leoilhenes; 
and when they afked Phocion his opinion of them, he 
faid, ** I like them very well for a fhort race*, but I dread 
"the confequence of a long one. The fupplies, the fhips, 
•♦ the foldiers, are all very good; but they are the laft we 
*« can produce." The event juftiiied his obfervation. 
Leoflhenes at £ril gained great reputation by his achieve- 
ments ; for he defeated the Boeotians in a pitched battle^ 
and drove Antipater. into L^amia. On this occaiion the 
Athenians, borne upon the tide of hope, fpent cheir time 
in mutual enteruinments, and in facrifices to the gods« 
Many of them thought, too, they had a fine opportunity 
to play upon Phocion, and afked him, •* Whether he 
•' fhould not have wiftied to have donefuch great things?" 
" Certainly I fhould," faid Phocion; " but ftill I fhould 
«* advife not to have attempted them." And when letters 
and meffengers from the army came one after another, 
with an account of farther fuccefs, he faid, " When we 
•« fhall have done conquering?" 

Leofthene& died foon after ; and the party which was 
for continuing the war, fearing that if Phocion was eled- 
«d general, he would be for putting an end to it, inflrufied 
a man that was little known, to make a motion in the 
aiTembly, imparting, '' That, as an old friend and fchool« 
^ fellow of Phocion, he deHred the people to fpare hko, 
" and preferve him for the moft preffing occations, be-* 

'• caufe 

• Or ntiier»' ^ I think they may run very well from the ftarttng 
<< poA to the ettremity of the tonrre t but I know f^oi Vvtiw xV») ^^ 
*« hold it. back again.'* The Grecki hid two Con* ol w:«»\ ^>»^a4\- 

.jm, in wbidi thef ran only right out to the %oa\\ «cA>3nA 4^Ucl&u\^ >». 

mrbicb thesy nn light out, and thtn back a^va. 

3o6 Plutarch's lives. 

*' cjiufe there was not another man in their dominions to 
'* be compared to him.** At the fame time he was to re- 
commend Antiphilus for the command. The Atheni^as 
embracing the propofal, Phocion flood up and told them^ 
^ Be never was that man's fchool-fellow^ nor had he any 
'* acquaintance with him, but from this moment:'* faid hcj 
turning to him, '* I fhaH number thee amongil my beft 
** friends, fince thou haft advifed what is moft agreeable 
** to me.'* 

The Athenians were ftrongly inclined to ^rofecute the 
WSLT with the Bceotians, and Phocion at firft as ftrongly 
^ippofed it. His friends reprefented to him, that this viOr 
lent oppofitlon of his would provoke them to put hini to^ 
death, •' They may doit, if they pleafe," faid he: " It 
^* will be unjuftly, if I advife them tor the beft; hut jaftly, 
" if I (kould prevaricate.'* However, when he faw that 
the^ were not to be perfuaded, and that they continued to 
beiiege him with clamour, he ordered a herald to make 
proclamation, *• That all the Athenians, who were not 
** more thaiv fixty years above the ag€ of puberty, fhould, 
«' take five da^s provifions, and follow him immcfiiatd/' 
" from the aflembly to the field." 
. This raifed a great tumult, and tl^e old men began tOf 
exclaim againft the order, and to walk off. Upon which». 
Phocion faid, •' Does this difturb you, when I, who am 
** fourfcore year« old, (hall be at the head of you ?" That . 
ihort remonftrance had its efFe6t; it made them quiet and 
tradable. When Micon marched a confiderable corps of; 
Macedonians and mercenaries to Rhamnus, and ravaged 
the fea-coaft and the adjacent country, Phocion advanced x 
againft him with a body of Athenians. On this occafion 
n number of them were very impertinent in pretending to 
dictate or advife him hpw^ to proceed. One counfelled 
him to fecure fuch an eminence, another to fend his cavalry • 
to fuch a poA, and a third pointed out a place for a camp. 
•* Heavens!" faid Phocion, ** how many generals we 
«* have, and how few foldiers!" 


• T»f oe^i iJiTKowflt troff uf' iftj? has commonly been uiftfcr- 
ftood to mean from fourtetn to Jutty\ but it appears from the followftig 
paflage, that it /hoi?W be underftood as we have rendered it. O y«^ 
AyviffiTsaoi^ u^ ITU Tf o-cTAf oxorTA yiypw? af* uCika **» ff «ti*«^ 


When he had drawn up his army, one of the infantry 
advanced before the ranks ; but when he faw an enemy 
ftepping out to meet him, his heart failed him, and he 
ilrew back to his poft. Whereupon Phocion faid, ** Young 
** man, are not you aihamed to defert your flation twice 
*' in ohe day ; that in which I had placed yoo, and that 
*' in which you had placed yoarfelf ?*' Then he immedi* 
ately attacked the enemy, routed them, and killed great 
numbers, among whom was their general Micion. The 
confederate army of the Greeks in TheiTaly likewife de- 
feated Antipater in a great battle *, though Leonaius and 
the Macedonians from Aiia had joined him. In this action 
Antiphilus commanded the foot, and Menon the ThefTa- 
lian horfe : Leonatus was among the (lain. 

Soon after this, Craterus pafled over from Aiia with a 
numerous army, and another battle was fought, in 
which the Greeks were worfted. The lofs, indeed, was 
not great ; and it was principally owing to the difobe- 
dience of the foldiers, who had young officers that did not 
exert a proper authority. But (his, joined to the pradice 
of Antipater upon the cities, made the Greeks defert the 
league, and IhamefuIIy betray the liberty of their countnr. 
As Antipater marched directly towards Athens, Demoft« 
henes and Hvperides fled out of thccity. As for Demades, 
he had not been able, in any degree, to anfwer the fines 
that had been laid upon him ; for he had been amerced 
(even times for propofing edidis contrary to law. He had 
sXh been declared infamous, and incapable of fpeaking ia 
the ail'embly. But now finding himfelf at full liberty, he 
moved for an order that ambafladors fhould be fent to 
Antipater with full powers to tjpeat of peace. The people^ 
alarmed at their prefent fituation, called for Phocion, de- 
claring that he was the only man they could truft. Upoii 
which he faid, '* If you had followed the counfel I gaye 
^' you, we fhould not have had now to deliberate on fuch 

« au 

• Tlicrc is a moft egregious error here in the former Engtifh verflon, 
Tl^e tranflator makes Phocion fight the Greeks, his own confederates in 
Theflaly. To h *£^Xi)v»xoy c» 0iTT«tX»a r^artvfuc, ^t;^/t*A|**T«« 

This he i;endcr3, Afterwards ht defeated the Grtclam arnvf that lay m tbeU 
faly% ivbereitt Leonnatus had joined himfelf wkS* Antifater and the Maceda" 
mians that newly came out ofAfia* Thus Phockn is mtftaktn for the oa^ 
mlpative cafe to mnetf whercM S>^9»Ho» 5^Da<rt»u.«\»'^X^^^o^ 


•" an affair." Thus the decree paffcd, and Phociofn wa» 
-defpatcbed to Antipater, who then lay with his army itt 
Cadmea •, and was preparing to enter Attica. 
• His firft requiiition was, that Antipater would Enifh the 
treaty before he left the carap in which he then lay. Cra- 
terus faid« it was an unreafonable demand ; that they 
ihould remain there to be troublefome to their friends and 
allies, when they might fubfift at the expence of their ene- 
mies. But Antipater took him by the Uandj and faid, '^Let 
*' us indulge Phocion fo far." As to the conditions, he in- 
fixed that the Athenians fhould leave them to him, as he 
had done at Lamia to their general Leofthenes. 

Phocion went and reported this preliminary to the Athe- 
nians, which they agreed to out of neceflity ; and then 
returned to Thebes, with other ambafladors ; the princi- 
pal of whom was Xenocrates the philofopher. For the 
virtue and reputation of the latter were fo great andilluf- 
trious, that the Athenians thought there could be nothing 
in human nature fo infolent, favage, and ferocious, as not 
to feel fome impreffions of refped and reverence at the iight 
of Him. It happened, however, otherwife with Antipater,' 
through his extreme brutality and antipathy to virtue ; for 
he enibraced the reft with great cordiality, but would not 
even fpeak to Xenocrates ; which gave him occafion to fay, 
" Antipater does well in being afliamed before me, and me 
" only, of his injurious defigns againft Athens." 

Xenocrates afterwards attempted to fpeak, but Anti- 
pater, in great anger, interrupted him, and would not fuifer 
him to proceed*. To Phocion's difcourfe, however, lie 
gave attention ; and anfwered, that he ihould grant the 
Athenians peace, and confider them as his friends, on' the 


* Dacier, without any neceffity, fuppofes that Platarcb ufes the 
wtrord CtKimea for Boeotia. Jn a poetical way it is, indeed, capable of 
beins uuderAood fo \ but ii is plain from what follows, that Antipattr 
then lay at Thebes, and probably in the Cadmea or citadel. 

f Yet he had behaved to him with great kiadneft, when he was icnt 
to ranfom the prifoners. Antipater, on that occafion, took the firil 
•opportunity to invite him to fupper ; and Xenocrates angered in thoft 
▼erfes of Homer, which UlyfTes addrcifed to Circe, who preffed him to 
jpartake of the ddieacies (he had provided*— 

ni fits ft ne, whof&f^iendA are funk to beaits. 

To quairthy bowlt, and riot in thy fnfts. 

Ms wooUft thott pkife I Yqc them \!iy ctKt am^lof i 

And them to ae xcftoct, and tD& 10^07. 

' ilAtipacerwas fo chartnedw\tVkt\»eVi^^^^%v^'&c*^ww^l^Qt«Sfc^i^^ 

that. he reJcafed aU the pri{onet«% 


following conditions : " In the firfl place," faid he, *' they 
*' muft deliver up to me Demofthenes and Hyperidcs. In 
'* the next place, they muft put their government on the 
** ancient footing, when none but the rich were advanced 
*' to the great omces of ftate. A third article is, that they 
** mud receive a garriibn into Munychia : And a fourth, 
*' that they muft pay theexpences of the war." All the 
new deputies, except Xenocrdtes, thought themfelves 
happy in thefe conditions. That philofopher (aid, ** Antt- 
** pater deals favourably with us, if he confiders us as 
** llaves ; but hardly, if he looks upon us as freemen." 
Phocion begged for a remiffion of the article of the gar- 
rifon ; and Antipater is faid to have anfwered, *« Phocion^ 
" we will grant thee every thing, except what would be 
'* the ruin of both us and thee." Others fay, that Anti- 
pater afked Phocion, " Whether, if he excuied the Athe- 
** nians as to the garriibn, he would undertake for their 
" obferving the other arcicles> and raifing no new commo- 
*• tions ?" As Phocion hefitated at this queftion, Callime- 
don, furnamed Carabus, a violent man, and an enemy to 
popular government, ftarted up and faid, " Antipater, 
*' why do you fufFer this man to amufe you? If he Ihould 
*' give you his word, would you depend upon it, and not 
*' abide by your firft refolutions ? 

Thus the Athenians were obliged to receive a Macedo- 
nian garrifon, which was commanded by Menyllus, a man 
of great moderation, and the friend of Phocion. But that 
precaution appeared to be did^ted by a i^anton vanity-;, 
rather an abufe of power to the purpofe's of infolence, than. 
a meafure neceflary for the' conqueror's affairs*. It was 
more feverely felt by the Athenians, on account of the time 
the garrifon entered ; which was the twentieth of the 
month September +, when they were celebrating the great 
myfteries, and the very day that they carried the god 
Bacchus in proceflion from the city to Eleufis. The difturb- 
ances they law in the ceremonies gave many of the people 
occafion to reflect on the difference of the divine dilpenfa^ 
tions with relpedb to Athens in the prefetit and in ancient 


*-Our author in this place feems tp be oot in his politics, though In 
-general a very able and refined politiciaa. For what but a garrifon 
could have fupported an oligarchy among a nation fo much in love with 
popular government, or havt reftraincd thetn Cran UkV^%^^^\ttl\^^ 
firft opportunity? 
, f Boedrotnioiu 


310 Plutarch's lives. 

times. '* Formerly/' iaid they, *' myfUc vifions were Cteas 
** and voices heard, to the great happinefs of the re- 
** public, and the terror and alloniihment of our enemies. 
*' But now, during the fame ceremonies, the gods look 
'* without concern upon the fevereft misfortunes that can 
*' happen to Greece, and fufl^er the holieft, and what was 
** once the moft agreeable time in the year, to be pro- 
'^ faned, and rendered* the date of our greateft cala- 
«« mities." 

A few days before, the Athenians had received an oracle 
from Dodona, which warned them to fecure the promon- 
tories of Diana againft ftrangers *. And about this time, 
upon wafhing the facred fillets with which they bind the 
my (lie beds, inftead of the lively purple th6y ufed to have, 
thiey changed to a faint dead colour. What added to the 
wonder was, that all the linen belonging to private perifons, 
which was wafhed in the fame water, retained its former 
luilre. And as a prieft was wafhing a pijgr in that part of 
the port called Canthantsf, 2l large fiAi feized the hinder 
parts, and devoured them as far as the belly; by which the 
gods plainly announced, that they would loie the lower 
parts of the city next the fea, and keep the upper. 

The garrifon commanded by Menyllus, aid no fort of 
injury to the citizens. But the number excluded, by ano- 
ther article of the treaty, on account of their poverty, 
from a Ihare in the government, was upwards of twelve 
thoufand. Such of thefe as appeared in Athens, appeared 
to be in a flate of mifery and difgrace ; and fuch as mi- 
grated to a city and lands in Thrace, ailigned them bf 
Antipater, looked upon themfelves as no better than a 
.conquered people tranfported into a foreign country. 

The death of Demofthenes in Calauria, and that of 
Hyperides at Cl/eons, of which we have given an account 
in another place, made the Athenians remember Alexander 
and Philip with a regret which feemed almoft infpired by 


' * Suppcfed to be poeticiilly fo called, becaiife mountainous placet 
and foreils were facred to that goddefs. At lead, we know of no pro- 
montories in Attica that went under that name. 

•f In the text it is cy xoSopa; Ai^m, in a clean f>art of the harbour, Bot 
we choofe to receive the correction which Florent. Chridian has given 

. us in his notes upon Ariftophanes*s comedy called Teace, There were 
f/M-ee havens in the Pixseus> the principal of which was caUcd Cantba* 

rus. The paflage in AiiftJav^\ant» w xYiv^.— . 


affe^ion *. The cafe was the fame with them now, as it 
was with the countryman afterwards upon the death of 
Antigonus, Thofe who killed that prince, and reigned 
in his ftead, were fo oppreilive and tyrannical, that a 
Phrygian peafant, who was digging the ground, being 
afked what he was feeking, faid, witha figh, '* I am feek- 
•* ing for Antigonus." Many of the Athenians expreffed 
equal concern, now, when they remembered the great and 
generous turn of mind in thofe kings, and how eafily their 
anger was appcafed : whereas Antipater, who endeavoured 
to conceal his power under the roafk of a private man, a 
mean habit, and a plain diet, was infinitely more rigorous 
to thofe under his command ; and, in fa£l, an oppreflor and 
a tyrant. Yet, at the requeft of Phocion, he recalled 
many perfons from exile ; and to fuch as he did not choofe 
to rdlore to their own country, granted a commodious 
fituation ; for, inflead of being forced to relide, like other 
exiles, beyond the Ceraunian mountains, and the pro- 
montory of Tapnarus, he fufPered them to remain in 
Greece, and fettle in Peloponnefus. Of this number was 
Agnonides the informer. 

In fome other inftances he governed with equity. He 
diredled the police of Athens in a jud: and candid manner; 
raifmg the modeft'and the good to the principal employ- 
ments ; and excluding the unea fy and the feditious from all 
offices ; fo that having no opportunity to excite troubles^ 
the fpirit of faftion died away ; and he taught them by 
little and little to love the country, and apply themfelves 
to agriculture. Obferving one day that Xenocrates paid 
a tax as a ftranger, he offered to make him a prefent of 
his freedom ; but he refufed it, and afiigned this rcafon— 
*« I will never be a member of that government, to pre- 
*« vent the eftablilhment of which I kded in a public 
«* charaaer/' 

Menyllus was pleafed to offer Phocion a confiderable . 
fum of money. But he faid, " Neither is Menyllus a 
•* greater man than Alexander; nor have I greater reafon 
•» to receive a prefent now, than I had then.", The .go- 
vernor preyed him to tak^ it at leaft for his fon Phocus ; 
but he aniwered, ** If Phocus becomes fober, his father's 

«* eftatc 

• The cmcl dirpolftion of Antlpster, wlio^had vcifl^tA ^^«wi \i^- 
mofthencs and Hyperidcs being gWen np to \\\% tritwuft^ toaAft ^2o» 
coDdva oiPbiUp »nd Alexander oofnparatVv«\^ atiwab\»% 

312 Plutarch's lives. 

^•* eilate will be fufficieat for him ; and if he continoet 
«' diflblate, nothing will be io." He gave Antipatcr a 
more fevere anfwer^ when he wanted him to do fomething 
inconfiflent with his probity. Antipater,'* faid he, ** can- 
*' not have me both for a friend and a flatterer.'' And 
Antipater himfelf ufed to Giy, ** I have two friends in 
" Athens, Phocion and Demades ; it u impoffibk either 
'' to perfnade the one to any thing, or to fatisfy the other." 
Indeed, Phocion, had his poverty to ihew as a proof of 
hb virtue ; for, though he lo often commanded the Athe- 
nian armirs, and was honoured with the friendQiip of ib 
many kings, he grew old in indigence ; whereas Demades 
paraded with his wealth even in inilances that were con- 
trary to law : for there was a law at Athens, that no fo- 
reigner fhould appear in the choruiTes upon the ifaige, nader 
the penalty of a thouiand Vr«ri&iiMi/, to be paid bv the per- 
fon who gave the entertainment. Yet bemacles, in Ms 
exhibition, produced none but foreigners ; and h« paid 
the thoufand drachmas £ne for each, though their nnmber 
was a hundred. And when his fon Demea was married, 
he faid, *' When I married your mother, the next neigh- 
** hour hardly knew it ; but kings and princes contribute 
*« to the cxpcnce of your nuptials." 

The Athenians were continually importuning Phocion 
to pcrfuade Antipater to withdraw the garrifon ; but 
whether it was that he defpaired of fuccefs, or rather be* 
caufe he perceived that the people were more fober and 
fubmifllve to eovernment, under fear of that rod, he al- 
ways declincil the commiiiion. The only thing that he 
aiked and obtained of Antipater was« that the. money 
which the Athenians were to pay for the charges of the 
war, ihould not be infiiled on immediately, but a longer 
term granted. The Athenians, finding that Phocion would 
not meddle with the affair of the garrifon, applied to De- 
mades, who readily undertook it. In confeqnence of this, 
he and his Ton took a journey to Macedonia^ It fhould 
feem, his evil genius led him thither ; for he arrived juft 
at the time when Antipater was in his lail illnefs ; and 
wlien Caflander, now abfulute mailer of every thing, had 
intercepted a letter written by Demades to Antigonus in 
Aiia, inviting him to come over and feize Greece and Ma- 
cedonia, •' which," he faid, *' hung only upon an old rotten 
«< llalk ;" fo he contemptuouHy called Antipater. Caf- 
/knder no fooner faw him* tlvaiv he ordered him to be ar- 

^ttdkid ; and firft^ic killed his fern before his eyes, atid fo 
liear, that the biood fpouted upon him, and filled his bo- 
fom ; then, after 'having reproached him with 4us- ingrati- 
tude and perfidiouihefs, he Hew him Ukewife. 

Antipater, a little before tits tteath> kad appointed Po- 
lyperchon general, stnd giv'en Caffanderthe eommand of a 
thoufand men. ButCafiTander, far from betng fatisfied 
M ith fttch an appointment, -^hailened to feize tne iixprcm« 
power, and immediately ient Nicanor totake tJie com- 
taiand of the ^artifcm from IVfenyllns, andto fecure Mu- 
Jivchia before the news of his father's death got abroad. 
This fcheme was carried into ewcution*; and, a few days 
after, tJie Athenian* being informed of the death of An- 
lipater, accufed Phocion •£ hcing privy to that event, 
and concealing it ont-of friendihip to Nicanor. PhocicAv, 
. however,- ]|ave htmMfrm pain about it 1 on the -contrary, 
he converted familiary with Nicawor; and, by his aiHdui- 
ties, *Aot only rendered hint kind and obliging to the 
Athenians, but infpired him with an ambition to diftin- 
, guilh himfelf by exJiibiting games and fbews to the people. 

Mean time Pol^'perchon, to whom the care of the 
king's pcrfon was committed *, in order to cocmtermiali 
Caifander, wrote letters to the Athenians, imporUng, 
• *' That tke kin^ rellored them their ancient form of go- 
** vernment;" according 'to which, 'all the people had a 
right to Jtoblic employments. This was a fnare he laid 
for Phocion. For, being deiiro\is of making himfelf 
mafter of Athens (as foon appeared from his anions), he 
was fenfible that he could not <fkSt any thing whilf 
Phocion was in the way. He (aw, too, that his expuliion 
would be no difticulttafk, when all who had been excluded 
from a fhare in the adminiftration were reftored ; -and the 
orators and public informers were once more mailers of ' 
» the tribunals. 

As thefe letters raifed great commotions among tte 
people, Nicanor was defined to fpeak+ to them on that 
fubjei^t in the Pirxus; and, for that purpofe entered their 
affembly, trufting his perfon with Phocion. Dercylfus, 
-who commanded for the king in the adjacent country. 


• The foB of Alexander, who was yet very young. 

t Nicanor knew that Polyj>crchon's pro|>oCit to reftor* the c*«ttwt>. 
cracy was merely a fuars, and he wanted to 4TmU« vVa Js.C>'*ti.wv*\xu- 
fible of it. 


laid a fch«me to feize him ; but Nicanor getting timel/ 
iofomiation of his defign^ ruarded againft it, and fooa 
fhewed that he would wreak his vengeance on the city^ 
Phocion then was blamed for letthfie him go when he haid 
him in his hands ; but he anfwered, " He could confide 
** in Nicanor *s promiie^* and iaw no reafon to fufpefl 
** him of any ill defiga. However," faid he, ** be the 
*' ifliie what it may, I had rather be found fuiFexing than 
« doing what is unjoft." 

. ^ This anfwer of his, if we examine it with refped to 
himfelf only, will appear to be entirely the refult of forti- 
tude and honour; but, when we confider that he hazarded 
the fafety of his country, and, what is more, that he waa 
general and firft magiftratc, (.know not. whether he did 
not violate a flronger and mbre refpedable obligation* 
It is in vain to allege that Phocion was afmd of involving 
Athens in a war i and for that reafon would not feize the 
perfon of Nicanor; and that he only urged the obligations 

.of juflice and good faith, that Nicanor^ by a grateful 
fenfe of fach behaviour, might be prevailed upon to be 

. quiet, and think of no injurious attempt againft the Athe* 
nians. For the truth is, he had fuch confidence in Nica- 
nor, that when he had accounts brought him from feveral 
liands of his defigns upon the Pirasus, of his ordering a 
bodv of mercenaries to Salamis ; and of his bribing fome 

. of the inhabitants of the Piraeus, he would give no credit 
to any of thefe things. Nay, when Philomedes, of the 
borough of Lampra, got an edi£^ made, that all the Athe- 
iiians mould take up arms, and obey the orders of Pho- 

. cion, he took no care to ad in purfuance of it, till Nicanor 
had brought his troo^ out of Munychia, and carried his 

.trenches round the Pirxus. Then Phocion would have 

Jed the Athenians againil him; but, by this time, they 
were become mutinous, and looked upon him with con- 

At that jundure arrived Alexander, the fon of Poly- 
perchon, with an army, under pretence of aififline the againft Nicanor ; but, in reality, to avail himiclf of 
its fatal divifions, and to feize it, if poUible, for himfelf. 
For the exiles who entered the town with him, the fo- 
reigners, and fuch citizens as had been ftigmatized as 
infamous, with other mean people, reforted to him, and 
ail together made up a flrange diforderly aflembly, by 

wAofe /iiffrages the commana was taken from Phocion^ 


tnd other generals ippointed. Had not Alexander been 
Teen alone near the walls in conference with Nicanor, and 
by repeated interviews, given the Athenians caufe of fuf- 
picion, the city coald not have efcaped the daneer it wafr 
in. Immediately the orator Agnonides fingled out Pho* 
cion« and accafed him of treafon; which fo much alarmed 
Callimedon and Pericles *, that they Bed out of the city. 
Phocion, with fuch of his friends as ^d not forfake him, 
repaired to Polyperchon. Scion of Plataea, and Dinarchna 
of Corinth, who paiTed for the friends and confidents o^ 
Polyperchon, out of regard to Phocion« defired to be of 
the party. But Dinarchus fdling ill by the way, they 
were obliged to flop many days at Elatea. In the meaa 
time, Archeilratus propofed a decree, and Agnonides ^ot 
it pafied, that dejfmties ihould be fentto Polyperchon, with 
an accufation againft Phocion. 

The two parties came up to Polyperchon at the lame 
time, as he was upon his march with the king f , near 
Pharu^es, a town of Phocis, £tnated at the foot of Mount 
Acronam, now called Galate. There Polyperchon placed 
the king under a golden canopy, and his friends on eack 
fide of him ; and, before he proceeded to any other bu- 
ilnefs, gave orders that Dinarchus (hould be put to Ott 
torture, and afterwards defpatched. This done, he gave 
the Athenians audience. But, as they filled the place witk 
noiie and tumult, interrupting each other with mutual 
accufations to the council, Agonides prelTed forwards and 
faid, *' Put us all in one cage, and fend us back to Athens, 
** to give account of our conduft there.*' The king 
laughra at the propoial ; but the Macedonians who at- 
tended on that occafion, and the Grangers who weredrawa 
tluther by curiofity, were defirous m hearing the caufe ; 
and therefore made iigns to the deputies to argue the mat- 
ter there. However^ it was far from being conduded 
with impartiality. Polyperchon often interrupted Pho- 
cion, who at laft was fo provoked, that he ftruck his ftaiF 
upon the ground, and would fpeak no more. Hegemon 

P 2 faid» 

* Firickt here lodu like an eironeous reading. Afterwards we find 
not PerUUtf but CbarkUs^ mentiontd along with Cattimedoo* Cha» 
rictes was Phocion*s fon-in-law. 

f This was Aridteus the natural ion of Philip. After itaie ^t 
Alexander*s generals had raiibd'him to the thx^fcut te t3cri^ vwei. v^x« 
pofes, he took {be same of Philip^ and cta^^nn^ to.^|Wt% wAv^»w 


/faid, Polyperchon himfelf could bear witnefs to his affcse^ 
^ tioiiAte regard for the people; and that general anfwered, 
. «« Do you come here to flander me . before the king f ** 
'^Upon this the king flarted up, and was going to run lie- 
•^emon through with his fpear; but Polyperchon prevented 
.£im ; and the council broke up. immediately. 

The guards then furrounded Phocion and his party, ex- 
cept a ievr, who» being, at fome diilance, muiHed them* 
felues up, and Hed. Clitus carried the prifoners to Athens^ 
finder colour of having, them tried there, but, in reality, 
only to have them ..put to death, as perfons already con^ 
demned. The. manner of xondudling the thing, made it 
.a more melancholy fcene. The prifoners were carried in 
. carts through the Ceramicus to the theatre^ where Clitus 
.ihat them up till ihe Arcbons had aflemblcd the people. 
From this aflembly, neither Haves nor foreigners^ nor 
perfons ftigmatizcd as Infamous, were exclndecf ; the tri- 
bunal and the theatre were open to all. Then the king's 
letter was read ; the purport of which was* " That he had 
•* found the prifoners guilty of treafon ; but that he left 
:** it to the Athenians, as freemen, who were to be go- 
^ verned by their own luws, to pafs fentence upon 
*• them.'* 

At the fame time Clitus prefented them to the people. 
.The bell of the citizens, when they faw Phocion, appeared 
greatly dejeded, and covering their faces with their 
mantles, began to weep. One, however, had the courage \q 
fay, *' Since the king leaves the determination of fo. im- 
** portant a matter to the people, it would be proper %o 
^ " command all Haves and grangers to depart." JBut the 
populace, inftcad of agreeing to that motion, cried out, 
•* It would be mucli more proper to ftone all the favourers 
*' of oligarchy, all the enemies of the people." After 
which, no one attempted to offer any thing in behalf pf 
Phocion. It was with much difficulty that he obtained 
pernuHion to fpeak. At lail, filence being made, he faidU 
•* Do you defign to take away my Ijfe, jultly or unjuflly ?'• 
6ome of them anfwering, '« Juftlv ;". he faid, " How can 
" you know whether it will be juitly, if you do not hear me 
** firft?" As he did not find them inclinable in the lealt 
to hear him, he advanced fomc paces forward, and faid^ 
.** Cit^ens of Athens, I acknowledge I have done you 
, *' injuflice ; and for my faults in the adminiftration, ad- 

•* judge 

"^uilgc myfelf guilty of death • ; but why will you put' 
*' thele men to death> who have never injured you?" The 
populace made anfwer, ** Becaufe they are friends to you." 
Upon which he drew back, and refxgned himfelf quietly 
to his fate. 

A|;nonides then read the decree Ke had prepared ; ac- 
cording to which, the people were to declare by their fuf- 
frages whether the priloners appeared to be guilty or not; 
and if they appeared fo, they were to fufFer death. Whea 
the decree was read, fomc called for an additional claufe 
for putting Phocion tothe torture before execution ; and 
infilled, that the rack and its managers Ihould be fent for 
immediately; But Agnonides, obleirving that Ciitus wal' 
difpleafed at that pr^pbfal, and looking upon it himfelf 
as a barbarous and deteftable thing, faid, ** When we takiii 
•' that villain Calliihedon', let us put him to the torture ; 
*' but, indeed, my fellow-citizens, I cannot confent that * 
*' Phocion (hould have fuch hard mcafnre;" Upon this, 
one of the better-difpofed Athenians cried out, " Thoa • 
** art certainly right; for if we torture Phocion, -what 
" muft we do to thee ?" There was, however, hardly one 
negative when the fentence of death was propofed: all thp ^ 
people eave their voices landing; and fome of them even ' 
«rowned themfelves with flowers,- ?is if it had been a mat- 
ter of feftivity.\ With' Phecion, there were Nicoclcsi'" 
Thudippus, Hegemon, and Pythocl^s.* As forDemetrina 
the Phalerean, Callimedon; Charicles, and fome other*, 
who were abfent, ' the fame fentence was palled upon 

Afier the ailembly wasdifmifled, the- convids were* 
ibnt to prifon. The embraces of their friends tind rela** * ^ 
tions melted them into tears i and they all went on be- 
wailing their fate, except Phocion. * His countenance was 
the fame as when the people fent him out to command 
their armies; and the beholders* could not but admire 
his invincible firmnefe and magnanimity. Some of his 
enemies, indeed, reviled him as he went along ; and one 
of them even fpit in his face : upon which, he turned 
to the magi Arates; and faid,- ** Will no body correft this- ^ 
fellow's rudenefs?"- Ihudippus, when he faw the execu-> , 
P 3 tioner 

^ * It was the cuAom fcr the perfon accufcd to Xvj Cottvt ^xvAvi ^t\. 
fiimfdf. Phocion choofes the hUbeft^ iVutvWwv^ a wv\'^\. \i«. ^ ^*"««^^ 
t^ruoncJIc the Athenians to his frieadi*, but 'vv"Vi^^ t^ox- x^^*:^ c^^Qv* 

3i8 Plutarch's lives. 

tioner pounding the hemloc> began to lament what hard 
fortune it was for him to fu^r unjuftly on Phocion's ac- 
count. " What, then !" faid the venerable fage, " doft 
** thou not think it an honour to die with Phocion?** 
One of his friends afking him, whether he had any com- 
mands to his fon ; " Yes,*' faid he, " by all means, tell him 
•* from me, to forget the ill treatment I have had from the 
*• Athenians." And when Nicocles, the moft faithful of 
his friends, begged that he would let him drink the poifon 
before him ; •• This,*' faid he, " Niocles, is a hard re- 
** queft ; and the thing muil give me great uneaiinefs ; 
" but fince I have obliged you m every inftance through 
«• life, I will do the fame in this." 

When they came all to drinks the quantity proved not 
fufficient ; and the executioner refufed to prepare more» 
except he had twelve drachmas' ipBxdi him» which was the 
price of a full draught. As this occaiioned a troublefome 
delay, Phocion called one of his friends^ and (aid, ** Since 
** one cannot die on free coft at Athens, ^ve the man his 
** money." This execution was on the mneteenth day of 
April ^^ when there was a proceffion of horfemen in ho^ 
nour of Jupiter. As the cavalcade pafied by, fome took 
aS their chaplets from their heads ; others filed tears as 
they looked at the prifon doors : all who had not hearts 
entirely favage, or were not corrupted by rage and envy, 
looked upon it as a moft impious thin^, not to have re- 
prieved them at leafl for that day, and \q to have kept the 
city unpolluted on the fefliral. 

However, the enemies of Phocion, as if fomething had 
been wanting to their triumph, got an order that his body 
Aould not be fufFered to remain within the bounds of At- 
tica ; nor that any Athenian Ihould furnifh iixe for the fu- 
neral pile. Therefore, no friend durft touch it ; but one 
Conopion, who lived by fuch fervices, for afum of money, 
carried the corps out of the territories of Eleufis, and got 
fire for the burning of it in thofe of Megara. A woman 
of Me^ara, who happened to affift at the ceremony with her 
nuud-lervants, railed a cenotaph upon the fpot, and per- 
formed the cuftomary libations. The bones flic gathered 
up carefully into her lap, carried them by night to her 
own houfes and interred them under the hearth. At the 
fame time ihe thus addreiTed the domeiUc gods, '< Ye 

<' goardiaiu 


** guardians of this place, to ygu I commit the remains 
*' of this good man. Do you reftore them to the fepulchre 
" of his anceftors, when the Athenians ihall once more 
*' liften to the dittates of wifdom." 

The time was not long before the iituation of their af- 
fairs taught them, how vigilant a magiftrate, and how ex- 
cellent a guardian of the virtues of juftice and fobriety, 
they had loft. The people ere^ed his ftatue in brafs, and 
buried his remains at the public expence. Agnonides. his 
principal accufer, they put to death, in conlequence of a 
decree for that purpoie. Epicurus and Demophilus^ the 
other two, iied from Athens ; but afterwards fell into the 
bands of Phocion's fon, who puniftied them as they de- 
ferved. This fon of his was, in other refpe^s, a worthlefs 
man. He was in love with a girl, who was in a ftate of 
fervitude, and belonged to a trader in fuch matters ; and 
happening one day to hear Theodorus the atheift mainr 
tain this argument in the Lyceum, '' That if it is no 
" fhame to ranfom a friend, it is no fhame to redeem t • 
'* miftrefs ;'* the difcourfe was fo flattering to his oaflion, 
that he went inunediately and releafed his &male friend*. 

The proceedings againft.Phocion put the Greeks ia ' 
mind of thofe againft Socrates. The treatment of both. • 
was equally unjuft, and the calamities thence entailed upon ' 
Athens were perfedly iimilar f* 

CATO THE younger; . 

X HE family of Cato had its firft luftre and diflinftion *» 
from his great grandfather, Cato the Cenfort, a man '■ 
whofe virtue, as we have obferved in his Life, ranked him • 
with perfons of the greateft reputation and authority in 
Rome. The Utican Cato, of whom we are now fpeak* 
. ing, was left an orphan, together with his brother Csepio> • 

P 4 ^ and ' 

• It appears from the ancient oomedy« that it was no untommon 
thing for the young men of Athena totiUce their miftrefietf out of iucb * 
(hops i and, after they had releaied. them from fervltudc, to many 

f Socrates was put to death eigh^-twoyearrbeforr. 

j- pato the Cenfor, at a Tcry lace period in life, married' Salonti^ < 
dadghttrof his own fteward. Theft wa% it {axittV}^\nr«i«^«cs Assess, 
that fecojid iMtchf which flooriihcd Tibia thaVfiYi&KS^ ^tfift^x^t^.^^^. 
£(HSt was ext'metM . 

3^0 PLUTAltCH*S tmSr ♦ 

and his fiilcr Porcia. He had alfo another -filter caned ' 
Sei vLia, but (lie was only lifter, by the mother's fide*l- 
'I'hf orphans were brought up in the houfe of Livius Dru-- 
fub, their mfiiier's broiher, who at that lime- had great in- 
iluc'pce in ti»c .jd'nirill ration; to whlch-hewas entitled by 
- his ejvxfucncc, hb wirdom, and dignity, of mind ; excel- 
lencies that put him upon un equality n\ Ith the bell of the 

Cuto, we arc trjld, frem his ir.fency diicovered in his 
voict^.his look, and his very diverfions», afirmncfs and fo- 
lidity, which r.cithcr paiTion, nor .my thing elfc could move; 
He purfutd every object he had in view wlui a vigour far 
above his years, and a refolutron. t!iat nothing could refift. 
Tl*i>fo who were irrclined to flatter were fuvc to meet with 
a levcre repulic, and to thofewho attempted to intimidate 
hiui, he was ilill more untradlable. Scarce any thing could... 
make him laugh, and it was but rardy that his conntenaoce 
was i'oftencd to afmile. He was not quickly or cafily moved 
to anger ; but it was dkiicult to appeafe his rcfentmentj 
when once excited.. 

His apprehcnilon was-fk>w, and his learnings came with, 
difficulty ; but what he had once learned he long retained. 
It is, indeed, a common cafe for pcrfons of quick parts X9 
have weak memories, but what is gained wi«h iabour and 
application is always retaU^d the iongcft : for every hard- 
gamed acquilition of fcience, is a kind of annealing upon; 
the mind |. I'he inflexibility of his difpofition fecms alio 
to have retarded his progrefs in - learning t.. For, to 
learn is to fubmit to a new itnprcllion ; and thofe fubmie. 
the moH eafily who have the hall pov/er of refiflance. Thus 
young men are more pcrfuafible than the old, and the fick 
than luch as are well ; and, in general, afTcnt is mofl eafily 
gained from thofe who arc leall al^le to find doubts and 
iiifficultiej. Yet Cato is laid to have been very obedient 
tahis preceptor, and to have done whatever he was com* 
minded ; only he would always inqurre the reafon, and 
afls. why fuch a thing was enjoined. Indeed, hispreceptor^ 


• Servilia was not his- only fif^er by the moihtT** fide^ there were 
three of chem: One, the mother of Bruius who killed Cat arj another 
married to LucuIIusj and a third to Junius SiUnui. CxpiO) tOi?, waa . 
iiis brother hy the mother's fide. 

f TkytT»i yae cUn sx.K»VfL» rrm -^icyK, rx'9 fjiU^n^jLorzuf iu-Arat* 

X Avavifot JI4W nbelitfve is the common reading; but A:;<T9r>ir6;^ . 
am whi^h we a/e warranted by (omQ>rr.aki\ttk\\^tb^ '\% kv(;«% ^^v\«UL^ \« 


Sarpedon (for that was his name) was a man erf engaging 
mannersj who chofe rather to govern by reafon^ than by 

While Cato was yet a child, the Italian allies demanded 
to be admitted cicizensof Rome* Popedius Silo,'*ft man ■ 
of great name as a foldier and powerful among his people, 
had a friend fliip with- Drufus, and lodged a long time in ' 
his hoiife during this application. As he was familiar with 
the children, he faid to them one day,. «' Come, my good 
•* children, defire your uncle to aflill us in our folicita- 
*' tion for the freedom.'' Caepio fmiled, -and readily 
gave his promiie ; but Cato made no anfvver. ' And as he 
was obferved to look with a fixed and unkind eye upon the 
ftrangcrs, Popedius continuedi '* And you, my little man, • 
•* what do you fay ? Will not you give your guefts your 
** intereit witk*your uncle*, as well- as your brother ?'* — 
Cato ftill refufmg to anfwer, and appearing by his filence 
and his looks inclined to deny the requeft, Popedius took~ 
him to the window and threatened^ '^if he would not pro- 
mife, to throw him out^* This he did iti a harfh tone, and 
at the £ time gave him fcveral (hakes,' as if he; was go- 
ing to let him falL But as the child borcf this a long; time 
without any- marks' of concern or fear, Popedius fet him * 
dorwn, and faid foftly to his friends, *' This-child is the - 
•* glory of Italy. I verily* believe if he were a man, that - 
" "we fliould not get one vote among the people. ^ 

Another time, when a relation invited young Cato, with ' 
otlir children, to celebrate* his birth-day, moft of the chil- • 
dreii went to play together in a corner of the houfe. Their 
play was -to mimic a conrt of jufticc^j where fome were * 
accufed in form, and afterwards carried tQ prifon. One of 
them, a beautifut boy,*being condemned, und fhut up by a ^ 
bigger boy,, who aded as pificer, in one of the apartments, 
called out to Cato } *who>' as foon as he underftobd what 
the matter was, ran to the door, and pufhing away thofe • 
wiio Aood there as guards, and attempted tiroppofe him, 
P 5 carried ^ 

* Children** plays ire* often taWcn from what is moft familiar toi ' 
them; In other countnes they are comnionty foffned upoii trifilrijj. - 
Aihjeds, bnt th« Roman children afted trials in the courts of juftice, » 
the command of armiei, triumphal proceflflons, and, in later times. the 
fl«te of empcrori. Suetonius telli us chat Nero commanded hU Co\\Ax\.« 
law Rufiiius Crifptau8» the fon of Popxif a cVuV^ \o b« >^t<y«tw 'v'ccva . 
cbe^ftn, beeaafs ho wm Cud to dcUglht in ^)% oi >Xi^\»Sc-tcs»ccCvQXNs^ 


carried off the child, and went home in great anger; moil 
of the children marching off with him. 

Thefe things gained him great reputation, of which the 
following is an extraordinary inflance : When Sylla chofe 
to exhibit a tournament of boys, which goes by the name 
cf Troy fy and is con£dered as a facred exhibition, he fe- 
leded two bands of young gentlemen, and afligned them 
two captains, one of which they readily accepted, on ac- 
count of his being the fon of Metella, the wife of Sylla ; 
but the other, named Sextus, though he was nephew to 
Pompey the Great, they abfolutely rejedled, and would 
not go out to exercife under him. Sylla then aiking them« 
•' whom they would have?" they unanimoufly cried 
** Cato;" and Sextus himfelf readily yielded the honour to 
him, as a boy of fuperior parts. 

The friendfhip wiiich had fubfifted between Sylla and 
the father of Cato, induced him fometimes to fend for the 
young man and his brother Cxpio, and to talk familiarly 
with them : a favour, which, by reafon of his dignity, he 
conferred on very few. Sarpedon thinking fuch an inter- 
coorfe a great advantage to his fcholar, both in point of 
honour and fafety, ofteh took Cato to pay his refpefts to 
the didlator. Sylla's houfe at that time looked like no- 
thing but a place of execution ; fuch were the numbers of 
people tortured and put to death there. Cato, who now 
was in his fourteenth year, feeing the heads of many illuf- 
trious perfonages carried out, and obferving that the by- 
Handers fighed in fecret at thefe fcenes of blood, afked his 
preceptor, '* Why fomebody did not kill that man ?" '* Be- 
*' caufe," faid he, '* they fear him more than they hate 
*' him." •' Why then," faid Cato, *' do not you give me 
^' a fword, that I may kill him, and deliver my country 
** from flavery ?" When Sarpedon heard fuch a fpeeck 
from the boy, and faw with what a ftern and angry look 
he uttered it, he was greatly alarmed, and watched him 
narrowly afterwards, to prevent his attempting fome raih 
action. i 

When he was but a child, hewas afked one day, " Whom 
•' hdoved moft ?'' and he anfwered, " His brother." The 


^ The invention of this game is ^netaUy afcribed to Afcanius. It 
•was celebrated in the public circus by companies of boys, who were 
iTurnifhed with arms fuitable to iheXr (^tctv^Vi. TUfc^ 'were taken, for 
the tnofi part, out of the noblcft famvWes \tv^» ^tt i>.tv ^t&^^ssx 
^dcriptlon of it itt Virgil, ^nttd,Nw. 5^^*c<u 


f)€3rfon who put the qaeilioir, then aiked him '* Whom he 
*« loved next ? '* and again he faid " His brother :*' '* Whom 
*' in the third place ?'* and flill it was •* His brother:" and 
fo ou till he put no more ^uedions to him about it. This 
af£e&ion increafed with his years^ infomuch that when he 
was twenty years old^ if he fupped* if he went out into 
the country, if he appeared in Uit forum, Caepio mufl be 
with him. But he would not make ufe of perfumes as 
Caepio did ; indeed, the whole courfe of his life was ftrift 
and auflere : fo that when Caepio was fometimes com- 
•mended for his temperance and (bbriety, he would fay* 
•** *I may have fome claim to thefe virtues, when compared 
" with other men ; . but when I compare myfelf with Cato^ 
^' -I feem a mere Sippius." Sippius was the name of a 
perfon remarkably effeminate and luxurious. 

After Cato had taken upon him the priefthood of Apollo^ 
he chajiged his dwelling, and took his ihare of the pater- 
nal, eilate, which amounted to a hundred and twenty ta- 
lents. But though his .fortune was fo considerable, his 
manner of living was more frugal and iimple than ever. 
He formed a particular conne£Uou with Antipater of Tyre> 
the Stoic philofopher ; and the knowledge he was the mod 
iludious of acquiring, was the moral and the politicaL He 
was carried to every virtue with an impnlie like infpira- 
tion 'y but his greateft attachment was to juilice, and juftice 
of that fevere and'inflexlble kind which is not to be wrought 
upon by favour or compaffionV He cultivated alfothat do* 
quence swhi^h is fit for popular afiemblies ; for^s in a great 
city there fhould be an extraordinary fupply for war, fo in 
the political ohilofophy he thought there mould be a provi-^ 
iioi^ for trouolefome times. Yet he did not declaim before 
company^ nor go to hear the ejcercifes of other young men. 
And when one of iiis friends faid, ** Cato, the world findt 
** fault with your filence :." he anfweved, •« No matter, fo 
«' long as it does not find fault with my life. I fhall be- 
** gin to fpeak, when I have things to fay that defenre td 
** be known." 

in the public hall called the Porcimt, which was buiTt hf 
joM Cato in his cenforihipj the trihnnes:Of the people ofeft 


^ Cicero, in his oration for Movent, gWss at a fins iatirs upon 
thofe maxims of the Stoic* which Cato mads the calt oi U»^3&t> ^kiA^ 
-wc^cb, as he ohfecvcs^ wercjonly fvt to fLosnt^ltVOc^te^^|^^^-- - 

3*24 irLUTAJLCH*8 LtrEff.- 

W bold their. coutt. And,. a^ there was a pillar whtch inv- 
conmodcd their benches, they refolved either to remove tt . 
to a diilaoce, or. to take it entirely away. - This was the 
firft thing that drew Cato to the ro^ira, asd evta then it . 
-w»s againJil hit inclination. How ever, lie oppoTed the det- 
-&^h eftcdtually, and gave an admirable fpecimen, both cf- 
' hu eloquence, and fpiri t. For there was- noihlng of youtb- 
fill Tallies or finical affedatioain his oratory; all was 
;/»oogh, fcniible', and ^ong. Nevertheleis, axnidil the ihovc 
and foUd turn ofrthe femences there was a grace that ei^ 
gaged the ear ;. and witli the gravity which might be ex- - 
peded fcom his manne^s^ there was fomething of humour 
and raillery incermixed,. whidi had a a agreeable effed. 
JEIiflL voice was load enough to be heard by fuch a multitude 
of people, and his ilrengthwas fuch, that he often fpokc 
z wiioie- day without being tired. 

After he had gained his caufe, he returned to his former- 
ftudies and iilence. To. flrengtben his conHitution, he 
nkdi the mod laborious exerciir. He accullonied himfelf 
to go .bare4itaded in the hoitt (I and coldeii weather, and 
tmvelled on foot at all fe«ifon«- of the year*. His friends 
who travelled with him, made nfe of horfes, and he joined 
ibmetimes one, fomctimes another for ccnveriatioo, as he 
went along-. In time of ficknefs, his patience and abiU- 
aence were extraordinary. If- he happened to have a fever^ 
he fpcnt the whole day alone, fufeiring no perfon to ap» 
proachJiim, till he found a fenfible change for the bctter.- 

At entertainments they threw the dice for the choice of 
the mefies ; and if Cato loft the firft choice, his. friends ufed 
tooifer it him; but he always rtfufcd it ; " Venus*,** faid 
he, " forbids." At iirft he ufed to rife from table after 
having drank once ; but in procefs of time he came to 
love drinking, and would fometimes fpendrthe whole night 
over the bottle. His friends exculed him. by faying, 
f * That the bulinefs of the ftate employed him all day, 
'«' and left him no time for converfation, and therefore he 
'' fpent his evenings in difcourfe with the philofophers." 
/ind, when one Memmius fa^id in company, " That Cato 
•■ fpent whole nights in drinking ;" Cicero retorted, *' But 
•« you cannot fay that he fpends whole day at play." 


• The mofl favourable cafl upon the dice wis called KansTft^ Honr 
ra€e aihidss, to it, ode Miu Lb i. 


Catoiaw that a great reforma^tion was wanting iok tke 
manners and cuiloms of hU CDUntr^ry and for that reaiba 
he decermined to go contrary>to the corrupt fafhions whicii 
then obuined# He ol>ierve<i {fair ioAance) that the richeft 
and mofl lively purple was- the thing moll wora,. and there- 
fore he went in-Jalack* Nay, be often appeared in public 
alter dinner bare- footed <and without^his gown. Not that 
he afteded to be talked of for thiit fmgularity ; but he did 
h by way, of learning to be afli a med of nothing but what 
wa3 really ifhamefal^ and not to cegard what depended only 
on the eHimatton of the world*. 

A great eilate falling to him by the death «£ a.coufin- 
german of the* fame name« heturned it into money, to the 
amount of a hundred talents ; and whcivany of his friends 
wanted to borrow a fum, he lent it them without interdh 
If he could not otherwife fupply them, he fuifered even 
his own land and flaves ta^be mortgagedfor them to the 

He knew no woman before fiii ma^tiagv ; and when he 
thought himfelf of a proper age to enter into that (late, he 
fet a treaty on foot with Lepida, who had before been 
contracted to^Metellus Scipio, but, upon Sclpio's breaking 
the engagement, was then at-liberty. However, before 
the marriage could take place, Sciplo. repented ; and by 
the ailiduity of^his management and addrefs, fucceeded 
with the lady.. Pro^^oked at this ill treatment, Cato waa 
deiirous %o ^o to law for redrefs ; and*, as his friends over- 
ruled him la that refpcft, youthful refentment put him 
upon writing £bme iamlks agsimfk Scipio, which had all 
the keennef&'Of^Archilochjas, without hi& obfcenity and 

After this, he married Atilia the daughter of Soradusj 
who was the firft, but not the only woman he ever knew* 
In this refpedl Laslius, the friend of Scipio Africanus, 
was happier than he * ; for in the courie of a long life ho 
had only one wife, and no intercourfe. with any other 

In the Jcr^ijgr war-f- ( j mean that with- Spartacus) GeU 
lijaa was general;, and Cato ferved in it as a volunteer* foe 


♦ • Plutarch fccms to us to have fpo^en (6 feelingly of the happineft 
«f the conjugal conne^^Ion long conrinncd with one afleitscdatti wiit| 
ifom his own experience. 
•fScycpty-one years fccfore the Chriftum ttta* 

tiw^ikka of liisbrot]ier:Cae{ik>^ wliawM tribune : bat lie 
^ciQfM adt dUUngnifli Jus mmcky and courage as be wiflied^ 
iiMaafe the war was iU.cdaduded. However, amidft the;/ 
eibminacy amd luxarf wbich. then prevailed in the artny* 
be.jMid fo HMich ce^afd to difcipline, and, .whea-oceafioa 
fefved» behaved with fo nuiich ipirit and valonr as weU bm. 
c%9lne(s and ca^ttyy that be appeared not in. the leaft 
Inftrior to.Cato ^e. Cenfoc - Gellias m^dt him an offer 
«>f ^e bed; mUiury rewards and hoaoi^rs ; but he wonld 
not accept or allow of them; << For/' faid he^ «' I have 
^' done nothinjg; that de&rves focb. notice." 

Thefe things made^him pafs £ar a nun of a fkrange and 
fiaignlar tarn^ B^des, when a law -was made, that no 
inan who foliclted any office^ iboald take n^menclatBrt with 
bi|n« he; was the only one that obeyed it ; ^r when be 
^plied for a tribune's conimlflion in» he bad 
pjpvioaily made himfelf mafier of the names of all the 
•c^tzens. Yet fortius he was envied, .even by thoie wb« 
pcaifed hial.. . Tbe^moeo. they confidcnad the. excellence 
oC his coiidii^, the more pain it gave them to think bow •. 
baiditwai to imitate* . 

^ With a tribune's commifiton be waaient into Macedo* ■ 
taia» where^ Rubrius the .prxtor commanded. . Hismfe^ 
opon his departure, was in great diilrefs, and we are told 
that Munatins, a friend ^f Cato's, in order to comfont 
ber, faid> '/ Take courage, Atilia ; { will take care of 
««yoar hu(hand/' '* By all means,?' anfwered Cato. At - < 
the end of the. firft day's march* after. they had (upped, 
be (aid, " Come, Munatins,. that .you may the better. 
^^-^icxform your promife to AtiUa*. you ihall niot leave me 
^* either day or night«" In confequ^nce .of which,, be 
oidered two beds in hb own tent, and made a plea&nt \ 
improvement upon the matter ; for, as Munatius always , 
ikpt byihim, it was not be thataook care of Cato, bat ^ 
Oato that took care of him. 

Cato bad with him fifteen flaires, two freedmen, a^d . \ 
ftm of his friends* Thefe rode on borfeback, and be al» . > 
wayfwenton£x>tj.y.^Jiekq>tjap with them and coa-. 
wened with them by tnms. .When be joined the army^ 
«fhich confined oi feveral legions^ Anbii^s gave buat 
the command' of one. In this noil be thought it no* 
sltMiS great or extracMdimuy to be diftinguifhed by hia 
«aKn yirtnexmly^^ it .was. bis Ambition to^aake.all the .: 

<:ATe THE YOtyNGER. 327 

troops that were under his care like himfelf. . With thi> 
iriew he leiTened nothing of that anthority which*might 
infpire fear» but he called in the fapport of reafon to its 
siiliftance. By inilrudlion and periuafion, as well as by 
rewards and puniihments, he formed them fo vell> that it 
was hard to lay whether his troops were more peaceable 
or more warlike, more valiant or more jnft, 1 hey were 
dreadful to their enemies, and courteous to their allies ; 
afiraid to do a diihonourabk thing, and ambitious of ho- 
neft praife. 

Hence, though honour and fame were not Cato's ob- 
jects, they flowed in upon him ; he was held in univerfal 
efteem, and had entirely the hearts of his foldiers. For 
whatever he commanded others to do, he was the fir ft 
to do himfelf. In his drefs, his manner of living, and 
inarching, he refembled the private foldier more than the 
oflieer ; and at the fame time, in virtue, in dignity of 
mind, and ftrength of eloquence, he far exceeded ali that 
iiad the name of generals. By thefe means he infenfibly 
gained the affections of his troops. And, indeed, virtue 
does not attradt imitation, except the perfon who gives 
the pattern is beloved as well a« erteemed. Thofe who 
praife good men without loving them, only pay a refped 
to their name, but do not iincerelj admire their virtue# 
nor have any inclination to follow their example. 

At that time there lived at Pcrgamus a Stoic philofo- 
pher, named Athenodorus, and fumamed Cordylio, in 
j;Teat reputation for "his knowledge. He was now grown 
old, and had long re£fted the applications of princes and 
other great men, who wanted to draw him to their courts^ 
and o&red him their friendihip and very confiderable ap- 
pointments. Cato thence concluded that it would be itt 
vain to write or fend any meflenger to him ; and, as the 
laws gave him leave «of abfence for two months, he failed 
to Ail a, and applied to him in perfon, in confidence that 
his accomplifhments would cany his point with him. Ac- 
cordingly, by his arguments and the charms of his con« 
4rerfation> he drew him from his purpofe, and brought him 
vnth him to the camp ; as happy and as proud of this 
fnccefs, as if he had made a more valuable capture, or 
performed a more glorious exploit^ than thofe of Pompey 
.and Luculius, who were then fabdttin|; the provinces and 
ikittgdoms of iheeait* 

While he was with the arihy in Macedoaia, he had 
tice by letter that his brother C^epio was fallen lick ac^ 
jfinus in Thrace. The fea was cArtremcly roughs and no 
lai-ge vefTel to be had. • He ventbred, however* to iaii- 
from TheHliIoDica, in a fmoll paiTage-boat, with two ^ 
friends and three fervants^ and. having very .narrowly 
efcaped drouning-^ arrived at .^^nus jnil after Caepio ex-- 
pircd. On this occafion Cato (hewed the fenfibility of a 
brother, rather than the fortitude of a philofopher. ' He 
wept« he groaned, he cn^raced the dei-vd body;, and be- 
(idcs thefe and other tokens of'tbe greateft forrow, he fpent 
vaft fums upon his funeral. » The fpices and rich- robes' 
tliat were burnt with him were very expen£ve» and he"" 
ei^iled a monument ibr him of Thaiian marbl« in the 
fofum at i£nusi which coft no lefs than eight ^talents. 

Some condemned thcfc things as little agreeable to the - 
Biodeity and fimpUcity which Cato prolefled in general ;. 
but they did not perceive, that with all his firmnefs- and 
inflexibilicy to the foliciutiotts of pleafuf-e^ of terror, and 
importunity^ he Jiad great tehdemefs and fenfibility in iiis 
nature; Many cities and princes feat prcfeuts df great 
value, to do honour to the obfequics, but he would not 
accept any thing in money. All that he would receive* 
was fpices and iluiSs> and ihofe too only on condition of- 
paying for them. 

He was left coheir with Capio's daughter, to his eilate; 
but when tliey came to divide it, he would not charge any • 
part of the funeral expences to her account. Yet, though,, 
he a£^ed fo honourably in that afi^air, and continued in the 
fame upright path, there was one * who fcrupled not to 
write, that he pafl'cd his brother's aihes through a fieve, in 
fearch of the gold that might b& melted down. Surety 
that writer thuughi hinifclf above being ^lled to account- 
iox his pen, as well as for his fword ! 

Upon the expiration^ of his commifliony Cato was ho- ■' 
noured at his departure, not only with the common good 
wiihes for his health and praifes of his condu^, but witk 
tears and the mofl a£edionate embraces; the foldiera- 
fpread their garments in his way, and kif&d his hands : 
inflanccs of efteem which few generals met. with from the 
Romans in thofe times# 

But before he returned to Rome, to apply for a iliare in 
the adminillration, he rcfolved to viHt Aia, aiid iee with 

♦ Julius Csefar m\u% 4nt\cato% 


lii own eyes the manners, cuftoxns, and ftrcngtli of every 
province. At the fame time he was willing to oblige 
Deiotarus king of Gaiatia,'who, on account of the engage- 
ments of fiofintality that he had entered into with-his.fa* 
ther, had gi'.en hioi a. very prelling^ invitation. 

Hi.^ mann-^r ortravellirg was this. Early in the morn* 
ing he feni }\\s baker and his cook to the placie where h^ 
XBtend^d 10 lodge the next night. Thefe entered the 
town m a vxi-y. modcil and civil manner, and if they 
found vhcre no friend or acijaaintancc of Cato or his fa- 
mii/i i;i./ look up lodgings for him, and prepared his 
fupoer at :«n inn, without giving any one the.lealt trouble. 
If iherc n'jppeDed so bcno inn, they, applied to die ma* 
giflrates Rr quartern, and wtre always fatisiiedwith thofe 
afligiied tlwm. V«ry often they were not believed to be 
Cato's fervants, but entirely difregarded *, becaufe they 
came not to the magiftrates in. a. clamorous aad threaten- 
ing manner; infomuch that their mailer arrived before they 
could procure lodgings. It was. worfe. ft ill when Cato 
himlelf made his appearance, for the townfmen feeing him 
fct down on the luggage without fpeaking a word, took 
hun fbr.a man ef a mean and. daftardly fpirit. Some-- 
times, however, he wo^ld ftnd for the magiflrates, and 
fay, *' Wretches, why do. not you learn a, proper. hofpU 
•« tality ? You will not find all thai apply to ypu, Catos. 
•* Do not then by your ill treatment give thofe occafion 
•• to exert their authority, who only want a pretence to 
** take from yo«. by^ violence, what you give with fo 
f* much rclu^ance." 

In Syria, we ace told, he met with an humourous ad- 
venture.. When he came to Antioch, he iaw a number of 
people ranged in good order without the gates. On one 
fuie-thew^ay ftood the young men inr their mantles, and 
on the. other the boys in their beft attire. Some wore white 
robes, .and had crowns on their heads j thefe were the 
pjiefls and the magiftrates. Cato imagining that this 
magnificent. reception was intended to do. him honouo^ be an^ry with his fervants, who were fenjt before, 
for not preventing fucKa compliment. Neverthelefs,. he 
deiired his friends to alighti and walked with them towards 
thcfe Antiochiaais- , Whea they. wexc. near enough to be 


•* ^//^rff firaMM kmnt rp dmlin fanpcrir mitr\^ut. tx^x^^ 


fpoken to» the mailer of the ceremonies, an elderly nuuif 
with a ftafF and a crown in his hand, addreifed himfelf 
firll to Cato, and, without fo mu^h as faluting him, aiked 
" How far Demetrius was behind $ and when he might 
" be expeSed." Demetrius was Poropey's freedman-; 
and, as the eyes of all the world were then fixed npoa 
Pompey, they paid more refpedt to this favourite of his 
than he had any right to claim. Cato's friends were fei- 
:sed with fuch a At of laughter, that they could not reco- 
ver tliemfelves as they paiTed through the crowd. Cato- 
himfelf, in fome confudon, cried out, " Alas poor city I'* 
and faid not a word more. Afterwards, howeverj he 
ftifed always to lau^h when he told the ftory« 

But Pompey took care to prevent the people of Afia from 
making any more^miftakes of this kind fox want of know- 
ing Caco. For Cato, when he came to Ephefos* going to- 
pay his refpeds to Pompey, as his fuperior in point of ag« 
and dignity, and as the commander of foch great armies^ 
Pompey feeing him at fome diftance, did not wait tore*^ 
ceive him fitting, but rofe up to meet him, and gavelum ■ 
his hand with great cordiality. He faid much, too« ia.{ 
commendation of his virtue while he was pxiefent, ani-. 
(poke more freely in his praife when he was gone. Every 
one, after this, paid great attention to Cato ; and he wu 
admired for what before had expofed him to contempt : 
for tliey could now {be that his fedate and fubdued condu^ 
was the effedt of hi^ greatnefs of mind. Befides, it was 
vifible that Pompey's behaviour to him was the coniequence- 
rather of rcfpedt than love j and that, though'he exprefied 
his admiration of him when prefent, he was glad when 
he was gone. For the other young Romans tl^t came to I 
fee him, he prefTed much to ftay an^ fpend fome time ' 
with him. To Cato he gave no fuch inviution ; but, as 
if he thought himfelf under fome reftraint in his proceed- 
ings while he ftayed, readily difmifled him. However, 
amongft ail the Romans that returned to Rome, to Cato 
jonlj he recommended his wife and children, who indeed -^ 
«iirere his relations. 

His fame now going before him, the cities in his way 
ftrove which fhouid do him moft honour, by invitations, 
entertainments, and every other mark of regard. On 
thefe occafions, Cato ufed to defire his friends to look well 
to him, left he fhouid make good the faying of Curio. 
i^iurio, who was gue oC 1a^ ^^usc^i^ax imtA^ /»i^^nm^- 


^ons, but difapproved his aufterity, aiked him one day, 
^ Whether he was inclined to vifit Afia when his time- of 

fervice was expired?" Cato anfweredj " Yes, by all 
^ means." Upon which Curio faid, ** It is well; you will 
^ return a little more pradicable:" afuig an expreflive 
•atin word to that purpofe*. 

Deiotarus, king of Galatia, being far advanced in 
'ears. Tent for Cato, with a deAgn to recommend his 
jiildreUj and all his family , to his protedlion. As foon 
.s he came« he ofi«red him a variety of valuable prefents, 
md urged him ftrongly to accept them; which importunity 
x> much difpleafed him, that though he came in the even- 
ing, he flayed only that nieht, and went away at the third 
iiour the next morning. After he had gone a day's journey ^ 
be found at Peflintts a greater number of prefents, with let- 
ters intreating him to receive them; '* or if you will not, 
'* accept them," faid Deiotarus, *' at leaft permit your 
*' friends to take them, who deferve fome reward for their ' 
*< fervices, and yet cannot expedt it out of your owneAate." 
Cato» however, would give them no fuch permiflion, though: 
he obferved that ibme of his friends call a longing eye 
that way, and were viftbly chagrined* " Corruption,'*- 
" faid he, '^ will never want a pretence. But you (hall be. 
*• fure to (hare with me whatever I can get with jnfttce and: 
** honour." He therefore fent Deiotarus his prefenta 

When he was taking (hip for Brundudum, his friends 
advifed him to put Caepio's remains on board another 
veflelf; but he declared, "He would fooner part with 
** his life than with them ;" and fo he fet fail. It is (kid, 
the (hip he was in, happened to be in great danger, thoug]^ 
all the reft had a tolerable pafTage. 

After his return to Rome, he fpent his time either in 
converfation with Athenodortts at home, or in the ftrum 
in the fervice of his friends. Though he was of a proper 
age X to offer himfelf for the quasitorfhip, he would not 
iblicit it till he had qualified himfelf for that office, by 
, ^ ftudyiftg 

* Suppofed to ht manfuetkr. As Cato vnderftood !t in a difadvanta* 
^ous lenre, we have rendered it by tbe word frMeskkt which ccnii« 
yeys that idea. 

f From a foperfUtSon which commonly obtaioedy they imagioe4 
that a dead body on ly>ard a (hip would raife a ftorm. Plutardu b^i 
Aifing the word bsfpened juft below, ihewa \!hal Vie ^\^ t«A. ^xOaaX^ 
that fuperftjtioas notionf f bough too apt to do iVwofe tXtols^^ 
/ Twenty- foar priw^sty-^ve yrars of ai^e* 

333r PLUTARCttV riTl*.^- 

ftudyijig all the laws relating to it» by fnaikingi] 
of fuch as \« ere experienced in it; and thus gaining 
rough kno'.v'cdge of*it3 whole intehtion and proce 
mediately upon his entering on it, he- made & g'^i 
mation among, ihe fccrecarii.8 and other ofi^era 
treafury. T^ public papers^ and the rules of cow 
what they were well vcried in; and as young c 
were continually coining into the diredion> ^yho v 
norant of the laws and records, the uader-ofHce 
upon them not only to kiilrucl. but to dilate tc 
and were^ in faft, quxftors UicmArlves. Cato c< 
this abu(e. He applied himfclf wLt::i great vigou 
buiinefs, and had not only the name and hone 
thoroughly underilood all that belonged to that 
ment. Confequently, he made ufe of the fecretar 
as fervants, which they really- were ; fometimes co4 
wilful abufes, and rometimesthe miilakes which the 
through ignorance. As the licence in^ which th 
lived* had made them refradory, and they hoped u 
themfolvcs by liattering the other quaeftors, they 
withftood-Cato. He therefore difmiffed the prin^ 
them, whom he' hud ^etcded in a fraud in the div 
an eftate. AgainiV another he lodged an indidn: 
fergery. His defence w€s undertaken by Lutatius C 
then cenfor ; a man whofe authoH&y was not only fuj 
by his high office, but Hill more by his reputatio 
in juftice and regularity of life, he had diftinguiihc 
fclf above all the Romans of his time. He was 
iricnd and favourer of Cato, on account of his i 
condu£^; yet he oppofed him in thiscaufe. • Pen 
he had not right on his fide, he- had recourfe to inti 
but Cato would not fuifer him to proceed in that m 
and, as he did not defill, took occafion to fay, ** It 
" be a great difgrace for you.^Catulusy who are 
•* and infpedlorof our lives and manner v ^o be 
** out of court- by my lidlors." Ca^ulus gave him j 
as if he intended to make anfwcr;' however, he < 
(peak:- either through anger or fliame, he went off 
and greatly difconccf ted. - Nevcrtheiefs, . the. ma 
not condemned. As the number of voices ag9.iii 
exceeded thofe for him by one only, Catulus defu 
alfiftance of Marcus Lollius, Cato's colleague, wj 
pfrevented by fickneis from attending the trial; but 
tluV appliciaion, wai b^ou^Jnx 'u\viVA\^x \\v\.<i coas 

''<ATO THE Y0U,2TGER. 33J 

Ig^e the determining voice in favour of the defendaivt. 
JiGt Cato would not rellore him to his employment, or 
^ay him his ftipend ; for he confidered-the partial fuffragc 
«of Lollius as a thing of no account. 

The fecretaries thus humbled and fubdued, he took the 

^iredlion of the public papers and finances into his owa 

Jiand. By thefe means, in a little time he rendered the 

. treafurf more reCpeftable than the fenate itfelf ; and it was 

.commonly thought, as well as faid, that Cato had given 

the qu.-ellorihip all ,the 4igtiity of the confulate. For, 

having made it his bufincis to find out all the debts of 

long (landing due to the public, and what the public was 

indebted to private perfons, he fettled thefe affairs in fuch 

a manner, that the commonwealth could no longer either 

.do or fufFerany iujurv, in that refpeft; ftridlly demanding 

..and infixing .on the. payment of whatever was owing to 

the ftate; and, at the fame time, readily and freely wtif^ 

^yingall who had. claims upon it. This naturally gained 

^him reverence among the people, when they-^w many 

obliged to pay, who hoped never to have been called to 

.account; and many receiving debts which they had 

^^iven up as. defperate. His predeceifors had often, through 

.intereft or perluafion, accepted falfe bills, and pretended 

.orders of fenate ; but nothing of that kind efcaped Cato. 

^ There was one order in particular, which he fulpeded te 

,be forged ; and though it bad many witneifes-^o fupport 

«it, he would not allow it till the coafuls: came and declared 

.it upon Q^th. 

TherCvWas a number of-aiTaflins employed in the laft 
^profcription, to whom Sylla had j given twelve thoufand 
'drachmas for each head they brought him. Thefe were 
.looked upon by all the world as the'moft exccriablc villains ; 
yet no man had ventured to .talte vengeance on them. 
jCato, however, fumnaoned all who had received the pub- 
lic money for fuch unjuft fervices, and made them refund; 
inveighing, at the fame time, with equal rcafon and feve* 
rity, agaiaH their impiovs and abominable deeds. Thofe 
.wretches, thus difgraced, and, as it were, prejudged, were 
afterwards indided for murder before the judges, who po- 
jfiifhed them as they.dcferved. All ranks of people rejoiced 
at thefe executions ; they thought they faw the tyranny 
.rooted oatt.with tjiefe men, and Sylla himfelf capitally pu- 
4ufhed. in.:the death of his minifters. 

134 fltTTARCa^i LtTXi^ 

. Tie pedplt were tUb ddighted Vith 'his ihdd! 
dtlngcftce; lor he alwayi caine to tKe trcaforf Ik 
colmtfiiesj and was the laft that left it. Ther« 
aflemuy of the people«]or meetlBg of the feaace; 

/iie did -not attend, in order to keq> a watchfid e 
«dl partial remiffions of fines and duties, and all 
Afume gtant*; That havuig cleared the ejceh 
4nibraiert, and all iiich verinin, and filled it with t 
lie fhewed that it Is ^oflible for govemmeht to 
mthoat bppreffing the fiibjed. At firft this coi 
hit w«f Wly obnoxions to Us eolleaenet, but in 
-came tb be agreeable i becaufe, by rc?ofing to gii 
any of the jrablic money, or to make any nartta 
ninatiotti be ftood the rage of diiappointea ava 
them all^ aftd> to the impormnity of folicitatii 

''could anfwer, thit they could do nothing witi 

;«onieht oFCato. 

- The kft day of his office he was conducted h 
almoit the whde body of citizens. Bnt, by the i 
'wat inlbmHid that (bme of the principal men in 
who hadereat influence upon Marcellus, were b 

/Idsti' in the treifury, ana preffing him to make 
^rder for ferns which, they pretended to be due t 
Marcellus, from his childhood, was a friend of 
'and a good quaeftor, while he a£ied with him ; be 
he adted alone, he was too much influenced by 
•regards for petitioners, and by a natural indin 
oluise. .Cato, therefore, immediately turned ba 
findSig Marcellus already prevailed upon to m 
the Older, hd'called for the regifters, and erafed i 
cellns an the while fhinding by in filence. Not cont 
•this, he took him out of the treafury, and led In 
own houfe. Marcellus, however, did not complai] 
*then, or afterwards, but continued the fame fiiend 
intimacy with him to the laft. 

- Afler the time of his quaeflorfhip was expire 
kept a watchful eye upon the treafury. He had 
vants there daily roinutine down the proceedin|^ j 
-^nt much time himfelf m peruiing the public i 
mm the time of Sylla to his own ; a copy of v 
iiad purchafed for five talents. 

- Whenever the fenate was fummoned to meet, 
the firft to pre his attendancej and the laft to wi 


mnd oftentimes, while the reft were (lowly aflembling» ho 
would fit down and read, holding his gown before hit 
book; nor would he ever be out of town when a houfe 
was called. Pompey finding that, in all his unwarrant* 
able attemps, he muft find a fevere and inexorable oppow 
nent in Cato, when he had a point of that kind to carry, 
threw in his way either the caufe of fome friend to plead* 
pr arbitration, o^ other bufinefs to attend to. Bat Cato 
foon perceived the fnare, and reje^led all the applications 
of his friends $ declaring, that, when the fenate was to 
fit, he would never undertake any other bufinefs. For 
his attention to the concerns of government was not, like 
that of fome others, guided by the views of honour or 
profit, nor left to chance or humour ; but he thought a 
gMd citiTSxn ought to be as folicitous about thi public t as a, bee 
is about, her hi<vi* For tius reafon he defired his friends, 
and others with whom he had connexions in the provinces, 
to give him an account of the edicts, the important deci* 
fions, and all the principal bufinefs tranfaXed there. 

He made a point of it to opppfe Clodius the feditious 
demagogue, who was always propofing fome dangerous 
law, or fome change in the condicution, or accufing the 
priefis and veflals to the p^ple. Fabia Terentia, filler 
to Cicero's wife, and one of the vefials, was impeached 
among the refi, and in danger of being condemned. But 
Cato defended the caufe of thefe injured people k> well, 
that Clodius Was forced to withdraw in great confufion, 
and leave the city. When Cicero came to thank him for 
this fervice, he faid, '* You mull thank your country* 
** whofe utility is the fpring that guides all my anions " 

tiis reputation came to be fo great, that a certain orator 
in a caufe where only one witnefs was produced, iaid to 
the judges, " One man's evidence is not fufiicient to go 
** by, not even if it was Cato's."^ It grew, indeed, into 
a kind of proverb, when people were fpeaking of ftcangc 
and incre(Uble things, to fay, ■< I would not believe fuch 
** a thing, though it were affirmed by Cato."' 

A man profule in his expences, and in all refpeSs of a 
worthlefs charaXer, takmg upon him one day to fpeak in 
the fenate in praife of temperance and fobriety, Amnaeus 
xofe up and faid, ** Who can endure to hear a man who 
«' eats and drinks like Crafius, and builds like LucuUus* 
** pretend to talk here like Cato?" Hence others » whA 
were difiblute and abandoned in tlit\t\Yf^^»\>^\.'^t^TN«.^ 

33^ Plutarch's lives. 

a ffravitf and aufterityin their difcoarie, came b.y way 4 i 
ridicttla to be called Catos, 

Hb friends adviied him to ofFesr himfelf for the tribane- 
Ihtp; but he thought it wa«.BOtyet time. Hefaid, " He 
" looked upon an otHce of fuch power and aathority* at 
** a violent^ medicine, wiuch ought not to be ufed except 
f ' in ciife^i of great .neceffity." As, at that -tiiiie» he Ymi, 
no public bufinels to engaee him, Jie took his books and 
philofophem with him, and fet oat for Lucania, where ke 
nad lands, and an agreeable country retreat. By the way I 
he met with a number of horfes, carriages, and fervantf« 
which he found to belong to Metellus Nepot, who wjh 
going to Rome to apply for the tribunelhip. I'bis pot 
him to a ftand: he remained fome time in deep tlioagiic» 
and then ga^e -his people orders to tarn back. To kk 
friends; mho were iurprifed at J^his condaA, <* Kn9w jre 
*< not, faid he, that Metelltis is formidable even in hit 
•' ftopidity ? But jemennber, that he now follows the 
«' counfels of Pompey ; that the ftate lies proftrate before 
•' him; and that he will /all upon and cruik it ^vxh the 
«*^ force of a thunderbolt. Is this then a time for the 
<< purfuit of rural amufements? Let us refcne oar liber* 
•• ties, or die in their defence!" Upon the remonllranOB 
of hi^ friends, however, he proceeded kohisfarm; and 
after a (hort ftay there, returned to the city. .He arrived 
in the evening, and early next morning N^cat to xhtforttm^ 
as a candidate for the tribunefhip, in oppofition to Me- 
tellus: for to oppofe, is the nature of thatolice ; and its 
power is chiefly negativ-e ^ -infomuch, that the diflent of 
a dngle voice is fufhcirnt te difannul a meafure in which 
the whole :if)cmhly beiide has concurred. 

Caro was at fir(t attended only by a fmall number of hli 
friends ; but. when his intentions were made known, he 
was immediately furroundeti by men of honour and vir- 
tue, the rell of his acquaintance, who gave him the 
Pronged encouragement, and folicitedhim to apply'for the 
tribunefhip, not as it might imply a favour conferred on 
himfelf, but as it would be an honour and an advantage to 
his fellow-citizens: obfer^'ing. at the fame time, that» 
though it had been frequently in his power to obtain thia 
office without the trouble ef oppofition ; yet he now (lepped 
forth, re^ardlefs, not only of that trouble, but even of 

Serfonal danger, when the liberties of his country were at 
ake. Such was the zeal and ca£;ernef« of the people that 
(N.D. 1794.") '^\^^t\ 


jprefTed around him, that it was with the atmoft difficcdty 
he made his way to the/brum. 

Being appointed tribune, with Metellus amongft the 
refl, he oblerved that great corruption had crept into the 
confuiar eledticBs. On this fubjed he gave a fevere charge 
to the people, which he concluded, by affirming on (rith, 
that he would profecute every one that ihould offend in 
that way. He took care, however, that Silanus *, who 
had married his Mer Strvilia, ihouIdl>e excepted. But 
againit Muraena, who, by means of bribery, had carried 
the confullhip at the fame time with Silanus, he laid an 
information. By the laws of Rome, the pcrfon accufed 
has power to fet a guard upon him who lays the informa- 
tion, that he may have no opportunity of fupportin? a 
falfe accufation by private machinations before his trul. 
When the perfon that was appointed Murzna's officer, on . 
this occafion, obferved the liberal and candid condufl of 
Cato ; that he fought only to fupport his information by 
fair and open evidence ; he was lo ilruck with the excel- 
lence and digiiity of his chara«Ller,that he would frequently 
wait upon him in the forum, or at his houfe, and, after 
in.]uiring whether he mould proceed that day in the bu- 
iinefs of the information, if Cato anfwered in the nega- 
tive, he made no fcruple of leaving him. When the trial 
came on, Cicero, who was then coniul, and Muraena's 
advocate, by way of playing upon Cato, threw out many 
pleafant things againft the ^iloics, and their paradoxical 
philofophy. This occafioned no fmall mirth amongft 
the judges: upon which Cato only obferved with a imile, 
to tliofe.who ftood next hiin, that Rome had indeed a mofl 
laughable confulf. Mura?iia a6led a very pradent part 
with reeard to Cato; for, though acquitted cf (he charp;e 
he had Drought againit him, he neverthclefs confulted hun 


* From this paiTage It fliould feem that Plutarch Cuppofed Cato Co bs 
capable of f .crificing to family conDe£tions. Bui the fault li;.-s riihcr in 
the hiPiOrian than in the tnbune. For^ ir is to be (u^ipofsd that thd 
rigid virtue of Cato, (huuld dcfcend to ihc mofl obroxtous ciicum> 
Aancrs of predikdlion ? It is not poflflble to have a iliongcr initancs 
of l.i« iniegr.ty, than his refuOng the alliance of Hompey the Great; 
ihoiiKh thai rcfufal was impolitic, and attcrwied bad cunfequtnccs 
to the Aace. 

t The French and Englilh tranfiatorb have \l^ a pleafant confuL But 
that docs not convey the faroifm that Cuo n\c^tit* ^'•^ ^v6:v;\3L\>3itcw ^^ 
quod lifUiU facit,'* 


mutarch's lives. 

on all occafion^ of importance during his confulfliip; re- 
fpedled him for his fenfe and virtue, and niade ufe of his 
counfels in the adniinillration of government. For Cato, 
on the bench, was the moJl rigid dlTpenfer of julHce j 
though, in private focicty, he was afi'.ibJc and humane/ 

Before he was appointed tribune in the confalfhip of 
Cicero, lie fupportcd the fupremc magiflrate in a very fea- 
fonable manner, by many excellent mcafures during the 
turbulent times of Catiline. It is well known that this 
man meditated nothing lefs than a totrd fubverfion of the 
Roman ftate ; and that, by the fpirited counfels and con- 
duct of Cicero, he was obliged to fly from Rome without 
eifefting his purpofe. But Lentulus, Ceihegus, and the 
reft of the confpirators, after reproaching Catiline for his 
timidity, and the feeblenefs of his enterprizcs, refolved to I 
diiUnguifh thcmfclves at Icall more cffe^ualJy. 7'heir ' 
fcheme was nothing lefs than to burn the city, and deftroy \ 
the empire, by the revolt of the colonics and foreign wars. I 
Upon the difcovcry of this conl'piracy, Cicero, as we 
iiave obferved in his life, called a council ; and the firft 
that fpoke was Silanus. He gave it as his -opinion, that 
the confpirators (hoald be punilhed with the irtmoft rigour. 
This opinion was adopted by the rell till it came to Citfar. 
This eloquent man, confiflcnt with whofe ambitious prin- 
ciples it was rather to encourage than to (apprefs any 
ihreateninff innovations, urged, in his ufual perfuafive 
manner, the propriety of allowing the accufed the privi- 
lege of trial ; and that the confpirators fhould only be 
taken into caftody. The fenate, who were under apnre- 
henficns from the people, thought it prudent to come into 
•thif. mcafure; and even Silanus retraded, and declared he 
thought of nothing more than imprifonment, that being 
the moll rigorous puiuihmcnt a citizen of Rome could 

This change of fentiments in thofe who fpoke firft, was 
followed by the rell, who all gave into milder meafures. 
But Cato, who was of a contrary opinion, defended that 
opinion with the greateil vehemence, eloquence, and 
energy. He reproached Silanus for his pufillanimity in 
changing his refolution. He atti.cked Cxiar, and charged 
him with a fecret defign of fubverting the government^ 
under the plaufihle appearance of mitigating ipcechcs and 
a humane conduct ; of intimidating the fenate, by the 



fame means, even in a cafe where lie had to fear for him- 
felf, and wherein he might think himfelf happy if he 
could be exempted from every imputation and fufpicion 
of guilt. - He who had openly and daringly attempted to 
relcue from juftice the enemies of the ftate ; and fhewn, 
that fo far from having any compaffion for his country, 
when on the brink of dcftru6lion, he could even pity and 
plead for the wretches, the unnatural wretches that medi- 
tated its ruin, and grieve that their punithmcnt fhould 
prevent their defign. This, it is faid, is the only oration 
of Cato that is extant, Cicero had fclefted a number of 
the fwifteft writers, whom ho had taught the art of abbre- 
viating words by charadlers, and had placed them in dif- 
ferent parts of the fcnate houfe. Before his confulate, 
they had no (hort-hand writers. Cato carried his point; 
and it was decreed, agreeably to his.opinion, that tne con- 
fpirators fhould fuffer capital punifhment. 

As it is our intention to exhibit an accurate pi(Slure of 
the mind and manners of Cato, the lead circumftance that 
may contribute to mark them (hould not efcape our no- 
tice. While he was warmly contelling his point with 
Caifar, and the eves of the whole fenate were upon the 
difpucants, it is (aid that a billet was brought in and deli- 
vered to Cajfar. Cato immediately fufpeded, and charged 
him with fome traitorous defign ; and it was moved in the 
fenate, that the billet fhould be read publicly/ Caefar 
delivered it to Cato, who flood near him; and the latter 
had no fooner calt his eye upon it than he perceived it to 
be the hand of his own iifter Servilia, who was paf- 
ficnately in love with Caefar, by whom fhe had been de- 
bauched. He therefore threw it back to Csefar, faying, 
** Take it, you fot," and went on with his difcourle. 
Cato was always unfortunate amongfl the women. This 
Servilia was infamous for her commerce withCxfar; and 
his other fifler, Servilia, was in flill worfe repute ; for, 
though married to Lucullus, one of the firfl men in Rome, 
by whom fhe alfo had a fon, fhe was divorced for her in- 
fuiferable irregularities. But what was mofl diilrefsful to 
Cato, was, that the condu6l of his own wife Attila, was 
by no means unexceptionable; and that, afcer iiaving 
brought him two children, he was obliged to part with 

0^2 U^oa 

34* Plutarch's lives* 

TJpon his divorce from AtttHa, he married Martia the 
daughter of Philip, a woman of good chara£ler ; but this 
part of Cato's life, like the plots m the drama, is involved 
and intricate. Thrafeas, upon the authority of Munatius, 
Cato's particular friend, who lived under the fame rooF 
'with him, gives us tiiix accountx>f the matter. Amongft the 
friends and followers t>f Cato, fome made a more opea 
profisflion of their fentimcnts than others. Amongft thefe 
•was Quintus Hortenfius, a man of great dignity and po- 
litenefs. Not contented merely with the friendftiip of 
■Cato, lie was dedrous of a family alliance with him ; and 
/or this purpofe, he ficrupled not to rcqucfl that his daugh- 
^er Portia, who was already married to Bibulus, by whom 
ihe had v%o children, might be lent to him, as a fruitful 
foil for the purpofe of propagation. The thing itfelf, he 
owned, was uncommon, but by no means unnatural or 
improper. For why fiiould a woman in the flower of her 
agjp, .either continue ufelcfs, till fhe is pad child-bearing, 
or overburthen her hufband with too large a family? The 
mutual ufe of women, he added, in virtuous families., 
would not only increafe a virtuous offspring, but ftrengtheo 
.and extend the connetUons of fociety. Moreover, if 
Bibulus fliould be unwilling wholly to give up his wife, 
ihe (hould be reftored after flie had done him the honour 
of an alliance to Cato by her pregnancy. Cato anfvvered, 
that he- had the greatcil regard for the friendfliip of Hor- 
tenfius, but could not think of his application for another 
man's wife. Hortenfius, however, would not give up the 
point here; but when he could not obtain Cato*s daughter, 
ne applied for his wife, faying, riiat fhe was yet.a young 
woman, and Cato's family already large enough. He 
could not pofBbly make this requeft, upon.a fuppofition 
that Cato had no regard for his wife ; .for Ihe was at that 
very time pregnant. Notwithftanding,.tli€ latter, w hen he 
obfervcd the violent inclination Hortenfius had to be allied 
to him, did not abfolutcly refufe him ; but faid it was ne- 
ceffary to confult Mari,ia's .fa^her^Philip on the occafion. 
Philip, therefore, was applied to, and his daughter was 
efpoufed to Hortenfius in the prefence and with the con- 
fcnt of Cato. Thefe. circumftance^are not related in the 
proper order of time; but fpeaking of Cato's conne*5iion 
yalih the wom^n, I was led to mention them. 

^ Whca 


When the confpirators \vcre executedj and Cacfar^ who^ 
on account of his calum'niea in the fenate, was obliged to 
throw himfelf on the people, had infufed a fpirit of in- 
fur re dlion into the worft and loweft of the citizens, Cato> 
being apprehenfive of the confeqaences, engaged the 
fenate to appeafe the multitude by a free gift of com* 
This coil twelve hundred and &{iy talents a year; but i& 
had the defired effect ♦. 

Metellus> upon entering on his office as tribune, held 
fcveral feditious meetings, and publilhed an edift, that 
Pompey ihould bring hie troops into Italy, under the prfr- 
text of favihg the city from the attempts of CatiUne. 
Such was the pretence; but his real delign was to give up 
the ftate into the hands of Pompey. 

Upon the meeting of the fenate, Cato, inftead of treat*.* 
jng Metellus with his ufual afperity, expoftulatcd with 
great mild-nefs, and had even recourfe to intreaty, intima^ 
ting, at the fame time, that his family had ever flood in the 
intereft of the Mobility. Metellus, who imputed Cato's 
xnildnefs' to his fears> was the more infolent on that ac-» 
count, and moll audacioufly aflertcd that he would carry 
his purpofe into execution, whether the fenate would or 
not. The voice, the air, the attitude of Cato, wei* 
changed in a moment ; and, with all tiie force of eIcK 
quence, he declared, " That while he was living, Pompey- 
** Ihould never enter armed into the city,*' The fenate 
neither approved of the conduct of Cato, nor of Metellu*.^ 
The latter they coniidered as a defperate and profligate 
•madman, who had no other aim than that of general de- 
llru<5lioB and confufion. The virtue of Cato, .&ey looked' 
upon as a kind of enthuliafm, which would ever lead him 
to arm in the caufe of juAice and the laws. 

When the people came to vote for the edi£l, a number 
of aliens, gladiators, and flaves, armed by Metellus, ap- ■ 
peared in the /orum. He was alfo followed by feveral of 
the commons, who wanted to introduce Pompey, in hopes 
of a revolution ; and his hands were llrengthened by the 
(i 3 praetorial 

* This is almofl one third more than the Turn (aid to have been ex- 
pended in the fame di/lribution in the life of Caefar j and even there it 
i<? incredibly large. But whatever nriight be the expence, the policy- 
was bad j for nothing fo effeftually weakens the hands of government 
as this method of bribing the popuUce, atvd tvwXvtv^ \\\^"«v ^\ \cv\a^x« 
dcus nurfes do /reward children. 

34^ piutarch's tivis. 

praetorial power of Cacfar. Cato, on the other hnnd, had 
the principal citizens on his fide ; but they werc rather 
fharers in the injury, than auxiliaries in the removal of it. 
'I^he clanger to which he was expofed was now fo great, 
that his family was under the utmoft concern. The 
greateft part of his friends and relations came to his houfe 
in the evening;, and pafled the night without either eating 
or deeping. His wife and fifters bewailed their misfor- 
tunes with te;irs, while he himfelf pafled the evening with 
the utmoU confidence and tranquillity, encouraging the reft 
to imitate his example. He fupped and went to reft a» 
ufual; and flept foundly till he was waked by his colleague 
Minutius Thcrmus. He went to the forum, .accompanied 
by few, but met by many, who adviled him to take carc- 
of his perfon. When he faw the temple of Caftor fur- 
rounded by armed meny the fteps occupied by gladiator.5, 
and Metellus himfelf feated on an eminence with Caefar, 
turning to his friends, ** Which," faid he, «^ is moft con- 
" temptible, the favage difpofition, or the cowardice of 
** him who brings fuch an army againft a man who k% 
-" naked and unarmed?" Upon this, he proceeded to the 
place with Thermus. Thole that occupied the fteps fell 
back to make way for him, but would fuiFer no one elfc 
tD pafs. MunatiuS only with fome difficulty he drew along 
witli him; and, as foon as he entered, he took his feat be- 
tween Cailar ar.d Metellus, that he might, by that means, 
prevent their difcourfe. This embarrafTcd them not a 
iittlej and what added to their perplexity, was the counte- 
nance and approbation that Cato met with from all the 
honeft men that were prefcnt, who, while they admired 
Jbis i:rm and Heady fpirit, fo ftrongly marked in his afpe<51, 
encouraged him to perfcvere in the caufe of liberty, and 
mutually agreed to fupport him. 

Metellus, enraged at this, propofed to read the cdi<fV, 
Cato put in his negative ; and that having no elFeiSi, he 
wrellcd it out of his hand. Metellus thtn attempted to 
rpeak it from memory; but '^i'hcrmus prevented him by 
putting his ]iand upon his mouth. When he found this 
ineill'dtu.d, and perceived that the people were gone over 
to the oppcfite party, he ordered his armed men to make 
a riot, and throw the whole into confufion. Upon this 
the people difperfed, and Cato was left alone, expofed to 
a llorm of Hicks and flone?. But Mura:na, though the 



fcrmet- had Co lately an information againft him, would 
not dcfert him. He defended him with his gown from 
the danger to which he was expofed;- intreated the mob 
to defirt from their violence, and at length carried him 
off in his arms into the tempb of Caflor. When Metellus 
found the benches delerted, and the adverfary put to the 
rout, he imagined he had gained his point, and again very 
inodeftly proceeded to confirm the edid. The adverfary, 
however, quickly rallied and advanced with (houts of 
the greatell courage and confidence. Metcllus's party, 
Ij.ippoUng that, by ibme rr.eans, they had got arms, was 
t.irown into confufion, and immediately took to flight. 
Upon the difperlion of thefe, Cato came forward, and, 
by his encouragement and applaufe, cllablilhcd a confide- 
r^ble party againil Metellus. The fenr.te too voted that 
Cato Ihould, at all events, be fupported; an<l that an 
tdicl, fo pregnant with everything that was pcmiciou!? 
to order and good government, and had even a tendency 
to civil war, ihould be oppofed with ilie utmoil vigour. 

Metellus flill maintained his resolution; but finding his 
friends intimidated by the unconquercd fpirit of Cato, he 
came fuddenly into the open court, aflembled the people, 
faid every thing that he thought might render Cato odiou* 
to them; and declared, that he would have nothing to do 
wWnr iih^ urhiiFAjpy priwcinles of that inan, or liis confpi- 
racy againft Pompey, whofe difgrace Rome might one 
day have (cwctq occaUon to repent. 

Upon this he immediately fet off for Afia to carry an 
account of thefe matters to Po,*ripey. And Cato, by rid- 
ding the commonwealth of this troublcfomc tribune, and 
crulhinff, as it were, in him, the growing power of Pom- 
pey, obtained the higheft reputation. But what made 
him ftill more popular, was his prevailing on the fenate to 
dcfill from their purpofe of voting Metellus infamous, and 
diveiling him of the magiftracy. His humanity and mo- 
deration in not inTulting a vanquifhcd enemy, were ad- 
mired by the people in general; whillT: men of political 
figacity could fee that he thought it prudent not to pro- 
voke Pompey too much. 

Soon afterwards, Lucullus returned from tlie war, v.^hich 
leing concluded by Pompey, gave that general, in fome 
mearure, the laurels ; and being rendered obnoxious to 
the people, through the impeachment of Caius Mawv- 

344 Plutarch's lives.. 

niius, wild oppofed hioi more from a view of making his 
court to Pompey than any perfonal hatred, he was in dan- 
jjcr of lofing his triumphs, Cato, however, partly bc- 
caufe LucuUus was allied to him by marrying his daughter 
Servilta» and partly becaufe he thought the proceeding^ 
unfair, oppofed Memmius, and by that means expend 
hknfelf to great obloquy. But though di veiled of Jiis 
tribunitlal office', as of a tyrannical authority, he had 
full credit enough to banlfh Memmius from the courts, 
and from the lifts. Lucullus, therefore, having obtained 
Jus triumph, attached Jiimfelf to Cato, as to the &congcA 
bulwark agalnft the power of Pompey, When this great 
man returned from the war, confident of his intereft at 
Rome, from the magnificent reception he every where 
met with, he fcrupled not to fend a reqailition to the 
f'uate, that they would defer the eleftion of confuls till 
his arrival, that he might fupport Pifo. WlulU they were 
in doubt abo)U the matter, Cato, not becaufe he was un- 
der £ny concern about deferring the eledion, but that 
he might intercept the hopes and attempts of Pompey, 
Tcmonflrated agamfl the meafure, and carried it in the 
n(*gativc. Pompey was not a little diflurbed at this ; and 
roncluding, that, if Cato were his cncin/, he would be 
the greatcH obllacle to his defigns, he f^nt for his friend 
Muniiiius, and commiflicned him to demaid V::z .of C^Hc/s. 
liicccs ill marriage; the elder for himfeif, and the younger 
i\tr his Ton. Scrr.e fay that they were not Cato's nieces, 
but his daughters, fie that as it may; when Ivlunatius 
opened his commifTion to Cato, in the prefence of his 
V ife and fillers, the women were not a little delighted 
with the fplendour of the alliance. But Cato, without a 
monccnt's hcfitation, anfweied, *' Go, Munatius; go, and 
•* tell Pompey, that Cato is not to be caught in a female 
•' fnare. Tell him, at the fame time, that I am fenfible 
•' of the honour he does me; and whilft he continues ta 
•' aft as he ought to do, I fhall have that friendfnip for 
" him which is fuperior to afiinity; but I will never give 
•* hoUages, againll my country, to the glory of Pompey," 
The wtmien, as it is natural to fuppofe, were chagrined : 
and even the friends of Cato blamed the feverity of his 
anfwer. But Pompey foon after him an opportunity, 
of vindicating his conduct, by open bribery in a confular 
cicdtion. •* You fee now," faid Cato to the women, " what 

*' would 


** wotild have been the confcquence of my alliance with 
** Pompey. I ihould have had my fhare in all the afper- 
** fions that are thrown upon him." And they owned 
that he had a^led right. However, if one ought to judge 
from the event, it is clear that Cato did wrong in rcjefting 
the alliance of Pompey. jBy fufTering it to devolve to 
C^^far, the united power of thofr two great men went 
near to overtnrn the Roman empire; The commonwealth 
it effeftually deftroycd. But this would never have been 
the cafe, had not Cato, to whom the flighter faults of 
Pompey were obnoxious, fuffered him, by tJius ftrength- 
ening his hands, to commit greater crimes. Thefe confe- 
qusnces, however, were only impending at the period 
tinder our review. When Lucullus had a difpute with 
Pompey, concerning their inllitutions in Pontus, (for each 
wanted to confirm his own, as the former was evidently 
injured) he had the fupport of Cato ; while Pompey, his 
janior in the fenate, m order to increa'c his popularity; 
propofed the Agrarian law in favour of the army. Cato 
oppofed it, and it was rejeded ; in confequence of which 
Pompey attached himfelf to Clodius, the moil violent and 
fadlious of the tribunes ; and much about the fame time 
conrracled his alliance with Csfar, to which Cato, in 
fome meafure, led the way. The thing was thus. Casfar, 
on his return from Spain, was at once a candidate for the 
confulOiip, and demanded a triumph. But as the laws of 
Rome required that thofe who fue for the fupreme magi- 
ftracy, fliould fue in perfon; and thofe who triumph fhould 
be without the walls, he petitioned the fenate that he 
might be allowed to fue for the confulfhip by proxy. The 
fenate, in general agreed to oblige Cxfar; and when Cat6> 
the only one that oppofed it, found this to be the cafe; as' 
foon as it came to his turn, he fpoke the whole day long, 
and thus prevented the doing of any bufmefs. Caefar, 
therefore, gave up the of the triumph, entered the 
city, and applied at once for the confulfhip and thz intereft 
of Pompey. As foon as he was appointed conful, he 
married Juiia ; and as they had both entered into a league 
againil the com.nonweslth. one propofed the laws for the 
diftribution of lands aniongft the poor, and the other fe-' 
conded the prot^ofal. Lucullns and Cicero, in conjunc- 
tion with Bibulus, the other conful, oppofed it. But Cato 
in particular, who fufpcded the pernicious cowfecs^^^tv^.^ 


of Cxfar's conneilion with Pompey, was ftrenuous againfl 
the motion; and faid it was not the diftribution of lands 
that he feared fo much as the rewards which the cajolers 
of the people might cxpe6l from their favours. 

In this not only the fenate agreed with him> but many 
of the people too, who were reafonably offended by the 
unconftitutional condu6l of Cafar. For whatever the moll 
violent and the maddeft of the tribunes propofed for the 
pleafure of the mob, Csefar, to pay an abjeft court to 
them, ratified by the confular authority. When he found 
his motion, therefore, likely to be overruled, his party 
had recourfe to violence, pelted Bibulus the conful with 
dirt, and broke the rods of his liSiors. At length, when 
darts begun to be thrown, and many were wounded, the 
reft of the fenate fled as faft as poflible out of the forum^ 
Cato was the laft that left it ; and, a$ he walked flowly 
along, he frequently looked back, and execrated the wick- 
ednefs and madnefs of the people. The Agrarian law, 
therefore, was not only pafled, but they obliged the whole 
fenate to take an oath that they would confirm and fup- 
port it ; and thofe thatfhould refufe were fentenced to pay 
a heavy fine. Neceflity brought moft of them into the 
meafure ; for they remembered the example of Metellus*, 
who was baniftied for refufing to comply, in a fimilar in- 
flance, v/ith the people. Cato was folicited by the tears 
of the female part of his family, and the intrcaties of his 
friends, to yield and take the oath. But what principally 
induced him, was the remonilrances and expoftulations of 
Cicero ; who reprefented, to him that there might not be 
fo much virtue, as he imagined, in one man's diflenting 
from a decree that was eftablilhed by the reft of the fenate ; 
that to expofe himfelf to certain danger, without even 
the poflibility of producing any good effedV, was perfed 
infanity ; and, what was Hill worfe, to leave the com- 
monwealth, for which he had undergone fo many toils, 
to the mercy of innovators and ufurper?, would look a& 
if he were weary, at leaft, of his patriotic labours. Cato, 
he added, "might do without Rome; but Rome could not 
do without Cato : his friends could not do without him ^ 
himfelf could not difpcnfe with his afiiftance and fup- 
port, while the audacious Clodius, by means of his tri« 



bunitial authority, was forlning the moft dangerous machi- 
nations againft him. By there/and the like remonll ranees, 
folicited at home, and in the/^r//;/i, Cato^ it is faid^ was 
with difficulty prevailed on to take the oath ; and that, 
his friend Favonius excepted, he was the la ft that took it. 

Elated witJj this fuccefs, Cxfar propofcd another a6l 
for diftributing almoll the whole province of Campania 
amongft the poor. Cato alone oppofed it. And though 
Cselar dragged him from the bench, and conveyed him 
to prifon, he omitted not, neverthelefs, to fpeak as he 
pafTed in defence of liberty, tcf enlarge upon the confe- 
quences of the aft, and to exhort the citizens to put a 
liop to fuch proceedings. The fenate, with heavy hearts, 
followed Cato, and all the virtuous part of the people, 
with filcnt indignation. Ccefar was not inattentive to the 
public difcontent that, this proceeding occafioned ; bat 
ambitioufly expecting fonie conceilions on the part of 
Cato, he proceeded to conduft him to prifon. At length, 
however, when he found thefe expeftations vain, unable 
any longer to fupport the.fhame to which this condud ex- 
pored him, he inilrudled one of the tribunes to rcfcuc him 
from his officers. The people, notwithllanding, brought 
into his intereft by thele public diftributions,, voted him 
the province of lllyricum and all Gaul,, together with 
four legions,, for the fpace of five years ; though: Cato 
foretold them, at the fame time, that they were voting a 
tyrant into the citadel of Rome, They moreover created 
Clodius, contrary to the laws, (f®r he was of the patricLin 
order) a tribune of the people ; becaufe they knew he 
would, in every refpcit, accede to their wifhes with re- 
gard to the banifhment of Cicero. Calpurnius Pifo, the 
fither of Cscfar's wife» and Aulus Gabinius*, a bofom 
friend of Pompey's, "as we are told, by thofe who knew 
him bell, they created confuls. 

Yet, though they had every thing in their hands, and. 
had gained one part of the people by favour and the 
other by fear, ftill they were. afraid of Cato. They re- 
membered the pains it coft them to overbear him, and 
that the violent and cojnpulfive meafures they had re- 


• Plutarch does not mean to reprcfent this friend fhip in any favour- " 
able light. The chara£lcr of Gabinius wasdefpicablc in every rcrpc^ti^ 
as appears from Cicero's oration for Sextius. 


<our{c, to did them but little honour. Clodios^ too, faw 
that he could not diflrefs Cfcero, while fupported by Cato; 
vet thU was his great obje£t ; and, upon his entering on 
his tribunitial oifice, he had an interview with Cato; 
whea» after paying him the compliment of being the ho-* 
nefteil man in Rome, he propofed to him, as a teflimony 
of his fincericy, the government of Cyprus ; an appoint- 
ment which, he laid, had been folicited by many. Cato 
sinfwered that, far from being a favour, it was a treache- 
rous Tcheme and a diigrace ; upon which Clodius fiercely 
replied, " If it is noi you)r pleafure to go, it is mine thaC 
*' you Ihall go." And laying this, he went immediately 
to the fenate, and procured a decree for Cato's expedition. 
Yet he neither fupplicd him with a vefle), a foldier, or a 
fervant, two fecreiaricij excepted, one of whom was a no« 
torions thief, and the o(.her a client of his own. fiefides, 
as if the charge of Cyjprus and the oppofition of Ptolemy 
were not a AiHicient tauc for him, he ordered him likewiio 
to reftore the By/,antine exiles. But his view in all this, 
Vfas to keep Cato, as long as poflible, out of Rome. 

Cato, thus obliged to go.- exhorted Cicero, who waa 
at the fame time clofely hunted by Clodius, by no means 
to involve his country in a civil war, but to yield to the 
neceffity of the times. 

By means of his friend Canidius, whom he fent before 
him to Cyprus, he negociated with Ptolemy in fuch a 
manner, that he yielded without coming to blows ; for 
Cato gave him to underftand^ that he fhould not live in 
a poor or abjed condition, but that he fliouJd be appointed 
high prieft to the Paphian Veuus*. While this was ne- 
gociating, Cato flopped at Rhodes, at once waiting for 
Ptolemy's anfwer, and making preparations for the re- 
duction of the iilan.d. 


» This appointment feems to be but a pror exchange for a kingdom j 
but wh«n it is remembered that, in the Pagan theology, the pricfts of 
the gods were not inferior in dignity xd princes, anc* that moft of them 
were of royal families j— when it is conHd.-red in what high reputation 
tiie P<;phian Venus Aood amungA the ancients, and what a lucrativo 
as wel! as K'^nourabic office iliat of her prieft muft have been, occa* 
fiontd by tlic cfftrings of the prodigious concourfe of people who came 
annually to pay their devotions at her temple, it will be ihouglii that 
Ptokiny made no bad bar2;»in for his little iflfind. 


In the mean time, Ptolemy king of E^ypt, who had 
left Alexandria, upon fome quarrel with his lubje^ts, was 
on his way to Rome, if^order to folicit his rc-ellubli^- 
ment from Caefar and Pompey, by means of the Roman 
arms. Being informed that Cato was at Rhodes, he ient 
to him, in hopes that he would wait upon him. When 
his mcflenger arrived, Cato, who then happened to have 
taken phync, told him, that if Ptolemy wanted to fee him, 
he might come himfelf. When he came, Cato neither 
went forward to meet him, nor did he fo much as rife from 
his feat, but faluted him as he would do a common perfon, 
and carelefsly bade him fit down. Ptolemy was fomewhat 
hurt by it at firft, and furprifed to meet with fuch a fuper- 
cilious feverity of manners in a man of Cato*s mean drefs 
and appearance. However, when he entered into con- 
verfation with him concerning his aliairs, when he heard 
his free and nervous eloquence, he was eafily reconciled 
to him. Cato, it feems, blamed his impolitic application 
to Rome : reprefented to him the happinefs he had left, 
and that he was about to ex^ofe himfelf to toils, the 
plagues of attendance, and what ' was lUU worfe, to the 
avarice of the Roman chiefs, which the whole kingdom 
of Egypt, converted into money, could not fatisfy. He 
adviied him to return with his fleet, and be reconciled to 
his people, oiTering him at the fame time his attendance 
and mediation 5 and Ptolemy, reftored by his reprefenta- 
tions, as it were from inianity to reafon, admired the 
jdifcretion and fincerity of Cato, and determined to follow 
his advice. His friends, neverchelefs, brought him back 
to his former meafures ; but he was no fooner at the 
door- of one of the magiftrates of Rome, than he repented 
of his folly, and blamed himfelf for rejefling the vir- 
tuous counlels of Cato, as for difobeying the oracle of a 

Ptolemy of Cyprus, as Cato*s good ftars would have it, 
took himfelf off by poifon. As he was faid to have left a 
full treafury, Cato being determined to go himfelf to 
Byzantium, fent his nephew Brutus to Cyprus, becaufe he 
had not fuificient confidence in C^nidius : when the exilet 
were reconciled to the refl of the citizens, and all things 
quiet in Byzantium, he proceeded to Cyprus. Here he 
found the royal furniture very m^xgnificent in the articles 
of veffels, tables, jewels, and purpk, all which wet^ v^ 


be converted into ready money. In the management of 
this iJFair he was very cxadt, attended at the iales, took 
the accounts nimfelt*, and broiighLci^ery aiticie to the beil 
market. Nor would he truft to tne common cufloms of 
fiile-fadors, auctioneers, bidders, or even hii own friends ; 
but had private conferences with the purchafers, in which 
he urgeU them to bid higher, fo that every thing went off 
at th'j greatcfl rate. By this means he gave oiience to 
many of his friends, and almoft implacably alfrontsti his 
particular friend Munatius. Caslar, too, in his oration 
againft him, availed himielf of this circumftance, and 
treated him very feverely. Munatius, however, tells us 
that this mifunderflanding was not To much occafioned 
by Cato's diftruft, as by his ncglcdt of him, and by his 
own jealoufy of Canidius : for Munatius wrote memoirs 
of Cato, which Thrafeas has chiefly followed. He tells 
us, that he was amongll the lall that arrived at Cyprus, 
and by that means found nothing but the refufc of the 
lodgings ; that he went to Cato's apartments, and was re* 
fufed admittance, becaufe Cato was privately concerting 
fomething with Canidius ; and that when he modeilly com- 
plained of this conduA, he received a fevere anfwer from 
Cato; who obferved, with Theophraftus, that too much 
love was frequently the occafion cf hatred ; aud that he, 
becaufe of the ftrength of his attachment to him, was 
angry al the llightell inattention. He told him, at the 
fame time, that he made ufe of Canidius as a ncccflary 
agent, and becaufe he had more coi.iidence in him than 
in the reft, having found him honcft, though he had been 
there from the firft, and had opportunities of being other- 
wife. 1'bis converfation, which he had in private with. 
Cato, the latter, he informs us, related to Canidius ; and 
when this came to his knowledge, he would neither at- 
tend at Cato's entertainn;cnts, nor, though called upon>. 
aflifl at his councils. Cato threatening to punifli him for 
difobedience, and, as is ufual to take a pledge from him* ; 
Munatius paid no regard to it, but failed for Rome, and 
long retained his refentnient. Upon Cato's return, by 
means of ICiarcia, who ^t that time lived with her huf- 


• When a maglrtrar^ refufed a fummorj to the fenate or public 
council, the penalty was to take fome p!tcc of furniture out of his 
houfc, and to keep it till he (hodd atiod. This they called /f^»3/a 


band, he and Munatius were both invited to fup with 
Barca. Cato, who came in after the reft of the com- 
pany had taken their places, alked where he il\Quld take 
his place? Barca anfvvercd, where he pleafed; •* Then,'* 
fiid he, " I will take my place by Munatius." He» there- 
fore, took his'place next him, but helhewed him no other 
marks of friendfnip during fupper; afterwards, however, 
at the requell of Maccia, Cato wrote to him that he Ihould 
be glad to fee him. He therefore waited on him at his 
own houfe, and being entertained by Marcia till the reil 
of the morning vifitors were gone, Cato came in and 
embraced him with great kindnjfs. We have dwelt upon 
thefe little circumibnces the longer, as, in our opinion, they 
contribute no lefs than more public and important anions, 
towards the clear delineation of m.anners and charaders. 
Cato in his expedition had acquired near feven thoufand 
talents of ftlver, and bein|^ under fome appreheniions on 
-account of the length of his voyage, he provided a num- 
ber of veflels that would hold two talents and five hundred 
drachmas a piece. To each of thefe he tied a long cord, 
at the end of which was fattened a large piece of cork, fo 
that if any misfortune Ihould happen to the fhip that 
contained them, thefe buoys might mark the fpot where 
they lay. The whole treafure, however, except a very 
little, was conveyed with fafety. Yet his two books of 
accounts,- which he kept very accurate, were both loft; 
one by fliip wreck with his freedman Philargyrus, and the 
other by fire at Corcyra; for the failors, on account of 
the coldneis of the weather, kept fires in the tents by 
night, and thus the misfortune happened; This troubled 
Cato, though Ptolemy's fervants, whom he had brought 
over with him, were fufHcient vouchers for his condndt 
againft enemies and informers. For he did not intend 
thefe accounts merely as a proof of his honefty, but to 
recommend the fame kind of accuracy and induftry to 

As foon as his arrival with the fleet was notified in Rome, 
the magiftrates, the priefts, the whole fenate, and multi- 
tudes of the people went down to the river to meet him> 
and covered both its banks, fo that his reception was 
fo.mething like a triumph. Yet there was an ill-timed 
liaughtinefs in his condu6l ; for, though the confuls and 
praetors came to wait upon him, he did not Cq rcs>aL^Vw -i.^ 

35* Plutarch's LIVES* ' 

attempt to make tJbe fhore where they were> but rowed 
carelefsly along in a royal fix-oared galley* and did not 
land till he came into port with hia whole fleet. The 
people, however, were Uruclc with admiration at the 
vaft quantity of money that was carried along the dreetSy 
and the fenate, in full ailembly, bellowed the higheft en- 
comiums upon him^ and voted him a praetorfliip extraor- 
dinary *, and the right of attending at the public fhews in 
a pr^tixta, or purple-bordered gown. But thefe hononrt 
he thought proper to decline. At tlie fame time he peti- 
tioned that they would grant his freedom to Nicias, aa 
olBcer of Ptolemy*s, in favour of whofe diligence and 
fidelity he gave his own teftimony. Philip> the father of 
Marcia, was conful at tha( time, and his colleague r&. 
fpe6led Cato no lefs for his virtue, than Philip might foK 
his alliance, fo that he had in fome meafure the whole 
confular intereft in jiis hands. When Cicero returned 
from that exile to which he had been fenicnced by Clo«> 
dins, his influence was confiderable, and he ibruplcd not» 
in the abfence of Clodius, to pull down and deftroy the 
tribonitial edifts which the latter had put up in the capl« 
tol. Upon this the fenate was affembled, and Cicero,;"* 
upon the accuiation of Clodius, made his defence, by al^' 
leging thatClouins had not been legally appointed tribune^ 
and that, of courfej every act of his oirice was null and 
void. Cato intcv rupted him, and faid, ** That he was. 
indeed fenfiblc that the whole adminift ration of Clo- 
dius had been wicked and abfurd ;" bu*. that if every*- 
a6t of his office were to be annulled, all that he had done 
in Cyprus would fraud for nothing, becaufe his commif« 
fion ifluing from a tribune not legally appointed, could 
not be valid : that Clodius. though he wasi of a patrician? 
family, had not been chofen tribune, contr^iry to law» be- * 
caufe he had previoufly been enrolled in the order of ple- 
beians by an ad pafll d for that purpofe ; b;!t that, if he 
had aded unjuftly ivi his oifice, he was liable to pcrfonal 
impeachments, v^ hile at the fame time the oinvie itfelf re- 
tained its proper force and authority." This occalioned 
a quarrel for fome time between Cicero and Cato, but af- 
terwards they were reconciled. 


* Cato was tl»en but thirty- eight years of age, and confequcntly too 
young to be preior in the ordinary way, in which a perfon cculd not 
cnttr on chat office till be y;a^ (ottY* 

Cato the yottnger. 353 

Caelar, upon his return oat of Gaul, was met hy Pom- 
pey and CrafTus, and it was agreed that the two laft ihonld 
again Hand for the confulfhip, that Caefar ihould retain his 
government five years longer, and that the beft provinces^ 
revenues, and troops, (hould be fecured to themlelves. 
This was nothing kfs than a diviiion of empire, and a 
plot againft the liberties of the commonwealth. This 
dangerous }un^ion deterred many men of diflinguifhed 
rank and integrity from their deitgn of offering themfeives 
candidates for the confulihip. Cato, however, prevailed 
on Lucius Domitius, who married his fifter, not to give 
up the point, nor to refign his pretenfions ; for that the 
conteft was not then for the confulfhip, but for the liber- 
ties of Rome. The fober part of the citizens agreed too,' 
that the confular power (hou)d not be fuffered to grow {o' 
enormous by the union of Crail'usand Pompey ; but thatj 
at ail events, tliey were to be feparated, and Domitius en^ 
couragcd and fupported in the competition. They aiiured 
him at the fame time, that lie would have the voices of 
many of the people who vTcre at prefcnt only filent throagh 
fear. Pompey's party, apprehenfive of this, lay in wait 
for Domitius, as he went before day by torch-light into 
the campuj fttarfiuj* The torchbearer was killed at the 
flrft ftroke ; the refl were wounded and fled^ Cato and 
Domitius alone 'excepted : for Cato, though he had re*' 
ceived a wound in the arm, ftill kept Domitius on the 
fpot, and conjured him not to defcrt the caufe of liberty 
while he had life, but to oppofe to the ntmoft thofe ene- 
mies of their country, who (hewed what ufc they intended 
to make of that power, which they fought by fuch exe- 
crable means* 

Domitius, however, unable to ftand the (hockj retired, 
and Pompey and Craflus were f leftcd confuls. Yet Cato 
gave up nothing for loft, but folicited a prsetorlhip far 
himfelf, that he might from thence, as from a kind of fort, 
militate againft the confuls, and not contend with them in 
the capacity of a private citizen. The confuls, appre- 
henfive that* the prsetorial powerof Cato would not be in- 
ferior even to the confular authority, fuddenly afTembled a 
fmall fenate, and obtained a decree, that thofe who were 
clefted praetors (hould immediately enter upon their 

(N.D. 1794.) office. 

354 Plutarch's livjes, 

oiHcc *, without waiting the ufual time to (land th& 
charge, if any fuch charge fnoulJ be brought agjiinft 
them, of bribery and corruption. By this means tliey 
brought in their own creatures and dependents, preftded 
at the election, and gave money to the populace. Yet 
ftill the virtue of Caio could not totally lofc its weight. 
There were Hill thofe wlio had honeily enough to be 
afhamed of felling his interefl> and wiluom enough ta 
think that it \^ ould be uf fcrvice to the (late to eledl him 
even at the public expence. He theietbre was nominated 
prsctor by ilie votes of the firft-cailed tribe j but Pompey 
fcandalouny pretending that he heurd it thupder, broke 
up the alitmbly : for it is not conr;ir.on for the Romans to 
do any bufineis if it thunders. Afterwards, by means, 
of bribery, and by the exciufion of the virtuons part of the 
citizens from the afl'embiy, they procured Vatinius to be 
returned prjctor indead of Caio. Thofe electors, it is 
faid, who voted from fuch iniquitous motives, J ike (o 
many culprits, immediately ran a'^ay. To the. reft that 
afiembled and expreiied their indignation, Cato was em* 
powered by one of the tribunes to addrefs himfelf in a 
fpcech; in the courfe of which he foretold, as if iofpired 
by fome divine influence, all ihofe evils that then threa- 
tened the commonwealth J and ftlrred up the people 
againft Pompey and CraiTus, who, In the con(cioufnefs of' 
their guilty intentions, feared the controul of the przeto-. 
rial power of Cato. In his return home he was followed 
by a greater multitude than all that been appointed 
praters united. 

Wnen Caias Trebonius moved for the dillribution of 
the confular provinces, and propofed giving Spain and 
Africa to one of the confuls, and Syria and £gypt to the 
other, togetlicr with fleets and armies, and an unli- 
mited power of miiking w^r, and extending dominion, 
the reil of the fcn.ite, thinking oppofition vain, foreborc 
to fpeak againll the motion. Cato, however, before it 
was put to the vote, afccndcd the vojii'U7n in order to 
fpeak, but he was limited to th2 fpacc of two hours ; and 
when he had fpeat tiiis time in repetitions, inftru^Tdons, 


♦ Thre was always a time allotted between ncmination ard pof- 
fcffion ; that if any undus n;;ans had been made ufc of in the canvafi 
they n;ight be difcovered. 


and predidions, and was proceeding in his diAiourfe, the 
lidor took him down from the rollrum. Yet ftiU, when 
below amonglt the people, he periiiled to fpeak in behalf 
of liberty; and the people readily attended to, him, and 
joined in his indignation, till the conful's beadle again 
laid hold of him and turned him out of the forum. He 
attempted, notwithftanding, to return to his place, and 
excited the people to afliil' him ; which being done more 
than once, Trebonius, in a violent nige, ordered him to 
priibn. Thither he was followed by the populace, to 
whom he addreffed himfelf as he went, till, at Jaft, Tre- 
bonius, through fear, difmiffed him. Thus Cato was 
rclcued that day. But afterwards, the people being part- 
ly over-awed, and partly corrupted, the confular party 
prevented Aquilius, one of the tribunes, by force of arms, 
from coming out of the fenate-houfc into the aftembly, 
wounded many^ killed fome, and thruft Cato, who faid 
it thundered, out of the forum ; fo that the law was pafTed 
by compulfion. This, rendered Pompey fo obnoxious that 
the people were going to pull down his ftatues, but were 
prevented by Cato. Afterwards, when the law was pro- 
pofed for the allotment of Caefar's provinces, Catoaddref- 
iing himfelf particularly to Pompey, told him, with great 
confidence, he did not then cOnfider that he was taking 
Csefar upon his ftioulders ; but when he began to find hia 
' weight, and could neither fupport it, nor ihake him ofF, 
they would both fall together, and crufh the common- 
wealth in their fall : and then he Ihould find, too'late, that 
the counfels of Cato were no lefs falutary for himfelf than 
intrinficfally juft. Yet Pompey, thougli he often heard 
thefe things, in the confidence of his fortune and his 
power, defpifed them, and feared no jeverfe from the 
part of Caefar. 

Cato was the following year appointed prstor, but he 
can hardly be faid to have contributed fo much to the dig- 
nity of that high office by the reftitude of his condudl, as 
to have derogated from it by the meannefs of his drefs ; 
for he would often go to the prxtorial bench without his 
robe or his iboes, and fit in judgment, even in capital 
cafes, on fomc of the firll perfonages in Rome.. Some will 
have it, that he pafTed fentence, when he had drank after 
dinner, but that is not true. He was refolved to extirpate 
that extreme corruption which then prevailed amonglt the 


people in cledions of every kind : and, in order to eSeA 
this, he moved that a law (hould be pafTed in the fenate^ 
for every cinJidate, though no information (hould be laid, 
to declare upon oath in what manner he obtained hi» 
election. This gave offence to the candidates^ and to thtf 
more merccaary part of the people. So'that, as Cato was' 
going in the morning to the tribunal, he was fo much in- 
iulced and pelted with itones by the mob> that the whole 
court fled, and he with dimculty efcaped into the roftrum*. 
There he ftood, and his firm and fteady afped foon hufhei 
the clamours r^nd diforders of the popuhcc ; fo that whe» 
he fpoke upon the fabjed, he was heard with a general 
filence •. The fcnaie publicly teftified their approbatioir 
of his conduct ; but he anfwered, that no complimcnl 
could be paid to them at leafi for deferring the pTaatoTy and 
declining to aflift him when in manifeit danger. Tht> 
meafure diilrciffd the candidates confiderably : for, on the 
one hand« they were afraid of giving bribes, and, on the* 
other, they were apprehcnfive of lofing their eleflion, if it 
fliould be dons by their opponents. They thought ii 
beft, therefore, jcnntly to depofit live handred feflertisi 
each f, then to canvafs in a fair and legal manner, and if 
rny one fhould be convifted of bribery he fhould forfeit 
his depofit. Cato was appointed guarantee of this agrce-^ 
ment, and the money was to be lodged in his hand, but 
for this he accepted of fureties. When the day of elec- 
tion came, Cato frood next to the tribune who prefided; 
and. as he examined the votes, one of the depoiiting can- 
didate^ appeared to have made ufe of fome fraud. He 
therefore ordered him to pay the money to the relh Butt- 
after complimenting the integrity of Cato, they remitted 


* This circumftance io Cato's life zffordi a good comment on the 
following pafT^^ in Virgil, and at the dine time the laboured dignity 
and weight of th^t verfe, 

— Pictatc gravena et merlUs & forte rirum qocm. 

Conveys a very ftrorg and juft idea of Cato. 

Ac ireluti mamo in populo cum faepe eoorta eft 

S^iri-), iirvnqae win.h ignnbik vulzas j 

JUiiique bees el faxa volant; tur>>r Ax'tm miniftr^t, 

Tum« pictite eravem et mi^kis fi f.rie Ytruci qiem 

CcnipexcrCf £icnt, am^iique auribai adlUiU. 

i:is regit diAii aminos, ct pefluri mulcet. \1RG. ^n. i. 

f Ckcro fpeaks of this agreement In one of his eplAles to Atticus. 


the fine, and faid that the guilt was a fulHcient punilhmcnt, 
Cato. however, rendered himfelf obnoxious to many by 
this conduct, wbo ieemed difpleafed that he affected both 
the legiflative and juJicial powers. Indeed, there is hardly 
any authority (o much expofed to envy as the latter, and 
hardly any virtue (o qbnoxious^as that of juftice, owing to 
the popular weight and influence that it always carries 
along with It. i" or though he who sdminifters juilice in 
a virtuous manner may not be refpedled as a man of va- 
lour, nor admired as a jnan of parts ; yet his integrity is 
always produdlive of love and confidence. Valour pro- 
duces fear, and parts create fufpicion : they are dillinc- 
lions, moreover, which are rather given than acquired. 
One arifes from a natural acutenefs, the other from a na- 
tural firmncfs of mind. However, as juftice is sl virtue 
fo eafiiy practicable and attainable, the oppofite vice is 
proportionably odious. 

Thus Cato became obnoxious^ to the chiefs of Rome in 
general. But Pompey in particular, whofe glory was to 
rife out of the ruins of his power, laboured with unwearied 
afliduity, to procure impeachments againft him. The in- 
cendiary Clodius, who had again entered the liils of Pom- 
pey, accufed Cato of embezzling a quantity of the Cypriaa 
treafure, and of raifmg an oppofition to Pompey, becaufe 
the latter had refufed to accept of his daughter in mar- 
riage. Cato, on the other handj maintained, that though 
he was not fo much as fupplied with a horfe, or a foldicr, 
by the government, yet he had brought more treafure to 
the commonwealth from Cyprus, than Pompey had done 
from fo many wars and triumphs over the harafTed world. 
He afierted, that he never even wilhed for the alliance of 
Pompey, not becaufe he thought him unworthy, btK becaufe 
of the difference of their political principles. ** For my own 
'♦ part," faid he, ** I rejefted the province offered me as an 
'' appendage to my prastorihip^ but for Pompey, he arro- 
" gated fome prov'uKes to himfelf, and fome he bellowed 
" on his friends* Nay he has now, without even folidt- 
•' ing your confent, accommodated Caefar in Gaul with 
** fix thoufind foldiers. Such forces, armaments, and 
*' horfes, ate now, it feems, at the difpofal of private men: 
'* and Pompey retains the title of commander and gene- 
'* ral, while he delegates to others the legions and the 
<« provinces i and continues vfrithin the walls to prefide at 



358 Plutarch's lives, 

•« elc^Slions, the arbiter of the mob, and the fabricai:or( 
** fedition. Froiii this condudt his principles aiv* ob 
** vious. He jiclds it but ont- llep from i^narchy toabte 
•' lute power ♦." Thus Cato maintained his party agaid 

Marcus Favonius was the intiirate friend and imiuuK' 
of Cato, as Apollodorus Phalereus f is faid to hare ben 
of Socrates, who was tranfported with his difcourfes eve 
to madncfs or intoxiciition. Ihis Favonias flood for tk 
oiTice of aidile, and apparently loft it; but Cato» njw 
examining the votes, and finding them all to be writteaii 
the fame hand, appe;;icd againft the fraud, and the tribune 
fet afide the eledion. Favonius, therefore, was cle&i 
and in the difcharge of the fcveral offices of his magiilrsq 
he had the afiillanccof Cato, particularly in the theatrid 
entertainments that were given to the people. In tW 
Cato gave another fpecimen of his oeconomy ; for hcdii 
not allow the players and muficians crowns of gold, botoi 
wild olive, fuch as they ufe in the Olympic games. In- 
ilead of expenfive prefents, he gave the Greeks beets sd 
kttuces, and radifnes and parlley ; and the Romans b 
prefented with jugs of wine, pork, figs, cucumbers, ani 
faggots of wood. Some ridiculed the meannefs of-hij 
preienls, while others were delighted with this relaxatict 
from the ufual fe verity of his nfanners. AndFavoniu;. 
who appeared only as a common perfon amongft the fpcc- 
tators, and had givca up the management of the whole w 
Cato, declared the fame to the people, and publicly ap- 
plauded his ccndud, exhorting him to reward merit of 
every kind. Curio, the colleague of Favonius, exhibited 
at the fame time in the other theatre a very magnificent 
entertainment : but tlie people left him, and were xnuci 
more entertained with feeing Favonius a6t the private ci- 
tizen, and Cato mailer of the ceremonies, ft 15 piobable, 
however, that he took this upon him only to (liew the I 
foliy of troublefome and expenfive preparations in matters 


• This maxim has been verified in almcf> every ftate. When am- 
bitious men aimed at ahfolute | ower, their b:{\ niehfure was to impede 
the ictuJar movtments of the conf^itutional gcvtrrnr.tnt by throwing 
all mm confufion, th«t they nii^ght .,(ciTd to mon ichy as ^neas 
went to the throne of CartCi&ge, ipv.- )ve»i in a clouf*. 

f Sec Piaro's Pnjedo, and r'.c ! L'jrinnjn^ of the Sym^ /tarn. This' 
Apoilodorus was fumanied Mankui iVcm his pafTionate tnthufiafio, 



'Of mere amufemcnt, and that the benevolence and good 
humour fuitable to fuch occafions would have a better 

V/hen Scipio, Hypfeus, and Milo, were candidates for 
the confuifhip, and, befide the ufual infamous pradtices of 
brioery and corruption, had recourfe to violence and 
murder, and civil war, it was propofed that Pompey fhould 
be appointed protedlor of the eleftion. Bat Cato oppofed 
this', and faid that the laws fhould not derive their fecurity 
^from Pompey, but that Pompey ihouid owe his to the laws. 

However, when the confular power had been long fuf- 
pendcd, and x\ic forum was in lome meafure befieged by 
three armies, Cato, that things might not come to the 
worll, recommended to the fcnaie to confer that power on 
Pompey as a favour, with which his own influence would 
^ othsrwife invclt him, and by that means to make a left 
evil the remedy for a greater. Eibulus, therefore, an 
agent of Cato's, moved in the fenate that Pompey fhould 
be created fole conful ; adding, that his adminiftration 
•would either be of the greateft fervice to the ftate, or that, 
at leait, if the commonwealth mull have a mafter, it would 
have the fatisfadion of being under the aufpices of the 
greateft man in Rome. Cato, contrary to every one's ex- 
pedition, feconded the motion, intimating that any go- 
vernment was preferable to anarchy, and that Pompey 
proraifed fair for a conftitutional adminiftration, and for 
. the prefervation of the city. 

Pompey being thus elected conful, invited Cato to his 
houfe in the fuburbs. He received him with the greatefl 
carefTes and acknowledgments, and intreated him to affift 
in his adminiftration, and to prefide at his councils. Cato 
anfwered, that he had neither formerly oppofed Pompey 
.out of private enmity, nor fupportcd him of late out of" 
perfonal favour ; but that the welfare of the ftatc had 
been his motive in both ; that, in private, he would 
affift him with his council whenever he fhould be called 
upon ; but that, in public, he fhould fpeak his fentiments, 
whether they might be in his favour or not. And he 
did not fail to do as he had. toldiiira. For, foon after, . 
when Pompey propofed fevere punifhments and penalties 
againil thofe who had been guilty of bribery, Cato gave 
it as nis opiiiion, that the paft fhould be over-looked, 
and the future only adverted to : for that,^ if he fhould 


fcrutLBize into former offences of that kind, it voald be 
dlfiicult to fdy where ic would end ; and IhouJd he eflablifh 
penal laws, expoftfaao, it would be ^ard that thofe who 
were convidled of former offences Ihoald fufFer for the 
breach of thofe laws v^ hich were then not in being. Af- 
terwards, too J when impeachments were brought againft 
feveral perfons of rank, and fome of Pompey's fricodi 
amongft the rt^^ Cato, when he obferved that Pompey 
favoured the latter, reproved him with great freedom, 
and urged him to the difcharge of his duty. Pompey had 
enabled, thiit encomiums ihould no longer be {poken ia 
favour of the prifoner at the bar ; and yet, he gave in to 
the court a written encomium * on Monatius Plancus ft 
when he was upon his trial ; but Cato, when he obferved 
this, a& he was cnc of the judges, ftopped his ears, and 
forb:nie apology to be read. Pkncus, upon this, ob- 
jelled to Cdto's bein^ one of the judges ; yet he was con- 
demned noiwithllanding. Indeed, Cato gave the crimi- 
nals in gcueral no imall perplexity ; for they were equally 
afraid of having him for their judge, and of obje^cing to 
him ; as in (he latter cafe it was generally undorftood that 
they were unwilling to rely on their innocence, and by 
the fame means were condemned. Nay, to object to the 
judgirent of Caio, became a common handle of accufa- 
tion and reproach. 

Ca;far, at the fame time that he was profecuting the 
war in Gaul, was cultivating his inierell in the city, by 
all that friendftap and inunit.cence could cfFedl. Pompey 
faw this, and waked, as from a dream, to the warnings of 
Cato: yet he remained indcicnt ; and Cato, who perceiv- 
ed the political ncce£ity of opj)cfing Calar, determined 
hinifeif to Hand for the conlulfnip, that he might tiiercby 
oblige him either to lay down his arms or dilcover hii dc- 
figns. Cato's compeiiiors were both men of credit; 
but Sulpicius J, who was one of tJiem, had himfelf de- 

* Dion calls this an eulogium aod a petition, iwtunf rt m./Aa kvlv 

f Munatiui Hlancns, who in the Crtck is miAaktnly calltd Flae- 
cua, was then tribune of the p-.cple. Hr was accufcd b> Ciu ro, and 
defcfic'Ld by Pon pey, but unarin-ioufl} cordc-n>:Hd, 

X The compttitors wtrc .\:. rUiniius h'lP.'.c ilus and Seivius Sul- 
picius Kuius. 1 he latter, according to Dion, \^ .-s chorea for hiu know- 
ledge of the laws, and ihe fcr Yds elcqu'jncc. 

CATO TKE yOUNGE'ft. ^6t 

^ lived gtcat advanta^ges from the authority of Cato. On . 
this account^ he was cenfured as ungrateful ; though Cato~~ 
Was not offended ; "For what wonder,^' faid he, " is it, 
*• tliat what a man efteeins the gre.iteft happincfs, he 
*'• (liould not give up to another f" He procurei an aft 
in the fenate, that no candidate ihduld canvafs by rfteans 
t)f others. This exafperated the people, becaufe it cut oJF 
at once the means of cultivating favour, andconveying 
'bribes ; and there1>y rendered the lower order of citizens 
poor and itrilgnificant. It was in fome mcafure owing to 
ihis adl that he loll the cdafullhip ; ifor he cenfulted hi^ 
dignity too much to canvafs in a popular manner himfclf; 
and his friends co«]d not then do it for him. 

A repulfe, in this cafe, is for fome time attended >Brith 

-ihame and forrow both to tht candidate arid his friends; 

"but Cato was fo little atfcdled by it, 'that he anointed him- 

-fclf to play at ball, and walked as ufual after diiincr with 

-his friends in x\ic_f(nuni, without his ihoes or hii tunic. 

'Cicero, fenfib'e how Kiuch Rome wanted fuch a ccnful, at 

once blamed his indolence, with regard to courtibg the 

'people on this occaficn, and his inattention to future fuc- 

'Xefs ; whereas he had twice applied for the pra^torfhip. 

-Cato anfwercd, that his ill ftKcefs iti the latter cafe was not 

owing to the averfion of the people, but to the corrupt and 

compulfive meafures ufed amongft them ; while in an ap- 

'plication- for the confulfhip no fiich meafures could be ufed ; 

•and he was fftnfible, therefore, that the citizens were of*- 

'fcnded by thofc manners which it did not become a wife 

-man either to change for their fakes, or by repeating hi« 

application, to expofe himfclf to the fame ill iuccels. 

Csefar had, at this time, obuined many dangerous vie- 
■ tories over warlike nations ; and had fallen upon the Gcr- 
^jTians, though at -peace with the Romans, and llain three 
hundred thoufand of th,?m. Many of the citizens, on this 
-occafion, voted a public thankfgiving ; but Cato was of 
•a different opinion, and-faiJ, ** That Cx* far ll.ould be 
'* given up to the nations he had injured, that bis conduft 
** might not bring a curie upon the city ; yet tlie gods" 
he faid, ^' ought to be thanked, notwithilanding, that tiie 
** foldiers had not fuiFered for the madnefs and wicked-' 
-*' nefs of their general, but'that they had in mercy fpared 
'* the Hate." Cajfar,- upon this, fent letlers to the lenatc 
full of inveflivee againft Cato. When they were read, 

yolumt ly. R c-^^^^ 

g62 Plutarch's lives. 

Cato rofe with great calmnefs, and in a fpeech, fo regular 
that it feeraed premeditated, faid, that, with regard to 
the letters, as they contained nothing but a little of 
Caefar's bufFoonery, they deferved not to be anfwered: 
•and then, laying open the whole plan of Csefar's conduft, 
•more like a friend, who knew his bofom counfels, than an 
enemy, he (hewed the fenate that it was not the Britons • 
or the Gauls they had to fear, but Cagfar himfelf. This 
alarmed them fo much, that Caefar's friends were forry 
ihey had produced the letters that occafioiied it. No- 
rthing, however, was then refolved upon : only it was dc- 
.bated concerning the propriety of appointing a fucceflbr 
to Csefar ; and when Caefar's friends required, that, in 
:<tz{e thereof, Pompey too fhould rclinquifh his army, and 
.give up his provinces ; *' Now," cri6d Cato, ** istom- 
'« ing to pafs the event that I foretold f . It is obvious, 
** that Caefar will have recourfe to arms ; and that the 
" power which he has obtained by deceiving the people, 
*' ne will make ufe of to enflave them." However, Cato 
liad but little influence out of the fenate, for the people 
were bent on aggrandizing Caefar ; ..and even the fenate, 
while convinced by the arguments of Cato, was afraid 
. of the people. 

When the news was brought that Cxfar had taken Ari- 
minum, and was advancing with his army towards Rome, 
the people in general, and even Pompey, caft their eyes 
upon Cato, as on the only perfon who had forefeen the 
original defigns of Caefar. " Had ye then," faid Cato, 
••^attended to my counfels, you would neither now have 

" feared 

* Amiot thinks we ought here to read TEf{A.xvuy, and not 

' f But was not this very impolitic in Cato ? Wns it not a vain fa- 
crificc to his ambition of prophecy ? Caefar could not Icrg remain 
unacquainted with what had palTed in the fenate ; and Cato's obfer- 
vation on this occaficn was not much more difcrcet than it would be 
to tell a roadman, who had a flambeau in bis hand, that he intended 
to burn a houfe. Cato, in our opinion, with all his virtue, contri- 
buted no lefs to the deftro£^ion of the commonwealth than C«far him- 
felf. Wherefore did he idly exafpcratethat ambitious man, by objeA- 
ing agalnd a public thankfgiving for his vidories ? There was a pre- 
judice in that part of Cato^s condud), which had but the (hadow of 
virtue to fupport it. Nay, it is more than probable, that it was out 
of fpitc to Caefar, that Cato gare the whole confular power to Pompey. 
Ic mud be remembered that C«(&t.V^d d^SaiNi<:tvcdCato*s M\cv, 

XXTO TftE troUNGEt. 36]^ 

'*• fearei'the power of one man, nor would it have been 
" in one man that you fhould have placed youv hopes.'* 
Pompey anfwered, that " Cap had indeed beefe a better 
" piophet, but that he had himfelf adled a more friendly 
" part." And Cato then advifed the fenate to put every 
thing into the hands of Pompey;. '* For the authors of 
" great evils," he faid, " knew beft how to remove 
*' them.*' As Pompey perceived that his forces were in- 
'fufficient, and even the few that he had by no means 
hearty in Iiis caufe, he thought proper to leave the city% 
Cato, being determined to follow him, fcnt his youngcft 
fon to Munatius, who was in the coujatry of 'the Brutii, 
and took the eldeft along with him. As his family, and 
particularly his daughters, wanted a proper fuperintend- 
ant, he took Marcia again, who was theft a rich widow j 
ifoi Ilortenfius was dead, and liad left her his whole ellate. 
This ciicumftance gave Ca:far occa^on to reproach Cato 
with his avarice, and to call him th(yMrcenary hufband. 
'•* For why," faid he, " did he partlPKh her, if he had 
*' occafion for her himfelf? And, if he had not occafion 
" for her, why did he take her again ? The reafon is 
" obvious. It was the wealth of Hortenfius. He lent 
'* the young man his wife, that he might make her a rick 
*' widow." But, in anfwer to this, one need only quote 
that paiTage of Euripides ♦, 

Call Heresies a covirard ! 

For it would be equally abfurd to reproach Gato witk 
covetoufnefs, as it would be to charge Hercules with want 
of courage. Whether the condud of Gato was altoge- 
ther unexceptionable in this affair, is another qucftion. 
However, as foon as he had rfe-married Marcia, he gav« 
her the charge of his family,' and followed Pompey. 

From that time, it is faid that he neither cut his hair^, 
^or fhaved his beard, nor wore a garland ; but was uni- 
form in his drefs, as in his anguifh for his country. On 
which fide foever vidory might for a while declare, he 
changed not on that account his habit. Being appointed 
to the government of Sicily, he pafled over to Syracufej 
-and finding that Afinius PoUio was arrived at Meflani* 
«wkh a detachment from the enemy, he fcnt to him to dc- 
R 2 . \sc^^ 

» This pafTage h in the firrf aC^ of x\\ft Hereultt ¥»» w*^ 


piand the reafon of his coming ; but Pollio only atifwerti 
his queftion by another, and demanded of Cato to know 
the caufe of thofe revolutions. When he was informed 
. that Pompey had evacuated Italy, and was encamped at 
Dyrrh^chium, " How myfterious," faid he, " are the 
•*' ways of Providence ! V/hen Pompey neither a6led upon 
** the principles of wifdom, nor of jullice, he was invin- 
*' cible ; but now that he would fave the liberties of his 
". country, his good fortune feems to have forfaken him. 
•* Afmius," he laid, *' he could eafily drive out of Sicily; 
** but as greater fupplics were at hand, he was unwilling 
** to involve .the ifland in war." He therefore advifed 
. the Syracufans to confult their fafety by joining the ftrong- 
. cr party; and foon after fet fail. When he came to Pom- 
pey, his conllant fentiments were, that the war Ihould be 
procraflinated in hopes of ^jcace ;'fpr that, if they came 
to blows, which party forver might be fuccefsful, the 
event would be decifive againil the liberties of the ftate. 
He alfo prevailed^h Pompey, and the council of war, that 
neither any city fuojeft to the Romans ihould be fackcd, 
nor any Roman killed, except in the field of battle. By 
this he gained great ^lory, and brought over many, by 
his humanity, to the interell of Pompey. 

When he went into Afia for the purpofe of raifinr^ men 
and fhips, he took with him his filler Scrvilia, and a little 
boy that fhe had by Lucullus ; for fmce the death of her " 
hulband, (he had lived with him ; and this circumrtance of 
putting h.erfelf under the eye of Cato ; and of following 
Jiim through the fevere difcipline of camps, greatly re- 
covered her reputation ; yet Cxfar did not fail to ccnfure 
Cato even on her account. 

Though Pompey's officers in Afia did not think that 
tliey had much need of Cato's affiftance ; yet he brou(^ht 
over the Rhodians to their intereft ; and there leaving 
his filler Servilia and her fon, he joined Pompey's forces, 
which were now on a refpe^lable footing, both by fea and 
land. It was on this occafion that Pompey difcovered his 
fiaal views. At firft^ he intended to have given Cato the 
fupreme naval command ; and he had then no fewer than 
five hundred men of war, bejfide an infinite number of open 
galleys and tenders. Reflefling, however, or reminded 
by his friends, that Cato's great principle was on all occa- 
^ojis to refcue the commonwealth from the government 
' of 


of an individual; and that, if in veiled with fo confider- 
able a power himfelf, the moment Cajfar fhould be van- 
quiOied, he would oblige Pompey too to lay down his arms, 
aiid fubmit to the laws; he changed his intentions, though 
he iiad already .mentioned them to Cato, and gave the 
command of the fleet toBibulus.- • The aeal of Cato, how- ■ 
ever, was not abated by thistrondudl. • When they were on 
the eve of battle at Dyrrhacliium, Pompey himfelf ad- 
drefTed and encouraged the army, and ordered his officers 
to do the fame. Their addrefles, notwithllanding, wer« 
coldly received. But when Cato rofe and fpoke, upon the 
principles of philofophy, concerning libertv, virtue, death, 
and glory; wheny-by Jiisr impaffioned a£iion, he Ihewed 
that he felt what he fpoke, andthat his eloquence took its 
glowing colours from his -foul; when he 'concluded with 
an invocation to the gods, aswitneffcr of their efforts for 
the prefervatioii4»f their country, the plaudits of the army 
rent the fkieS ; and the gcDcral^ marched on in full con- 
fidence ofvidory./ They fought/ and were vidlorious ; 
thottjg;h Carfar's good genius availed- him of the frigid 
caution and diffidence of Pompey, and rendered the vidtory 
incomplete. But thefc things have been mentioned in the 
life of Pompey.. • Amid the genertd joy thif followed this 
fuccefs, Cato alone mourned Xyver his countfyi and i>e wail- 
ed that fatal and cruel ambition i which-covered the field 
with the bodies of citizens fallen by the hands of each 
other. ' When Pompey; in^purfuit of Caefar, proceeded to 
Theflhly, and left in DyTrhachium a large' quantity of 
«rms and treafure, together with fome friends and rela- 
tions, he gave the whole in charge to Cato, with the com- 
mand of hfteeti cohorts only ; for ftill he was afraid of his 
republican principles^ • If- he Ihould be vanqiii(hcd, - in- 
deed, he knew he would be faithful to him ; but if he 
lliould be viftor, he knew, at the fame time, that he would 
not permit him to reap the reward of conqueft in the 
fweets of abfblutc power. Cato, however, had the fatis- 
fadion of being attended by many illuftrious perfons in 
Dyrrhachium. • 

After the fatal overthrow at Pharfalia, Cato determined 
in cafe of Pompey's death, to cpadu^ the people under 
his charge to Italy, and then to retire into exile, far from 
the cognizance of the power of the tyrant ; but if Pom- 
pey furvived, he was refolved to keep his little forces to- 
R 3 ^'Ow:*. 

366 plutargh's^ lives. 

gethcr for him. With this defign, he paffed into Corcy^. 
ra, where the fleet was Rationed; anci would there have 
refigned his command to Cicero, becaufe he had been 
conful and himfelf only praetor. But Cicero declined it, 
and fet fail for Italy. Pompey the y^unver refeiited this 
defedion, and was about to lay violenrhands on Cicero 
and fome others, but Cato provcated him by private ex- 
poilnlation ; and thus faved the live^ both of Cicero axul. 
the reft. 

C^to, upon a fuppofition that Pompey the Great would 
make his efcapc into Egypt or Lybia, prepared to follow 
him, together with his RttJe force, after having firft given, 
to fuch ns chofe it, the liberty of ftaying behind. A.s fooiL. 
as he had reached the African coaft, he met with Sextus» 
Pompey's younger fon, who acquainted him with the death, 
of his father. This greatly aiHided the little .band; but 
as Pompey was no more, they unanimouily refolved to 
have no other leader tha& Cato.. Cato, out of compaflloa 
to the hon^ft men that had put their confidence in hia^. 
and becaufe h« would not leave them deftituteina fbreieu^ 
country, took upon him the command. *Hq £r ft made Ar. 
iJyrene, and was received by the people, though they had. 
before (hut their gates againft Labienus. Here he under- 
ftood that Scipio, Pompey's father-in-law, was enter-, 
tained by Juba ; and that Appius Varus, to whom Pom- 
pey had given the government of Africa, had joined, 
them with his forces. Cato, thcKfor.e, refolved to inarch 
to them by land, as it was now winter. He had got to-. 

f ether a great many afTes to carry water; and furniilicd 
imfelf-alfo with cattle and other vidualling provifions, 
as well as with a number of carriages. He had likewife 
in his train fome of the people called Pfylli *, who obvi- 
• Thefe people were fo called from their king Pryllus, who<e tomb 
vas in the rtjuion of ilie Syrres. Va.'^ro tcils us, that to try the legi- 
timacy cf their clillf!r«n, they frfftr them to be bitten by a veron.ous 
ferpcnt; and if thry furvive the wound, they conclude th^t they are 
not fpurlcus. Crates Pergnmenus hya, there wcjra a people cf this kind 
at Paros on the Hellcfpont, called OpMogenes, \\hof(; touch alone was 
a cure for the hite of a fcipcnt. Celfus obfervf s, that the Plylli fuck 
out the poifon from tlw wound, not hy :.ny fuptri.)r Jki'l or quality,, 
but becaufe they have courage ere u:;li to do it. Some writers have af- 
(eitcd tliat the Pfylli have an innate qurdity in their conAitution that 
is poifonous to ferpcntsj and that the fmell of it throws them into .1 
t-iofound fleep. Pliny inau^taijns, tSi<tt evcr^ man has in himfelf a n^^- 


CAT a THE rauNGERr. 367^ 

ate the bad efFefts of the bite of ferpents, by fuckiiig out 
the poifon ; and deprive the fcrpents themfelves of their 
ferocity by their charms. During a continued march for 
feven days, he was always foremoil, though he made ufe 
of neither horfe nor chariot. Ever after the unfortunate 
battle of Pharfalia, he eat fitting*, intending it as a« 
additional token of mourning, that he never lay down ex- 
cept to fleep. 

By the end of winter he reached the place of his defig- 
nation in Lybia, with an Sirmy of near ten thoufand men. 
The afFairs of Scipio and Varofs were in a bad iitua- 
tion, by reafon of the mifunderftanding and diftradion 
which prevailed betwcea them, and' which led them* to pay 
their court with great ferviHty to Juba, whofe wealth and 
power rendered him intolerably* arrogant. For when he 
firfl gave Cato audience, he took his place between Scipio 
and Cato. But Cato took up his chair, and removed it 
to the other fide of Scipio ; thus |^ving him the moil ho* 
nourable place, though he was hts enemy, and had pub* 
liihed a libel againft him. Cato's adverfaries have not 
paid proper regard to his fplrit on this occafion^ but they 
kive been readjr enough to blame hun for putting Philoi-r 
tratus in the middle, when he was walking with liim qv» 
day in Sicily, though he did it entirely out of regard to 
philofophy. In this manner he humbled Jnba, who had 
considered Scipio. and Varus as little more thain his lieute* 
nants ; and he took care alfo to reconcile them to cfidk^ 

The whole army then defired him to take the command - 
upon him ; and Scipio and Varus readily offered to refign 
it: but he faid, *' He would not tranfgrefs the laws, for 
R4 "the 

trrral poifon for ferpents ; flnd that thofe creatures will (hun the hu- 
man faliva, as they would boiling v/ater. The faAipg faliva, in par- 
ticular, if it comes within their mouths, kills them immediately. l£t 
therefore, we may believe, that the human faliva is an antidote to the 
poifon of a fcrpent, we^fhall have no occaiion to believe, at the fame 
time, that the Pfylli were endowed with any peculiar qualities of this 
kind, but that their fuccefs in thefe operations arofe, as Celfus fays. 
Ex audacia vfa ccnfrmaia. Howfvcr, they made a confiderable trade 
of it J and we are aflured, that they have been known to import the 
African fcrpents into It^, and other countries, to increftfe their gain, 
Pliny fays, they brought fcorpions into Sicily, but they would not 
live in that ifland. 

• The conful Varro did the fame after the i>«i\k ol Can«« • V.^^ 
% ceremony of mourning. 


fcrutLBize into former ofilences of that kind, it would ht 
difiicult to fdy where ic would end ; and Ihould he eftabjiih 
penal laws, ex poft faSio^ it would be riard that thofe who 
were convidled of former offences Ihoaid fuffer for the 
breach of thofc laws which were then not in being. Af- 
terwards, too« when impeachments were brought againft 
feveral peHbns of rank, and fome of Pompey's fricodf 
amongft the refl, Cato, when he obfer^'ed that Pompejr 
favoured the latter, reproved him with great freedoin, 
and urged him to the difcharge of his duty. Fompey had 
enabled, that encomiums ihould no longer be {poken in 
favour of the prifoner at the bar ; and yet, he gave in to 
the court a written encomium * on Monatius rlancus f , 
when he was upon his trial ; but Cato, when he obferved 
this, a& he was one of the judges, ftopped his ears, and 
forbade tae apologj^ to be read. Plancus, upon this, ob- 
jeded to Cato*s bem^ one of the judges ; yet he was coa<- 
demned notwithilanding. Indeed, Cato ^^Mt the crimi- 
nals in gcucral no imall perplexity ; for they were equally 
afraid of having him for their judge, and of objeiScing to 
him ; as in (he latter cafe it was generally underftood that 
they were unuilling to rely on their innocence, and by 
the fame means were condemned. Nay, to object to the 
judgment of Caio, became a common handle of accufa- 
tion and reproach. 

Ciefar, at the fame time that he was profecuting the 
war in Gaul, was cultivating his iniercll in the city, by 
all that friendddp and inunitxence could cfFedl. Pompey 
faw this, and waked, as from a dream, to the warnings cif 
Cato: yet he remained indolent; and Cato, wiio perceiv- 
ed the political ncce£ity of oppcfing Cariar, determined 
himfeif to llaiid for the coniuirnip, th^t he might ti^ercby 
oblige him either to lay down his arms or difcover hi:> de- 
figns. Cato's competitors were both men of credit; 
but Sulpicius J, who was one of tJiem, had himfclf de- 

* Dion calls this an eulogium aod a petition, twtutof n a/4.a kvlv 

nuilxy ixsliiar* 

f Munatiui Hlancns, «vho In the Crttk is iniA;* c^lltd Flac- 
cua, was then tribune of the iKopk. He was accufcd b> Ciuro, and 
defcmitd by Pon^pcy, but unarinr.oufl} corden>nid. 

"l The competitors ^^•tTe N:. rUudiu» A5/.'c ilus and Seivius Sul- 
picius K ufus. 1 he latter, according to Dion, v^a chofcD for hiu know- 
Jcd^t of the laws, and the forircr fcr i-iis eloqu'jncc. 

CATO THE yoUNG'E'ft. ^6t 

^Tived gtcat advantages from the authority of Cato. On . 
this account, he was cenfured as ungrateful; though Cato~ 
was not offended ; "For what wonder,^' faid he, " is it, 
*« tliat what a man efteeins the greateft happinefs, he 
*•' (hould not give up to another f" He procure! an a6t 
*in the fenate, that no candidate ihduld canvafs byroeans 
t)f others. This exafpcrated the people, bccaufe it cut oif 
at once the means of cultivating favour, and- conveying 
Tjribes ; and thereby rendered the lower order of citizens 
poor and iufignificant. It was in fome meafure owing to 
this aft that he loll the cbnfurihip ; .for he cenfultcd hii 
dign^Ity too much to canvafs in a popular manner himfdf; 
und his friends co«]d not then do it for him. 

A repulfe, in this cafe, is for fome time attended >5rith 
"ihame and forrow both to thie candidate atid his friends; 
'but Cato was fo little aitefted by it, 'that he anointed hini'^ 
-felf to play at ball, and walked as ufual after dinner with 
-his friends in the /b*um, without his ihoes or his tunic. 
•Cicero, fenfib'e how much Rome wanted fuch a Conful, at 
once blamed his indolence, with regard tQ courtibg the 
-people on this occafion, and his inattention to future fuc- 
•x:cfs ; whereas ht had twice applied for the prxtorfhip. 
-Cato anfwercd, that his ill fttccefs ih the latter cafe was not 
owing to the averfion of the people, but to the corrupt and 
'compulfive meafures ufed amongft them ; while in an ap- 
'pUcation- for the conful (hip no fiich meafures could be ufed ; 
'nnd he was fftnlible, therefore, that the citizens were of*- 
'fended by thole manners which it did not become a w;ife 
-roan either to change for their fakes, or by repeating hi« 
application, to expofe himfelf to the fame ill iuccefs. 

Casfar had, at this time, obtained many dangerous vie- 
'tones over warlike nations ; and had fallen upon the Ger- 
^mans, though at -peace with the Romans, and llain three 
hundred thoufand of th^m. Many of the cidsens, on this 
-occafion, voted a public thankfgiving ; but Cato was of 
•a different opinion, and faid, *' That Csefar fl.ould be 
'* given up to the nations he had injured, that his conduft 
** might not bring a <:urfe upon the city ; yet the god^," 
he ffiid, ^' ought to be thanked, notwiihllanding, that the 
*' foldiers had not fuffered for the madnefs and wicked-' 
•♦' nefs of their eencral, but'that they had in mercy fpared 
** the Hate." Casfar,- upon this, fent letters to the fenate 
.full of inveflives againll Cato. When they were readv 


^ lie caufc with their parfes, their perfons, and tfieir 
*' counfels ; and exhorting them not to entertain different 
** views, or to endeavour to fave themfelves by flight,. 
** For," continued he, " if you keep in a body, Caefar will 
•* not hold you in fuch contempt, if you continue the war;; 
•' and you will be more likely to be fpared, if you have* 
•* recourfe to fubmiffion. I defire you will coniider the* 
** point thoroughly, and what refolution foever you may 
'** take, I will not blame you. If you are inclined to go 
** with the flream of fortune, I fhall impute the change tc 
** the necefljty of the times. If you bear up againft their- 
•• threatening afpeft, and continue to face danger in thp 
" caufe of liberty, I will be your fellow- fold ier, as well* 
•* as captain, till our country has experienced the laft ifTues 
•* of her fate : Our country, which is not in Utica, or 
•* Adrymettum, but Rome ; and (he, in her vaft refourccs, 
^' has often recovered herfelf from greater falls than this.. 
*' Many refources we certainly have at prefent; and the 
** principal is, that we have to contend with a man whofc' 
•« occafions oblige him to attend to various objefts. Spain- 
•* is gone over to young Pompey, and Rome, as yet un— 
•' accullomcd to the yoke, is ready to fpurn it from her, 
•' and to rife on any profpeft of change. Nor is dangerr 
*' to be declined. In this you may take your enemy for a 
** pattern, who is prodigal of his blood in the moft ini- 
** quitous caufe; whereas, if you fucceed, you will live 
<* extrcmly happy ; if you mifcarry, the uncertainties 
*' of war will be terminated with a glorious death. How- 
" ever, deliberate among yourfelves as to the (leps you 
*« Ihould take, firft intreating heaven to profper your de- 
^ terminations, in a manner worthy the courage and zeal: 
" you have already fhewn.** 

This fpeech of Cato's infpired fome with confidence,, 
and even with hope ; and the generality were fo much af- 
fedled with his intrepid, his generous, and humane turn* 
of mind, that they almoft forgot their prefent danger ; 
and lookingf upon him as the only general that was invin- 
cible, and fuperior to all fortune, *' They dcfired him to 
** make what ufe he thought proper of their fortunes and 
•* their arms; for that it was better to die under his ban- 
** ner, than to fave their lives at the expence of betraying 
«♦ fo much virtue." One of the council obfcrved the ex- 
pediency of a decree for enfranchifing the flaves, and many 


commend the motion : Cato, however, faid, •' He would 
** not do that, becaufe it was neither juft nor lawful; 
*' but fuch as their mailers would voluntarily difchargc, 
** he would receive, provided they were of proper age ta 
** bear arms.'* This many promifed to do; and Cato 
withdrew, after having ordered lills to be made out of all - 
that fhould offer. 

A little after tJiis, letters were brought him from Juba ^ 
and Scipio. Juba, who lay with a fmall corps, concealed > 
in the mountains, deiired to know Cato's intentions ; pro- 
poling to wait for him if he left Utica, or to affift him if 
he chofe to ftand a fiege. Scipio ajfo lay at anchor under ' 
a promontory near iJtica, expedling an anfwer on the 
fame account. 

Cato thought it advifcable to keep themeflengers till he • 
fhould know the final determination of the three hundred. 
AW of the patrician order, with great readinefs enfranchifed - 
and armed their flaves ; but as for the three hundred, who 
dealt in traiHc and loans of money at high intereft, and 
whofe Haves were a confiderable part of their fortune, the ' 
imprelTion whicfi Cato's fpeech had made upon them, did not 
lail long. As fome bodies eafaly receive heat, and as ea£ly^ 
grow cold again when the fire is removed; fo the fight of 
Cato warmed and liberalized thefe traders ; but when they 
came toconfider the matter among themfelves, the dread " 
of Caefar foon put to flight their reverence for CatOj and 
for virtue. For thus they talked— *' What are we, and- 
'* what is tlie man whofe orders we rcfufc to receive? Is it 
" not Caefar, into whofe hands the whole power of the 
" Roman empire is fallen? And furely none of us is & - 
•* Scipio, a Pompey, or a Cato> Shall we, at a time • 
** when their fears make all men entertain fentiments bc- 
*' neath their dignity — Shall we, in Utica, fight for thie • 
*•' liberty of Rome, with ^ man againft whom Cato and' 
** Pompey. the Great durfl not make a fland in Italy ^ 
*' Shall we enfranchife our flaves to oppofe Caefar, who • 
" have no more liberty ourfelves than, that conqueror is 
" pleafed to leave us ? Ah ! wretches that we are 1 Let us 
»* at lail' know ourfelves, and fend deputies to intercede 
*» with him for mercy**' This was the language of the mofl ' 
moderate among the three hundred ;. but thegreateft part of 
them lay in wait for the patricians, thinking, if they could . 
fcize upon them^ they fhould more eafily tnakit \.\i£\:& ^^'^i^afct 

37^ PLUTARC Il's L I VES. 

with Caffar. Cato fufpcfled the change, but made no re- 
monftrances a|;ain{l it: he only wrote to Scipio and Juba, 
to keep at a diftance from Uiica, becauiie tne three hun- 
dred were not to be depended upon. 

In the mean time a conlidcrable body of cfavalry, who- 
had efcaped out of the battle, approached Utica, and dc- 
fpatched three men to Cato, though they could come to no 
unanimous refolution. For fume were for joining Jubi, 
fome Cato, and others were afraid to enter Utica. Thi« 
account being brought to Cato, he ordered Marcus Rd- 
brius to attend to the bufmefs of the three hundred, and 
quietly take down the names of fuch as offered to fet free 
their flaves, without pretending to ufe the Icaft compul- 
fion. Then he went out of the. town, taking the fcnators. 
with him, to a <;onfjrence with the principal olHcers of the 
cavalry. He imrcated their ofHccrs not to abandon fo- 
many Roman fenators ; nor to choofe Juba, rather than 
Cato, for their general, but to join and muluaily contri- 
bute to each other's ikfcty, by entering the city, which was 
imprcfjnable in point of ftrength, and had provifions and 
. every thing neceflary for defence for many years. The 
fenators feconded this application with prayers and tears. 
The oiftcers went to conlult the troops under their com*- 
mand; and Cato, with the fenators, fat down upon one 
of the mounds to wait their anfwer. 

At moment Rubrius cam<; up in great fury, inveigh- 
ing againft the three hundred, who, he faid, behaved in 
a'viyy dilbrderly manner, and were raifing commotions in 
the city. Upon this, many of the fenators thought their 
condition delperate, and gave into the utmoll expreffions 
oi j^iirf. But CatD endeavoured to encourage them, and 
rc.-iic.kd the three hundred to have patience. 

a -.or there any thing moderate in the propofals of 
the c.'Lvalry. The anfwer from them was, ** That they 
*' had no defire lo he in the pay of Juba; nor did they 
" fear L it-far while they Ihould have Cato for their general ; 
** but to be fliut up withUticans, I'hoenicians, who would 
•* change with the wind, was a circumilance which they 
" couid not bear to think of. For," faid they, '* if they arc 
'* <]ul:t now, yet wlien Ca'far arrives, they will betray us 
•' and conlpiro our deftra<5tion. Whoever, therefore, dc- 
'* fires us to range under his banners there, mull fir ft expel 
*• the Uticans, or put them to the fvvord, and then call us 


♦•into a place iclear of enemies and barbiriins." '- Thefts 
pf opoikls appeared to Cato extremely^ barbarous and fa- 
vage: however, Jie. mildly aQfw«red>. " That he would 
•*- talk with the three hundredabouttJiem." Then £nter- 
in2; the city again,, he applied ta tiiat fet of menf who now 
no longer, out of reverence to him, diilembled or palH-i 
ated their . defigns, Tiiey openly, expreiied. their rcfcnt-' 
ment, that any citizens Ihould prefume to lead theinagainil 
Gaefar, witk whom all contell was beyond their power and 
their hopes. Nay, fome went fo far as to fay, •* Tha.t the 
** fenators ought, to be detained in the town till Caefar 
'* came.'* Cato Jet .this pafs as if he. heard it not 4 and, 
indeed, he was a little deaf. 

But being informed, that the cavalry were marching oflF, 
he was afraid that the three hundred would take fome def- 
perate ftep with rcfped to theienators.; and he therefore 
went in purfuit of-, them with his friends^ As he found 
they were got under march, he rode after them. It was 
with pleafure they faw him approach; and they exhorted 
him to go with thchx, and fave his life with theirs. On 
this- occafion, it is faid> that Cato Ihed tears, while he 
interceded with extended hands in behalf of the fenators, 
iie even turned the heads of fome of their horfes, and 
laid hold of their armour,, till lie prevailed with thca 
to ftay, at leail, that day, to fecure the reueat of the 

When he came back with them, and had committed the 
diarge of the gates to fome,,and the citadel to otliers,-the 
three hundred >^ere under great apprehenfions of being 
punifhcd for their inconilancy, and lent to heg of Cato, 
t>y all means, to come i.nd ipeak to them. But the fena» 
tors would not fulfcr him to go. They faid they would 
never let. their guardian and deliverer come into the 
hands of fuch perhdious and traitorous men. It was now, 
indeed, that Cato's virtue appeared to all ranks of men, 
in Utica in the clea^ctt Jight, and commanded the higheft 
love and admiration. Nothing could be more evident, 
than that the moil pertWd integrity was .the guide of his 
adions. He had long refolved to put an end to his being; 
and yet he fubraitted to inexpreflible labours, cares, and 
conflidls, for others ; that, after he had fccured their lives, 
he might relinquilh his own. For his intentions, in that 


refpedi were obvious enough, though he endeavonred' t9^ 

conceal them. 

Therefore, after having fatisfied the fenators as well as 
he could, he went alone to wait upon the three hundred^ 
" They thanked him for the favour, and intreated him- 
*' to trull them and m;ike ufe of their fervices ; but as they 
•' were not Cato's, nor had Cato's dignity of mind, 
" they hoped he would pity their weaknefs. They 
*' told him they had fefolved to fend deputies to Cacfar, to 
•' intercede firfl and principally for Cato. If that requcH 
" ihould not be granted, they would have no obligation' 
*' to him for any favour to themfelves; but as long as they 
•' had breath, would fight for Cato." Cato made his ac- 
knowledgments for their regard, and advifed them to- 
fend immediately to intercede for themfelves. . '' For me," 
faid he, •' intercede not. It is for the conquered to tuxa.. 
" fuppliants, and for thofe who have done an injury to- 
" beg pardon. For my part, I have been unconquered. 
*' through life, and fuperior in the thing 1 wiflied to be;. 
" for in juilice and honour I am Caefar's fuperior. Casfar 
"is the vanquiftied, the falling man, being now clearly^ 
*' convided of thofe defigns againft his country, which he; 
" had long denied." 

After he had thus fpoken to the three hundred, he 
left them; and being informed, that Ciefar was already- 
on his march to Utica, ** Strange!" faid he, ** it fcems 
*' he takes us for men." He then went to the fenators> . 
and defircd them to haflen their flight while the ca- 
valry remained. He likewife fhut all the gates, ex- 
cept that wliich leads to the fea ; appointed fliips for 
thofe who were to depart; provided for good order, 
in the town ; redrefled grievances ; compofcd diilur- 
bances, antl furniflied all who wanted with ihe neceilary 
provifions for the voyage. About this time Marcus Oc- 
tavius* approached the place with two legions; and, as 
foon as he had encamped, fent to defire Cato to fettle with 
him the bufinefs of the command. Cato gave the mef- 
fengers no anfwer, but turning to his friends, faid, 
" Need we wonder that our caufe has not profpered, 

** when 

*_The fame who commanded rompcy*s fleet. 


•^' when we retain our ambition, on the very brink of 
« ruin?"- 

In the mean time; having intelligence that the cavalrf, 
at their departure, were taking the goods of the Uticans 
SLs lawful prize, he haftened up to them, and fnatched the 
plunder out of the hands of the foremoll : upon which 
they all threw down what they had got, and retired in 
filence, deje6led and alhamed. He then- aflembled the 
Uticans, and applied to them in behalf of the three hun- 
dred, defiring them not to exafperate Csfar againft thofe 
Romans, but to aft in concert with them, and confult 
each other's fafety.. After which he returned- to the fea- 
iide to look upon the embarkation: and fuch of his 
friends and acquaintances as he could perfuade to go, he 
embraced, and difmifled with great marks of affedlion. 
His fon was not willing to go with the reilr ^nd he thought 
it was not right to infill on his leaving a father he was (o 
fbnd of. There was one Statyllius *, a young man, who 
afFeded a firmnefs of refolution above his years, and, in 
all refpefts, ftudied to appear like Cato, fuperior to 
paffioh. As this young man's enmity to Caefar was well 
known, Cato defired him by all means to take fhip with 
the reft ; and, when he found him bent upon flaying, he 
turned to Apollonides the ftoic, and Demetrius the Peri- 
patetic, and faid, '♦It is yourbulinefs to reduce this man's 
'^ extravagance of mind, and to make him fee what is for 
** his good." He now difmiffed all except fuch as had bufi- 
nefs- of importance wijh him; and upon thefe he fpent that 
night and great part of the day Bellowing. 

Lucius Caefari a relation of the conqueror, who in- 
tended to intercede for the three hundred, delired Cato to 
affift him incompofmg a fuitable fpeech. '' And for you," 
faid he, '* I fhall think it an honour to become the mofl 
" humble fuppliant, and even to throw myfelf at his feet." 
Cato, however, would not fufler it : '* If I chofe to be 
*' indebted," faid he, ** to Caefar for my life, I ought to go 
" in pcrfbn, and without any mediator ; but I will not 
*^ have any obligation to a tyrant in a bufinefs by which 
•* he fubverts the laws. And he does fubvert the laws, 

" by 

• This Hrave youny Roman was the fame who, after the battle of 
Philippi, went through the enemy y to inqtilre \ntox\vt cciw^v\w«cw ^^ 
BrutiN's camp; and was flain in his reium b^ C«UtH Vs\^«cv* 



•' by faring, as a inaftfr, thofe over whom he has ntrrfgi 
*' of authority. Neverthelcfs, we will confider, if yo; 
*' pleafe, how to- make your applicatioa moil cffeftuaiit 
•' behalf of the three hundred." 

After he had fpent fome time witli Lucius CaeCir upot 
this affair, he recommended Jils fon and friends to iiii 
prote6lion, .conduced him a little on hi«; way, and tka 
took his leave, and retired to. his own houfe. His I'c: 
and the reft of his friends being aflem hied there, hcdit 
courfcd with them a confide table time ; an J, among otL 
things, charged the young man to take no- fhare in theai 
miuiilration. '* For the ttate of affairs," faid Jle, '• is inch, 
" that it is impoffiblefor you to fill' any office in a m^ff 
** worthy of Cato ; and to do it others' ife^ would: be un- 
" worthy of yourfelf." 

In the evening he went to the bath ; ■ where bethinking 
himfelf of Statyllius, he called out aloud to Apollonides, 
and faid, " have you taken down the pride of that youDg 
" man ? and is he gone without bidding us farewel f** 
♦* No indeed," anfweredthe philofopher, •* ^v^e have t^kcn 
" a great deal of pains with him ; but he continoes ai 
" lofry and refolute as ever; he fays he will Itay, and cer- 
*' tainly follow your condu6>." Cato then fmiled, aud 
faid, '* That will foon-be fecn." 

After bathing, he went to fupper, whh a large cbm- 
pany, at which he fate, as he had always done lince the 
buttle of Pharfalia ; for (as we obferved above) he neve: 
now lay down except to fleep. All his friends, and the 
magiftrates of Utica, fupped with him. After fupper, 
the wine was feafoned with much wit and learning ; and 
many queftions in philofophy were propofed and difcuflcrf. 
In the courfc of the convcrfation; they came to the paro- 
doxes of the ftoics (for fo their maxims are commonk 
called), and to this in particular, *' That the good man 
** only is fvGC, and all bad men are flaves *." The Peripa- 
tetic, in purfuance of his principles, took up the argu- 
gumcnt againll it. Upon which, Cato attacked him with 
great warmth, and in a louder and more vehement accent 
than ufual, carried on a moll fpirited drfcourfe to a conli- 
derable length. From the tenor of it, the whole com- 
pany perceived, he had determined to put an end to his 


♦ T/iis was not only iVic fwi\Are»ttvx. ol \\\^ ^Q\t%^Vax tS. Viwv«*, 


i»tihg-s to extricate himfelf from tlie hard conditions on 
"which he was to hold it. 

As he found a deep and melancholy:" filence the confe- 
quence of his difcourie, he endeavoured to recover the 
fpirits of his gueils, and to remove their fufpicions, by 
talking of their prcfent affairs^ and cxprclilng his fcarsw 
both for his friends and partisans who were upon their* 
voyage ; and for thofe who had to make their way thro* 
dry dcferts, and a barbarous country. 

After the entertainment vws over, he took his ufual 
evening walk with his friends, and gave the ofiicers of tha 
guards fuch orders as the occafioa required* and theuire- 
tired to his chamber. The extraordinary ardour with 
which he embraced his fonand hisfricuds at tljis j/arting, 
recalled all their.fufpicions." Ke lay down, ai^l begitn to 
read Plato's book- on the immortality of th.: .cU; but 
before he had. gone through with it, he lookcv- ^.p, and 
took notice that his fword was not at the head of his bed> 
where it ufed to hang j for his fon had taken it away while 
he was at fupper, fie, therefore, called his fervant, and 
aiked.him, who had taken away his fword? As the fer- 
vant made no anfwer,- he returned to his book; and, after 
a, while, without any appearance of hafte or huny, as if 
it was only by accident that he. called for tho fwordi he- 
ordered him to bring it. The fervant ftili delayed to bring 
it, and he had patience till h& out his book : but 
then he called his fervanta one .by one, and in a loader 
tone demanded his> fword.. At laft he ilruclc one of ihena 
fuch a blow on. the mouth,, that he hurt his own hand ; 
and growing more angry, and railing his voice ftill higher, 
he cried, «* I. am betrayed and- delivered naked, to my 
'* enemy by my fon .and my fervants.*' His fon the^i 
ran in with his friends/ and tenderly embracing him, had. 
recourfe to tears and in<reaties. But Cato rofe up, and, 
with a.ftern and awful, look, thus ^xprefTed himfelf:-^ 
** When, and. where, did I Jhew any figns of diHraciion, 
'* that nobody offers todifluadc me from any purpoCe I 
*' may feem to be wrong in, but. J mud be hindereci fi'om 
" purfuing my refolutions., thus difarmed ?. And you, 
" voung man, why do not you bind your father; bind his 
•* hands behind his back, that when Caifar comes, he 
** may find me utterly incapable of refinance ? As to a 
" fword, I need to deCjat-cViitv^jl^Vls ^vk\\S.\. 

378 plutarchV liitxs. 

*' do but hold my breath a while, or dafh my hrad agaiaSt 
•* the wall, it will anfivcr the purpofe as well.** 

Upon his rpeaking in this manner, the young inan went 
out of the chamber weeping, and with him all the xdi,. 
except Demetrius and Apollonides. To thefe philofophers, 
he addre/Ted himfelf in a milder tone.—" Are you alfo 
** determined to make a man of my age live whether he 
" will or no ? And do you fit here in filence to watch 
" me ? Or do you bring any arguments to prove, that, 
•' now Cato lias no hopes from any other quarter, it is no 
•* difhonour to beg mercy of his enemy ? Why do not yon 
*' begin a ledu re to inform me better, that, di£aii^ng the* 
** opinions> in which you and 1 have lived, we may, through 
*' Cxfar's means, grow wifer, and fo have a ftill greater 
•* obligation to him : As yet 1 have determined nothing 
*' with refpeft to myfelf ; but I ought to have it in my 
*' power to put my |>urpofc in execution, when I hart 
*' formed it. And, indeed, I fhall, in feme meafure*- 
^ confult with ^ou, for I fhall proceed in my deJiberations 
" Qjpon the principles of y6ur philofophy. fie &tisficd 
" then, and go tell my ion, if perfuafion will not do, BOt'< 
•' to have recourfc to conftraint.** * 

They made no anfwer, but went out ; the tears falling 
from their eyes as they withdrew. The fword was fent in* 

took up the book again, and, it is faid, he perufcd the 
whole twice*. After which, he llept fo fouad^ that he - 
was heard by thofe who were in waiting without. About 
midnight he called for two of his freedmen, Cleanthes 
the phyfician, and Butas, whom he generally employed 
about public bufinefs. The latter he lent to the port, to 
fee whether all the Romans had put off to fea, and bring ■ 
him word. 

In the mean time he ordered the phyfician to drefs his • 
hand, which was inflamed by th^ blow he had given his 
fervant. This was fome confolation to the whole houfe, 
for now they thought he had dropt his defign againft . 
his life. Soon after this, Butas returned, and informed 
ihcm that they were all got off except Craflus, who had been 


* Yet this very dialogue condemns fulcide in the Aron$eft terms. 



ictaittcd by fome bufinefs, but that he intended to cm- 
bark very foon, though the wind blew hard, and the fca 
was tempeftuous. Cato, at this news, fighed in pity of 
his friends at fea, and fent Biitas again, that if any of 
them happened to have put back, and ihould be in want 
of any thing, he might acquaint him with it. 

By this time the birds began td. fine •, and Cato fell 
again into a little flumbcr. Butas, at his return, told him, 
all was quiet in the harbour: upon which, Cato ordered 
him to (hut the door, having firft ftretched himfelf on the 
bed, as if he de&gned to fleep out the reft of the nights 
But after Buias was goneu he drew his fword, and ftabbed 
himfelf under the breaft. However, he could not ftrike 
hard enoueh on account of the inflammation in his hand> 
and therefore did not prcfcntly expire, but in the ftruggle 
with death fell from tjie bed, and thxew down a. little 
geometrical table that fleod by. 

^ The noife alarming the fcivants, they cried out, and 
bis fon and his friends immediately entered the room. 
They found him weltering in his blood* and his bowela 
&llen out: at the fame. time he was alive> and looked 
upon them. — They were llrtick with inexpreflible horror. 
The phyfician approached to examine the wound, and 
finding the bowels uninjured, he put them up, and began 
to few up the wound. But as foon as Cato came a Uttle 
to himfelf, he thruft away the phyfician, tore open the 
woand> plucked out bis owa'bowels, and immediately ex^ 

In lefs time than one would think all the family could 
be informed, of this fad event, the three hundred were at 
the door; and a little after, all the people of Utica 
thronged about it, with one voice, calling him " their be- 
*• nefaftor, their faviour, the only free and unconquered 
*^ man.*^ This they did, though, at the fame time, they 
bad intelligence that Cajfar was approaching. Neither 
fear, nor the flattery of the conqueror, nor the fadlious^ 
difputes that prevailed among themfelves, could divert them 
from doing honour to Cato* They adorned the body in a . 
magnificent manner, and, after a fpleiidid proceffion bu- 
ried it near the fea ; where now flands his flatue, with a 
fword in the right hand. 


"O* o^v(( xArf^0Cfc?«yi nut In KOtKu*.. K^^tTV9t.A%T.» 


380 plutarch's Lir£3; . 

This great bufinefs over, they began to- take fneafoi 
for faving themfelvcs and their city, Cxfkr had beal 
informed by peribns who went to ftrrretider themfelvcii 
that Cato remained in Utica, without any thoughts ci 
flight ; that he provided for the cfcape of others indeed, 
but that hirafelf; with his friends and his Ton, lived there 
without any appearance of fear or apprehenfion. Upofi 
thefe circumftances he could form no probable conjcfturc. 
However, a» it was a great point with him^ to get bin 
into his hands, he advanced to the place, with his army, 
with all poiTiWc expedition. An J when he hiid intelS- 
<;ence of Cato's death, he is reported to have uttered thiJ 
ihort fentence, " Cato, L envy thee thy death, fince thos 
** couldeft envy me the glory of faving thy life.'* Indeed, 
if Cato had deigned to owe his life to Csefar, he wooU 
not fo much have tarniihed his own honour, as to have 
added to that of the conqaeror. What might have bea 
the event is unceruin; but, in all probability « Cxfkr would 
have inclined to the mer